1 Understanding, appraising and reporting meta-analyses that use individual participant data Jayne Tierney, Claire Vale, Maroeska Rovers, Lesley Stewart IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group 21 st Annual Cochrane Colloquium Quebec City, Canada
2 How did we get here?! Difficult to get funding for IPD meta-analyses interesting exercise but is it worth the amount of money proposed? referees have doubts whether authors would be willing to share their data Existing guidance on IPD More about practical/statistical methodology Aimed primarily at systematic reviewers Produce up-to-date guidance that reflects Increase and spread of IPD meta-analysis Use of primary studies other than RCTs For users and reviewers as well as do-ers!
3 Understanding, appraising and reporting IPD meta-analyses Methodology has evolved Process of collecting, checking and analysing data more complex than for aggregate data Most IPD MAs high quality, but some are not Reporting has evolved Even good quality IPD MAs may not be reported in sufficient detail PRISMA geared up for aggregate data (AD) Difficult for clinicians, patients, policy makers, funders, editors to judge quality Hinder conduct, dissemination and impact?
4 This workshop Not showing how to do IPD meta-analysis! Help you look critically at their conduct Key questions to ask Examples of conduct issues that can arise Help you look critically at their reporting Examples of reporting issues that can arise Key items, drawing on PRISMA for IPD Focus on IPD MAs of efficacy (based on RCTs), where methodology is best developed Using knowledge and experience from many conducting IPD MAs
5 Acknowledgements Steering Groups for IPD paper series and PRISMA IPD And IPD experts...
6 Systematic reviews of AD vs IPD Systematic reviews are usually based on published or other aggregate data Aggregate data is a summary of IPD Effect estimates for outcomes e.g. odds ratios, mean difference, hazard ratios Summary outcome data e.g. adverse events, blood pressure, time to death Average participant characteristics e.g. mean age, proportion of women Limits possible analyses and power Availability can be inadequate and quality variable
7 Systematic reviews of AD vs IPD Collection, checking, re-analysis of original data from all trials and all participants Improves data quantity and quality, and can reduce bias Gives greater analytical flexibility, scope and power Can provide more detailed and robust results May differ from those based on aggregate data World-wide collaborations with trialists Better identification of trials and broader interpretation /endorsement of results Gold standard
8 Is it a systematic review?
9 Issues to consider in appraising Described as a systematic review and uses appropriate methods Some methods very similar to those for AD Clear research question, qualified by unambiguous eligibility criteria Comprehensive search for trials Other methods are more specific to IPD Systematic and thorough data collection Assessment of data quality and risk of bias Appropriate methods of analysis
10 Issues to consider in appraising IPD MAs not in the context of systematic reviews may be biased Without a protocol not clear whether the methods are appropriate and pre-planned Obtaining a copy of the protocol may be very helpful in appraising the IPD MA Inconsistent terminology may not help Overview of the randomized trials Meta-analysis of individual patient data
11 Improving conduct and reporting Protocols should be registered (PROSPERO), published or otherwise available Methods were pre-specified in a protocol (supplement 1, available at that was registered in PROSPERO in February 2012 (CRD ) Reports should state that IPD MA is in the context of a systematic review Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 18 randomized trials
12 In the meantime Identify systematic review characteristics and other indicators of quality Were all eligible trials identified? Was the integrity of IPD checked? Was the risk of bias of included trials assessed? Were the analyses pre-specified? Were the analyses appropriate? Were IPD obtained from most trials?
13 Were all eligible trials identified?
14 Issues to consider in appraising IPD MAs without clear eligibility criteria may have selected non-representative trials IPD MAs not seeking all studies irrespective of publication status risk reporting bias In review of 31 IPD MAs 1 : 29% had either an unclear or selective approach to study inclusion 65% only included data from published trials 29% sought and included IPD from trials found in grey literature Being able to include data from more trials is one advantage of IPD approach! 1. Ahmed I et al BMJ 2011;344:d7762
15 Issues to consider in appraising In 11 cancer IPD MAs, 37% of 120 included trials were from grey literature Without them results biased in favour of research treatments, mostly to a modest degree, e.g. IPD MA of post-op radiotherapy for lung cancer, HR=1.13, p=0.066 HR= 1.21, p=0.001 IPD MAs with restrictive eligibility criteria or searches need to be viewed with caution IPD MAs with unclear search strategy are difficult to judge and may not have been conducted to highest standards
16 Improving reporting Inclusion and exclusion criteria should be specified Methods of identifying published and unpublished studies should be stated As should the process for determining which studies were eligible for inclusion
17 Reporting: searching meticulous search search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index in January 2012 and automated current awareness searches up to June We also searched Clinical Trials.gov to identify ongoing or unpublished randomized trials and published a call for evidence
18 Reporting: Study inclusion...pooling individual patient data from 10 doubleblind, randomized clinical trials sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline To our knowledge only two other studies comparing bupropion with an SSRI were not included. it is quite possible that studies sponsored by other sources have been conducted but have not yet been published or presented Studies were included if they randomised women at risk of developing pre-eclampsia to receive one or more antiplatelet agents versus a placebo or no antiplatelet agent Trials that included women who started treatment postpartum or had a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia at trial entry were excluded.
19 Was integrity of the IPD checked?
20 Issues to consider in appraising Major advantage of IPD over aggregate data is that it can be validated and if necessary, improved IPD should be checked for missing items, invalid, out-of range or inconsistent items: Missing treatment allocation An unusually old (or young!) age Date of death before date of randomisation Collaborative approach means anomalies can be queried and resolved Improving data quality
21 Improving reporting Describe what IPD data checking was done And report any important issues
22 Reporting: Data checking Standard checks were used to identify missing data, assess data validity and consistency. We verified the amount of missing data, and assessed data validity and consistency though logical checks for instance by checking the ordering of the dates. updated results of the Italian trial are less extreme than when the trial was originally published attributable both to extended follow-up and anomalies in the original published dataset, which were subsequently rectified
23 Was the risk of bias of included trials assessed?
24 Issues to consider in appraising For aggregate data reviews, risk of bias usually based on published information Not always wholly reliable IPD provides possibility to better explain but not necessarily reduce certain biases, e.g. Collecting trial protocols to obtain explicit methods Clear description from trialists Neither patients nor physicians were blinded to the treatment received so there was a potential for bias in these outcomes IPD also provides possibility to reduce or overcome some biases
25 Issues to consider: Randomisation IPD should be checked for unusual randomisation patterns e.g. Participant characteristics balanced by arm Participants randomised to interventions similarly across days of the week Participants randomised to interventions similarly throughout the duration of a trial IPD may highlight trials with inappropriate randomisation methods Exclude non-randomised trials / patients
26 Patients Randomised Pattern of randomisation: Trial of chemoradiation for cervical cancer Chemoradiation 0 Control Date of Randomisation
27 Number of patients randomised Pattern of randomisation: Trial of radiotherapy vs chemotherapy for multiple myeloma Chemotherapy Treatment 1 Radiotherapy Treatment 2 Helps identify and exclude non-randomised trials and non-randomised patients
28 Issues to consider: Other biases IPD should aim to Include all randomised participants Analyse according to original allocation IPD MAs should include all key outcomes to get reliable and balanced view of effects
29 Issues to consider: Attrition Dropout or exclusion of participants may cause attrition bias Particularly if in large numbers, or where reasons are related to treatment or outcome 14 cancer IPD MAs, including 133 trials, ~1800 patients were re-instated with IPD Without them meta-analyses biased toward research treatments (mostly by modest amounts) Should request data on all participants and check IPD to ensure all included Pre-specify reasonable exclusions and apply consistently across trials
30 Improving reporting: Attrition Describe which participants were sought We sought to collect up-to-date information for all patients randomly assigned, including those excluded from investigators own analyses And completeness of data in this regard Data were obtained for 118 women (100%) who were excluded from the investigators original analyses and reinstated in the meta-analysis
31 Issues to consider: Outcome availability If treatment effects are seen only in some outcomes and these are reported differently Outcome reporting bias can be a problem for AD reviews Obtaining IPD for unreported outcomes can resolve this problem Laparoscopic vs open surgery repair of hernia AD for 3 trials: More persistent pain with laparoscopic repair OR=2.03 ( ) Pooled with IPD for 17 trials: Less persistent pain with laparoscopic OR=0.52 ( ) p<0.001
32 Improving reporting: Outcome availability Describe the outcomes requested We sought information on tumour response, locoregional and distant progression/recurrence status, survival, and acute and late toxicity. And the outcome data obtained Data on overall disease-free survival, locoregional disease-free survival, and metastases-free survival were available from all of the 13 trials
33 Issues to consider: Time to event outcomes Time to death, time free of symptoms, etc. If participants observed more frequently or for longer duration on one arm than another May suggest more events on that arm If trials have short follow-up or stop early Results may be transitory or long term effects missed Pattern and extent of follow should be checked with IPD to assess follow-up biases If possible and practical, updated follow-up should be obtained
34 Issues to consider: Time to event outcomes IPD MA of treatment for soft tissue sarcoma Median follow-up for 7 included trials was extended from months (aggregate data) months (updated IPD) Enabled effects to be examined beyond 5 yrs
35 Improving reporting Describe whether follow-up was updated and provide extent Follow-up for most trials was updated, giving a median of 9 4 years (medians for individual trials years)
36 Were the analyses pre-specified in detail?
37 Issue to consider in appraising Like aggregate data reviews most IPD MAs are retrospective With many more analytical possibilities greater danger of data dredging Unplanned analyses not necessarily invalid Can play an important role in explaining or adding to the main results All analysis methods should be pre-specified in detail in protocol or analysis plan Outcomes and definitions, data checking, risk of bias, overall effects and impact of trial and participant characteristics, heterogeneity
38 Improving reporting Indicate if a protocol exists and where The protocol for the study has been published and a statistical plan was agreed before starting data analysis. Distinguish between results of main analyses Analyses of all endpoints, subsets and subgroups were pre-specified in the protocol and carried out on an intention to-treat basis And additional analyses In addition to the planned analyses described, we conducted supplementary analyses to investigate some of the previous criticisms of these trials in more detail
39 Were the analyses appropriate?
40 Issue to consider: Data flexibility Data on individual participants Consistent definition of outcomes or new definitions Consistent groupings or definitions of patient characteristics Effect measures come from re-analysis of IPD Outcomes and effect measures in IPD MAs often the same as for AD Odds ratio, relative risk, mean difference, hazard ratio Alternative effect measures possible
41 Issue to consider: Participants are from different trials Participants in IPD MA recruited according to different protocols Ignoring this can lead to unreliable and over-precise estimates of effect IPD MA of nicotine gum for smoking cessation Analysed as a single trial OR=1.40 ( ) Analysed as meta-analysis: OR=1.80 ( ) IPD MAs must stratify or take account of the clustering of participants within trials Can be achieved using a 2-stage or 1-stage approach to meta-analysis
42 Issue to consider: What to expect in 2-stage meta-analysis Currently the most common approach Assessing overall effect RRs, MDs, HRs etc from trial IPD in stage 1 Combined in a meta-analysis in stage 2 using fixed or random effects Assessing how effects vary by trial characteristics (interactions) Treatment dose, scheduling, setting etc. Meta-regression of effect by trial characteristics Compare meta-analyses between trial groups Stats and plots very similar to AD metaanalysis
43 Issue to consider: What to expect in 2-stage meta-analysis IPD MA of pre-op chemotherapy in bladder cancer Overall benefit of pre-op chemotherapy on survival Difference in effect by type of chemotherapy Hazard ratio for survival Single agent platinum chemotherapy HR=1.15 p=0.264 Combination platinum chemotherapy HR=0.86 p=0.003 Pre-chemotherapy HR=0.89 p= Pre-op chemo better Control better Test for subgroup differences (interaction) p=0.029
44 Issue to consider: What to expect in 2-stage meta-analysis Assessing how effects vary by participant characteristics (interactions) Sex, age, disease severity One of the main reasons for collecting IPD Often used method is potentially unreliable Compares meta-analyses between groups IPD MA of post-op radiotherapy in lung cancer Effect of PORT varies by no. of nodes: p=0.028 Nodes affected HR for survival (95% CI) % Weight or ( 1.02, ) 1.24 ( 1. 05, ) 0.96 (0.8 0, ) PORT better No PORT better
45 Issue to consider: What to expect in 2-stage meta-analysis Pooling within-trial interactions better Regression (logistic, linear, Cox) for each trial in stage 1 Combined in a meta-analysis in stage 2 Effect of PORT does NOT vary by no. of nodes: p=0.39 LCSG 773 CAMS MRC LU11 EORTC GETCB 04CB86 GETCB 05CB86 Korea Belgium (No nodal status data) Slovenia (N2/N3 only) Lille (N0 only) Italy (No nodal status data) 0.76 (0.42, 1.40) 1.01 (0.56, 1.84) 0.62 (0.36, 1.07) 0.42 (0.15, 1.12) 1.00 (0.53, 1.88) 1.07 (0.80, 1.43) 1.03 (0.59, 1.80) Interaction HR for survival=0.92 (0.76, 1.11) Heterogeneity p= Effect of PORT greater with more nodes Effect of PORT greater with fewer nodes
46 Issue to consider: What to expect in 1-stage meta-analysis Becoming more common Assessing overall effect Typically a regression (logistic, linear, Cox) IPD combined, but must be stratified or adjusted by trial RRs, MDs, HRs etc Assessing how effects vary by trial and participant characteristics Each can be considered individually or simultaneously with overall effects Allows for confounding Don t directly get standard stats and plots
47 Issue to consider: 1 vs 2 stage 1 and 2 stage can give similar results IPD MA of anti-platelets for pre-eclampsia Overall effect 2-stage RR=0.90 ( ) Overall effect 1-stage RR=0.90 ( ) But not always Sometimes 2-stage can be biased 1-stage can give greater flexibility and power, but complex and difficult to interpret 2-stage analysis a useful addition to 1-stage and vice versa Consult a statistician!!
48 Improving reporting Describe methods used to synthesise IPD specifying statistical methods and models calculated relative risks used standard randomeffects meta-analytic techniques to combine effect estimates across trials... Linear and logistic random-effects regression models were used to combine all data from all trials in 1-stage metaanalyses as sensitivity analyses Present results for each meta-analysis ODI scores were 3.5% lower with rhbmp-2 than with ICBG (95% CI, 0.5% to 6.5%) and radiographic fusion was 12% higher (CI, 2% to 23%) pain was more common with rhbmp-2 (odds ratio, 1.78 [CI, 1.06 to 2.95])
49 Were IPD obtained from most trials?
50 Issues to consider in appraising Often able to obtain more trials with IPD But some trialists can t or won t provide data IPD MA including large proportion of eligible trial data (e.g. 90%) still likely reliable In review of 31 IPD MAs, 33% had <80% data A lot of missing IPD should be investigated Compare or supplement with AD IPD meta-analysis of high dose chemotherapy for non-hodgkin s lymphoma IPD for 10 trials: HR=1.14 ( ) Pooled with AD for 4 trials: HR=1.05 ( )
51 Issues to consider in appraising Or use funnel plots Egger test p=0.14
52 Improving reporting Need study selection in terms of trial eligibility and data availability We identified 25 randomized trials We were unable to include data from 10 trials either because data could not be located or because we were unable to make contact with the relevant investigators Results should include the numbers and proportion of trials and participants Data were therefore available for 3,452 women from 15 trials This includes 85% of women from trials that used cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy Data on overall disease-free survival, locoregional disease-free survival, and metastases-free survival were available from all of the 13 trials
53 Improving reporting Describe meta-analysis results in relation to studies for which IPD were not available Although HR estimates based on the publications of three unavailable trials suggest that their inclusion would not change the results, and all of the unavailable data would only contribute 20% more data to the main analysis, it is possible that inclusion of IPD from these trials could modify our estimate of effect.
54 Discussion Hallmarks of a quality IPD MA of RCTs Systematic review Good quantity of good quality data Appropriate analyses Need protocol and good reporting to assess Otherwise may not be better than a well conducted review of aggregate data
56 Papers in progress Appraising IPD meta-analysis (Jayne Tierney, Claire Vale) PRISMA for IPD (Lesley Stewart) Impact of IPD meta-analysis on trial design conduct (Jayne Tierney) Impact of IPD meta-analysis on policy and practice (Claire Vale, Lara Rydzewska) 3.30, Session 03.08, presentation no. 2 IPD meta-analyses of study designs other than RCTs (Maroeska Rovers, Richard Riley) Ethical issues and challenges relating to IPD (Mike Clarke)
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