FACULTY QUALIFICATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS OF ADMINISTRATORS IN HOSPITALITY EDUCATION. Introduction

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1 EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS OF ADMINISTRATORS IN HOSPITALITY EDUCATION 27 Lea D. Wikoff FACULTY QUALIFICATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS OF ADMINISTRATORS IN HOSPITALITY EDUCATION Hotel and Restaurant Management This study examined faculty qualifications and factors influencing employment decisions of administrators in hospitality programs across the United States. The results may assist potential faculty in choosing the type of degree to pursue, the content areas that are most desirable, and other factors such as industry experience that may impact future employment marketability. The results could also serve hospitality programs in developing doctoral curricula for hospitality educators. Factors studied include the values administrators place on the Ph.D., Ed.D., D.B.A., J.D. and industry experience across the curriculum areas of hotel management, food service, tourism, hospitality law, and hospitality business. Introduction Many hospitality programs are having difficulty finding and recruiting qualified hospitality faculty mainly because of the shortage of educators in the field and disparity over what constitutes a qualified faculty member (Meyer, Koppel, & Tas, 1990). If the type of educator desired for hospitality education can be determined, potential faculty can focus on pursuing preferred qualifications, and doctoral programs may be developed to meet the needs of future educators. The purpose of this study was to examine the preferences of hospitality education administrators regarding the relative desirability of various doctoral degrees and other factors, including faculty experience and industry experience, which determine the qualifications for hospitality educators. In addition, factors that influence administrator preferences were investigated, and groupings of hospitality programs which have comparable characteristics were examined in order to determine it they have similar requirements for faculty. An examination of the relative importance of specific attributes of faculty qualifications affords insight into appropriate faculty preparation. In a study conducted by Schmidgall and Woods (1992) hospitality educators were asked to rank desirable attributes for candidates at the levels of Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Full Professor. The top four qualifications which ranked consistently across all levels were the following: * Ph.D. or equivalent terminal degree (such as the Ed.D., J.D., or D.B.A.) * College teaching record/experience * Hospitality industry work experience * Publication/research record (pp ). Although the order of preferences was varied by levels of position, the Ph.D. or equivalent terminal degree was ranked first in all three categories. Additional attributes which fell below the top four included the Ph.D. in Hospitality Management; hospitality industry service record; university, college, or program service record; and presentation record. Respondents were also asked to delineate any other attributes which might affect the marketability of faculty. Other factors listed include the attainment of at least one degree in hospitality management, profit and loss responsibility in industry, quality of the institution in which graduate degrees are earned, and locations of previous teaching experience. The researchers stated that they were surprised that industry experience and service records were not ranked higher given the "umbilical cord-type relationship that hospitality education has with industry" (Schmidgall &

2 28 LEA D. WIKOFF Fall 1997 Woods, 1992, p. 21). The results of this study clearly pointed to a strong preference for the doctorate as the most desirable attribute above all others. However, Schmidgall and Woods suggested that future studies should be focused on determining the differences in preferences regarding the Ph.D., Ed.D., J.D., and D.B.A. Methodology The data for this study were collected by means of a survey instrument developed by the researcher. A pilot study was conducted prior to the project study in order to determine validity and reliability of the instrument. The subjects for the pilot study were determined by a random sample of 70 assistant program directors at hospitality programs in the United States which offer at least a baccalaureate program in hospitality education. The total response rate of the pilot study was 41.4 percent and was sufficient for reliability and validity testing. Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha was used as the statistic to measure reliability of the instrument. Principal components factor analysis was the statistical method used to determine if the instrument was valid with respect to content validity. The reliability and validity of the instrument was confirmed using these two statistical techniques. The variables used to examine the preferred qualifications of hospitality educators included 94 items which surveyed administrator characteristics, program and institutional characteristics, and faculty characteristics. The variables also included administrator hiring preferences regarding faculty qualifications of D.B.A., Ed.D., J.D., Ph.D., and industry experience in the curriculum areas of hotel management, food service, tourism, hospitality law, and hospitality business. The subjects for the study were hospitality education administrators at hospitality programs in the United States which offer at least a baccalaureate program in hospitality education. All 50 states in the United States were represented in the final responses, and the total usable response rate of the study was 46.5 percent. Of the 258 surveys mailed, 120 were returned as usable. The sample for the project study was determined through a search of the potential and current membership of the Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education. The study was designed to explore the following three research questions. Below each question is the statistical method used to analyze the data collected from the instrument. Research Question 1: What qualifications with respect to terminal degrees and industry experience do hospitality education administrators prefer when hiring hospitality faculty? Statistic used: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Research Question 2: What factors influence hospitality education administrator preferences regarding faculty qualifications? Statistic used: Multivariate regression analysis

3 EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS OF ADMINISTRATORS IN HOSPITALITY EDUCATION 29 Research Question 3: Do hospitality education administrators at similar programs have cognate preferences for faculty qualifications? Statistic used: Cluster analysis Findings Although the study examined three research questions, the focus of this paper is on questions one and two. Question three was fully addressed in a previous article published by the author (Wikoff, 1995). Question three examined hiring preferences common to hospitality programs based on their size and length of existence. Questions one and two, however, addressed specific qualifications of faculty and the factors that influence administrators when making individual hiring decisions. Research Question 1 The analysis of variance used to test Research Question 1 revealed statistically significant differences at the ninety-five percent confidence level (p <.05) in administrator hiring preferences across all curriculum areas. Hiring preferences may be ranked based on the mean responses to each qualification. In the areas of hotel management, food service, and tourism, mean qualifications ranked in the following order from highest to lowest: Ph.D., industry experience, D.B.A., Ed.D., and J.D. In the area of law, J.D., industry experience, Ph.D., D.B.A., and Ed.D. were the order of the mean rankings. The rankings of the means in the area of hospitality business were Ph.D., D.B.A., industry experience, Ed.D., and J.D (see Table 1). Table 1 SUMMARY OF CURRICULUM AREAS, WALLER GROUPINGS, MEANS, FREQUENCIES OF OBSERVATIONS, AND QUALIFICATIONS Waller Curriculum Areas Groupings Mean* N** Qualifications Hotel Management A PHD A INDUSTRY B DBA C EDD D JD Food Service A PHD A INDUSTRY B DBA B EDD C JD Tourism A PHD B INDUSTRY B DBA C EDD D JD Hospitality Law A JD B INDUSTRY B PHD B/C DBA C EDD Hospitality Business A PHD A/B DBA B INDUSTRY C EDD C JD *Means with the same Waller grouping are not significantly different. **Frequencies of observations (N) are different in each curriculum area because administrators were instructed to respond to only those curriculum areas which were offered in their programs.

4 30 LEA D. WIKOFF Fall 1997 In summary, industry experience and the Ph.D. are perceived as equally important criteria for faculty teaching hotel management and food service. This is especially important because it demonstrates the need for faculty who can teach both theoretical and practical applications. In the area of tourism, the Ph.D. is the primary preferred qualification for employment. When hiring faculty to teach hospitality law courses, the preferred qualification is the J.D. In addition, hospitality administrators preferred to hire either a Ph.D. or a D.B.A. to teach hospitality business courses. Another important finding is that if a D.B.A. is hired to teach hospitality business, then industry experience is perceived as an equally important criterion. Furthermore, preference for hiring faculty with the Ed.D. was consistently low in all curriculum areas. Finally, with the exception of hospitality law, the J.D. was the least preferred qualification in all curriculum areas. Research Question 2 The multivariate regression analysis used to test Research Question 2 revealed factors influencing preferences at the ninety-five percent confidence level (p <.05). The analysis showed the strength and direction of relationships between program / administrator characteristics and preference for hiring faculty in the content areas of hotel management, food service, tourism, hospitality law, and hospitality business. The results of the stepwise procedure for the multivariate regression analysis revealed various factors which influence administrator hiring preferences for the faculty qualifications of D.B.A., Ed.D., J.D., Ph.D. and industry experience in each content area (see Table 2). Table 2 SUMMARY OF FACULTY QUALIFICATIONS, INFLUENCING FACTORS, AND NUMBER OF CONTENT AREAS DEMONSTRATING FACTOR RELATIONSHIPS Faculty Influencing Rel. No. of Qual. Factors* Areas** DBA number of full time faculty with an Ed.D. positive 2 importance of industry experience negative 2 EDD number of full-time faculty with an Ed.D. positive 4 number of full-time faculty pursuing the doctorate positive 1 number of full-time faculty with a D.B.A positive 1 JD number of full-time faculty with a J.D. positive 2 number of full-time faculty with an Ed.D. positive 1 importance of industry experience negative 1 importance of teaching experience negative 1 PHD doctoral degree of administrator positive 3 total enrollment of the program positive 3 importance of industry experience negative 1 IND. EXP. importance placed on teaching experience negative 4 importance placed on research experience negative 2 *Influencing factors are listed in descending order of strength within each positive or negative group as determined by Partial R-squared. **Specific content areas are discussed in the text of the article.

5 EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS OF ADMINISTRATORS IN HOSPITALITY EDUCATION 31 Influencing Factors for the D.B.A. When hiring faculty in the areas of food service and law, a positive relationship existed between the preference for hiring a D.B.A. and the number of full-time faculty in the administrator's program who possessed an Ed.D. As was noted in the analysis of variance, there was no significant difference in preference for the D.B.A. and the Ed.D. in either of these areas. This may indicate that those administrators who would hire an Ed.D. would also hire a D.B.A., thus implying an indifference to preference between these two degrees. Also, when hiring faculty for hotel management and food service, a negative relationship existed between the importance placed on industry experience and preference for the D.B.A. degree. Therefore, program administrators who placed less emphasis on industry experience might be more receptive to hiring faculty with a D.B.A. A note of interest was that only 3.3 percent of the faculty at the programs responding to the survey had D.B.A.s. This may imply that the demand for the D.B.A. as a qualification for faculty is higher than the supply of faculty with the degree. Further research in the actual demand for the D.B.A. might add insight as to the marketability of faculty who hold this degree. Influencing Factors for the Ed.D. The most common and almost overriding factor influencing the decision to hire faculty with the Ed.D. was the existing number of full-time faculty with that degree in the administrator's program. This factor occurred in the areas of hotel management, food service, hospitality law, and hospitality business. This may imply that administrators who have previously hired faculty with an Ed.D. are predisposed to hiring faculty with this qualification. Conversely, administrators who have no existing faculty with an Ed.D. may be hesitant to hiring them. When analyzing open ended responses explaining the least valued preferences, the author found that administrators who chose the Ed.D. as their lowest preference overwhelmingly indicated that they did not hire these faculty because of their lack of ability to conduct research. Several responses demonstrated that the administrators were adamantly opposed to hiring faculty with the Ed.D. and indicated that the program had no need for such people. If these responses were statistically valid, however, the factor, importance placed on research, should have shown a negative relationship with the preference to hire an Ed.D. This was not the case. In fact, when asked to rate the relative importance of teaching, industry experience, research, and service, administrators assigned 38%, 36%, 17%, and 9%, respectively, to these hiring factors. Although research was noted as lower in importance than teaching and industry experience, administrators who would not hire an Ed.D. cited research as the most important factor in making this decision. As was found in the review of literature, a negative bias toward the Ed.D. may be driven more by perception of the degree than factual evidence of lack of research competence (Black, 1991). Furthermore, the number of full-time faculty pursuing the doctorate in the administrator's program showed a positive relationship with the preference for hiring an Ed.D. in the area of tourism. As was found in the review of literature, a substantial number of hospitality programs hire faculty with a master's degree and encourage them to pursue the doctorate (Fenich, 1988). Because of the shortage of doctorally qualified faculty, the demand for the doctorate is high. Although the Ed.D. ranked relatively low in preference across all curriculum areas as indicated by the analysis of variance, the demand for the doctorate in general may increase the marketability with faculty who possess any kind of terminal degree.

6 32 LEA D. WIKOFF Fall 1997 Also, when hiring faculty in the area of hospitality law, a positive relationship existed between the preference for hiring an Ed.D. and the number of full-time faculty in the administrator's program who possessed a D.B.A. As was noted in the analysis of variance discussion, there was no significant difference in preference for the Ed.D. and the D.B.A. in hospitality law. This would indicate that those administrators who would hire a D.B.A. to teach law would also hire an Ed.D. to teach law, thus implying an indifference to preference between these two degrees. Influencing Factors for the J.D. When hiring faculty in the areas of food service, a positive relationship existed between the preference for hiring a J.D. and the number of number of full-time faculty in the administrator's program who possessed a J.D. or an Ed.D. This may imply that administrators who have previously hired faculty with a J.D. are agreeable to hiring faculty with this qualification. Although there was a significant difference between the Ed.D. and J.D. in the area of food service as was indicated by the results of the analysis of variance, the Ed.D. was ranked next to last and the J.D. was ranked last in preference. This would suggest that those administrators who would hire an Ed.D. would also hire a J.D., but neither degree was preferred for hiring faculty in food service. Furthermore, the importance placed on industry experience and teaching experience were negatively related to the preference for hiring a J.D. in the areas of law and tourism, respectively. This suggests that the decision to hire a J.D. to teach law is based more on academic content in that area than industry experience. This also indicates that as importance of teaching increases, the preference for the J.D. decreases. In analyzing the open-ended responses explaining the least valued preferences, the researcher found that administrators who denoted the J.D. as the least valued qualification most often stated that faculty with the J.D. would most likely not have enough teaching, research, or industry experience to be hired in their programs. In addition, a substantial number of administrators also indicated in the open ended responses that faculty who hold the J.D. are qualified to teach law only. The perception was that a faculty member with a J.D. would be too focused in law to be an effective teacher in other hospitality-related areas. However, fiscal reality often demands that faculty with a J.D. teach a variety of hospitality courses in addition to law. Surprisingly, the importance placed on research experience was not negatively related to the preference for the J.D. in any curriculum areas, as might be anticipated based on the open ended explanations for least valued preference in the survey. As was indicated by survey responses, a perception was that faculty with the J.D. lack the ability to conduct basic or applied research because the J.D. degree lacks a dissertation requirement. Nevertheless, the importance placed on research did not have a statistically significant relationship with the decision to hire or not hire a J.D. As was the case with the Ed.D., the stated rationale for the hiring decision may be more influenced by perception than reality. Influencing Factors for the Ph.D. The factors influencing preferences for hiring faculty with Ph.D.s were relatively consistent over all curriculum areas. In the areas of hotel management, food service, and hospitality business, the doctoral degree of the administrator was positively related to the preference for hiring a Ph.D. The highest code in the instrument for the administrator doctorate was assigned to the Ph.D. The positive relationship indicated that the higher the code of the administrator doctorate, the higher the preference for hiring a Ph.D. This suggests that administrators that hold the Ph.D. degree may be more likely to hire faculty with Ph.D.s than faculty with other doctorates.

7 EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS OF ADMINISTRATORS IN HOSPITALITY EDUCATION 33 In addition, the total enrollment of the program showed a positive relationship with the preference for hiring a Ph.D. This indicated that the larger the program, the more likely the administrator would prefer to hire a Ph.D. In general, the larger hospitality programs in the country are the more prestigious programs when ranked by hospitality faculty. As was found in the review of literature, the Ph.D. is typically perceived as more prestigious than other doctorates regardless of program content (Black, 1991; Courtenay, 1988; Harris, Troutt, & Andrews, 1980; Houston, 1983). The positive relationship with larger programs and the preference for hiring faculty with the Ph.D. may in part be a function of prestige. In the curriculum area of hospitality business, the preference for the Ph.D. was negatively related to the importance the administrator placed on industry experience. As was determined in the review of literature, hospitality faculty have strong differences of opinion about generalists versus specialists in hospitality education. The trend for the larger programs is to hire Ph.D. faculty in specialized areas related to hospitality, such as Ph.D. in Marketing, Finance, Accounting, Management, or Food Science (Lefever, 1989). Faculty in these areas would be less likely to have substantial hospitality industry experience than faculty who are more generalists with hospitality academic backgrounds. Therefore, the negative relationship between importance of industry experience and the preference for hiring faculty with a Ph.D. to teach hospitality business might suggest a more specialist emphasis than generalist emphasis in preference for faculty. Additionally, the review of literature provided information about the research competence of faculty with Ph.D.s. The integrity of the degree is primarily based on this competency (Dill & Morrison, 1985). A note of interest is that the results of this study did not find a significant relationship with the importance placed on research experience and the preference in hiring a Ph.D. Although hospitality administrators cited the lack of research experience as a reason for not hiring faculty with an Ed.D. or a J.D., the results did not show that research was a significant factor in the decision to hire faculty with a Ph.D. The common justification for hiring Ph.D.s, the research competency, over other doctorally qualified faculty was not in reality a statistically significant factor affecting the decision making process. As was suggested previously, prestige of the degree may carry more actual weight in the preference of the Ph.D. than superior research capabilities. Influencing Factors for Industry Experience Preferences for hiring faculty with industry experience demonstrated general consistencies across all curriculum areas. In the areas of law and hospitality business, the preference for industry experience was negatively related to the administrator importance placed on teaching experience. Also, in the areas of hotel management and tourism, the preference for industry experience was negatively related to the administrator importance placed on research experience. Therefore, an inverse relationship exists between industry experience and qualifications typically required of educators such as teaching and research. Because industry experience ranked high across the curriculum areas in the analysis of variance, the inverse relationship may imply that administrators are willing to accept a compromise of faculty experience for industry experience. Conclusion The study revealed that hospitality education administrators want doctorally qualified faculty, preferably with a Ph.D., who also have substantial industry experience. The factors influencing these preferences ranged from the practical to the prestigious. However, time spent earning the doctorate is usually time spent away from the industry; thus a trade-off exists. Conversely, faculty who have spent a substantial amount of time in the industry

8 34 LEA D. WIKOFF Fall 1997 typically do not have as much teaching and research experience as their primarily academic peers. The question remains as to the appropriate balance of real life applications of industry in the classroom and theoretical, academic content. This impacts how faculty prepare themselves to teach in hospitality education and how hospitality programs design doctoral curricula. Until hospitality educators and administrators can come to a consensus on the relative weight of training versus education, the determination of the value of industry experience versus academic qualifications for faculty will continue to be debated. The results of this study suggest that administrators want both. References Black, S.E. (1991). An evaluation of the impact of the Florida State University/University of West Florida cooperative doctoral program as perceived by graduates and their employers (University of West Florida, nontraditional education). Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 03A. Courtenay, B.C. (1988). Eliminating the confusion over the Ed.D. and Ph.D. in colleges and schools of education. Innovative Higher Education, 13 (1), Dill, D.D., & Morrison, J.L. (1985). Ed.D. and Ph.D. research and training in the field of higher education: A survey and a proposal. The Review of Higher Education, 8(2), Fenich, G.G. (1988). An empirical assessment of support for pursuit of doctoral degrees in hotel, restaurant and institutional education. Hospitality Education and Research Journal, Annual Conference Proceedings, 12(2), Harris, J.W., Troutt, W.E., & Andrews, G.J. (1980) The American doctorate in the context of new patterns in higher education. An occasional paper. The Council on Postsecondary Accreditation, Washington, DC, iii-23. Houston, L.N. (1983). Perceived professional discrimination against the Ed.D. psychologist. Psychological Reports, 53(3,Pt2), Lefever, M.M. (1989). Deans roundtable: The future of hospitality education. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 30(2), Meyer, R. A., Koppel, J., & Tas, R. (1990). Graduate hospitality: Where are we in our search for excellence? Hospitality Research Journal, Annual Conference Proceedings, 14(2), Schmidgall, R.S., & Woods, R.H. (1992). Hospitality faculty and administrator selection criteria, Part I: Desirable and required faculty characteristics. Hospitality and Tourism Educator, 5(1), Wikoff, L.D. (1995). Hiring preferences for hospitality educators. The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 8,

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