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1 Reference for slides 3 20: Forensic Science ( 科 學 鑑 證 ) Criminalistics An Introduction to Forensic Sciences, 7th ed. By Richard Saferstein Prentice Hall, NJ, c2001. IJS Training (Phase 3) Dr. Kendrew K. W. Mak Department of Chemistry The Chinese University of Hong Kong 1 2 Definition and Scope of Forensic Science Forensic science ( 科 學 鑑 證 ): The application of science to law. Apply the principles and techniques of sciences to the analysis of evidence recovered during crime investigation. Provide expert court testimony ( 證 據 ). The procedures and techniques used must: have a firm scientific foundation be admissible ( 可 採 納 的 ) to the courts. Basic Services Provided by Full Service 1. Physical Science Unit 2. Biology Unit 3. Firearms Unit 4. Document Examination Unit 5. Photography Unit 3 4 Physical Science Unit: Use scientific tests and modern analytical instruments to identify and compare crime scene evidence. E.g. drugs, glass, paints, explosives and soil Biology Unit: Identifying and DNA profiling of dried bloodstain ( 血 跡 ) and other body fluids. Comparison of hair and fibers. Identification and comparison of plants. Firearm Unit: Examine firearms, discharged bullets, cartridge cases ( 子 彈 殼 ), shotgun shells, and ammunition ( 彈 藥 ) of all types. Detect firearm discharge residues on garments and other objects. Estimate the distance from which a weapon was fired. Document Examination Unit: Study handwriting and typewriting on questioned documents to establish authenticity and/or source. Analysis of paper and ink, erasures, and burned or charred documents. Photography Unit: Examine and record physical evidence using special photographic techniques to make invisible information becomes visible. E.g. digital imaging, infrared ( 紅 外 線 ), ultraviolet ( 紫 外 線 ), and X ray photography 5 6

2 ptional Services Provided by ptional Services Provided by 1. Toxicology ( 毒 理 學 ) Unit 2. Latent Fingerprint ( 潛 伏 指 紋 ) Unit 3. Polygraph ( 測 謊 ) Unit 4. Voiceprint Analysis ( 聲 紋 分 析 ) Unit 5. Evidence Collection Unit Physical Evidence: Establishing that a crime has been committed Providing a link between a crime and its victim or a crime and its perpetrator. Collected by experts who are very knowledgeable in crime laboratory s techniques, capabilities, and limitations. Forensic science begins at the crime scene. If a physical evidence was not properly collected and preserved, it is useless. 7 8 ( 犯 罪 現 場 ) The Key Steps: 1. Secure and isolate the crime scene 2. Record the scene by photography, sketches and notes 3. Conduct a systematic search for evidence 4. Collect and package physical evidence 5. Maintain chain of custody ( 保 管 鏈 / 保 管 流 程 ) 6. btain controls 7. Submit evidence to the laboratory 8. Crime scene safety 9 Secure and isolate the crime scene: Exclude all unauthorized personnel from the scene to prevent destruction of the important physical evidence. Record the scene: Permanently record the scene in its original state to document the condition of the crime site and to record the location of physical evidence. photography, sketches, and notes Conduct a systematic search for evidence: The search for physical evidence at a crime scene must be thorough and systematic to collect as much relevant evidence as possible. 10 Collect and Package Physical Evidence Prevents any change from taking place between the time it is removed from the crime scene and the time it is received by the crime laboratory. Avoid contamination ( 污 染 ), breakage, evaporation, accidental scratching or bending, or loss through improper or careless packaging. All items must be packed separately to prevents damages and crosscontamination. Maintain Chain of Custody Continuity of possession, or the chain of custody, must be established. btain Controls The examination of evidence often requires comparison with a known standard or control ( 對 照 ). Such materials may be obtained from the victim, a suspect, or other sources. Crime scene Safety Forensic and crime scene personnel may encounter potentially infectious materials that collected from the scenes (e.g. blood) Alert to sharp objects, knives, hypodermic syringes ( 皮 下 注 射 針 筒 ), razor blades ( 剃 刀 刀 片 ), etc. Avoid contamination of pens, pencils, notebook, paper, etc

3 The Significance of Physical Evidence The Significance of Physical Evidence Examination of physical evidence for identification or comparison. Identification To determine the physical or chemical identity of a substance using modern analytical techniques ( 分 析 技 術 ). Comparison Perform the same tests and examinations to the suspect and control specimens to determine whether they have a common origin. Common Types of Physical Evidence 1. Blood, Semen ( 精 液 ), and Saliva ( 唾 液 ) 2. Documents 3. Drugs 4. Explosives 5. Fibers 6. Fingerprints ( 指 紋 ) 7. Firearms and Ammunition 8. Glass 9. Hair 10. Impressions 11. rgans ( 器 官 ) and Physiological Fluids 12. Paint 13. Petroleum Products ( 石 油 產 品 ) 14. Plastic Bags 15. Plastic, Rubber and ther Polymers 16. Powder Residues ( 殘 餘 物 ) 17. Serial Numbers 18. Soil and Minerals ( 礦 物 質 ) 19. Tool Marks 20. Wood and ther Vegetative Matter Fundamental Principles of Fingerprints 1 st Principle: A fingerprint is an individual characteristics. Theoretical calculation 64 billion different fingerprints. No two have even been found to be identical. 2nd Principle: A fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individual s lifetime. 3 rd Principle: Fingerprints have general ridge ( 脊 ) patterns that permit them to be systematically classified. Three Types of Fingerprints: Visible prints: Made by fingers touching a surface after the ridges have been in contact with a colored material such as blood, paints, grease ( 油 脂 ), or ink. Plastic prints: Ridge impressions left on a soft material such as putty ( 油 灰 ), wax, soap, or dust. Latent prints: r invisible prints. Impressions caused by the transfer of body perspiration ( 汗 水 ) or oils present on finger ridges to the surface of an object The method used for visualizing a latent print depends on the type of surface that is being examined. Hard and nonabsorbent surfaces (e.g. glass, mirror, tile, and painted wood) Developed by the application of a powder (adhere to perspiration residues and/or body oils left on the surface) or treatment with Super Glue Soft and porous ( 多 孔 ) surfaces (e.g., papers, cardboard, and cloth) Treatment with one or more chemicals e.g. Iodine ( 碘 ), ninhydrin ( 寧 希 德 林 ), and silver nitrate ( 硝 酸 銀 ). 17 Super Glue Fuming Super glue consists of almost pure ethyl 2 cyanoacrylate. The invisible fingerprints residues react with the CA (cyanoacrylate 氰 基 丙 烯 酸 酯 ) fumes and atmospheric moisture to form a white polymer (polycyanoacrylate) on the fingerprint ridges and become visible to the naked eyes. Spray with Ninhydrin Solution Ninhydrin reacts with the residual amino acids ( 氨 基 酸 ) present in trace amounts of perspiration and forming visible purple blue colored prints. CN CH 2 CH 3 ethyl 2 cyanoacrylate ninhydrin H H 18

4 Different Types of Chromatography ( 色 層 分 析 法 ) Thin Layer Chromatography Thin layer chromatography ( 薄 層 色 層 分 析 法 ) Column chromatography ( 柱 色 層 分 析 法 ) A very important technique for rapid and qualitative analysis ( 定 性 分 析 ) of small amounts of material. Suitable for the analysis of mixtures in small and microscale experiments, without the need for expensive instrument. TLC sheet containing a thin layer of adsorbent ( 吸 附 劑 ) riginal sample spot solvent move up by capillary action ( 毛 細 管 作 用 ) time solvent front separated components immense in eluting solvent The original spot should not be immersed in the eluent ( 洗 提 液 ). Recall your experience with paper chromatography. ( 紙 色 層 分 析 法 ) Chromatographic Method Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) The Adsorption Process Chromatography the separation technique based on the selective distribution of chemicals between a stationary phase ( 固 定 相 ) and a mobile phase ( 流 動 相 ) Due to the selective interaction of chemicals with the stationary and mobile phases, separation is achieved after a certain period of time. Types of Chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) (a more effective version of paper chromatography) Column Chromatography Instrumental Technique Gas Chromatography ( 氣 相 色 層 分 析 法 ) (GC or GLC) High Performance Liquid Chromatography ( 高 效 能 液 相 色 譜 法 ) (HPLC) 21 Adsorption ( 吸 附 作 用 ) Strictly a surface process Depends on electrostatic forces ( 靜 電 力 ) (dipoledipole, ion dipole and H bonds) Common adsorbents for TLC Silica gel ( 硅 膠 ) (Si 2 ): has polarized ( 極 化 ) Si and H bonds that interact with dipole ( 偶 極 ) in the solutes ( 溶 質 ) Alumina ( 氧 化 鋁 ) (Al 2 3 ) (The activity of the stationary phase partially depends on its water content) 22 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) The Adsorption Process Equipment For Thin Layer Chromatography TLC Plate Silica gel coated on an aluminium backing sheet TLC Developing Chamber 23 24

5 Procedure For Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis Visualizing The Developed Plate (Fluorescent Indicator 熒 光 指 示 劑 ) Carefully apply a small drop of the sample solution to a chromatographic plate near the edge of a narrow end. (Handle the strip only by the sides to avoid contaminating the plate with oils from your fingers.) Prepare the developing chamber. Place the TLC plate with spotted end down in a closed jar. (The level of the eluent should be just below the sample spot) When the solvent front has advanced nearly to the top of the TLC plate, the development of the chromatogram ( 色 譜 展 現 ) is complete, and the plate is withdrawn from the developing chamber. 25 If the compounds in the sample are colorless, they must be made visible by some visualizing reagents or methods. Visualization with fluorescent indicator Many commercially available pre made TLC plates are coated with fluorescent indicator ( 熒 光 指 示 劑 ). When a developed TLC plate is held under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, spots that either quench or enhance fluorescence can be seen. 26 Visualizing The Developed Plate (Fluorescent Indicator) TLC adsorbents come with zinc sulfide ( 硫 化 鋅 ) (will fluoresce green under 254 nm wavelength light) A dark spot appear where there is an eluted substance which quenches this fluorescence. Applications Compounds that absorb UV at 254 nm Aromatic compounds ( 芳 香 族 化 合 物 ) Conjugated alkenes ( 共 軛 烯 烴 ) Conjugated carbonyl compounds ( 共 軛 羰 基 化 合 物 ) (ketones 酮, aldehydes 醛, esters 酯 ) 27

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