2 Motivation 1 Data According to recent estimates by the International Labor Organization, 6,300 people die each day from occupational accidents or work-related diseases, and the yearly death toll exceeds more than 2.3 million. Whether and to what extent workers are compensated by a premium for risky jobs? Turkey has the highest fatality and injury rates among OECD countries. The fatal risk rate reported 20.6 per 100,000 workers. See Work Accidents, in Society at a Glance 2006: OECD Social Indicators. Between 2000 and 2005, the most occupational accidents in Turkey were observed metal goods (excluding for machines), construction, the textile industry, coal mining, and transportation vehicles Some papers addressed the issue of work safety in specific sectors such as shipyard (Barlas, 2012), mining (Sari, 2004) and construction (Gurcanli, 2009) fatalities.
3 Motivation 2 Data In many developing countries, higher accident rates have emerged as result of fast growing and unregulated economies where institutional risk measures are largely neglected and increasing global competition weakens environmental and work safety (Hamalainen, 2009). Whether and to what extent workers are compensated by a premium for risky jobs? Use of the well-established methods of literature on the value of a statistical life (VSL) and injury (VSI).
4 Risk of Accident Across Industries Table : Fatal and Non-Fatal Accident Ratios Across Industries (Nace Rev. 2) (a) Fatal Risk All Industries Manufacturing Men Women Men Women Mean St. dev Max Min No. Cases No. Sub-sectors (b) Injury Risk All Industries Manufacturing Men Women Men Women Mean St. Dev Max Min No. Cases No. Sub-sectors Accidents cases provided by Ministry of Labor and Social Security, number of insured workers are calculated from HLFSs 2010 and 2011 conforming the criteria under the article 4-1/a of Act 5510.
5 Construction of Risk Data At the industry level, the MLSS provides gender-specific fatality and injury cases for 84 sub-sectors. The total number of workers corresponding to each industry is obtained from the HLFS using weights given by TurkStat that conform to the criteria of coverage under article 4-1/a. The fatality risk ratio is calculated per workers and the injury risk ratio is given as a percentage as commonly preferred in the literature. Choosing the denominator to be used is problematic. Viscusi (2004) discusses the issues in creating a job risk variable at the aggregated industry level and finds that most studies prefer to use blue-collar or male samples to estimate the risk premium. Gender specific risk rates are chosen for two reasons. Firstly, female participation is very low at every industry level and it increases with education level. Thus the total accident figures corresponding to each industry would hide the gender-biased risk because of low participation. Secondly, industry or occupation choice can indicate a gender bias. In addition to the participation issue, for female workers, the nature of work could also differ within each industry or occupation.
6 OLS Data Estimation of the risk premium is generally based on the canonical hedonic wage model which involves the usual wage regression plus a premium (taste) for risk. Following the accepted procedure, the wage equation (1) can be be estimated including the premia for risks associated with a particular industry using HLFS data which include wage earners with a positive wage and working hours and an age interval between 21 and 65. ln(w i ) = α + β 1 X i + β 2 H i + γq i + ε i (1)
7 Quantile Suppose that the conditional quantile function for the quantile τ, denoted by Q τ is given as in Eq.(2). Q τ (ln(w i ) X i ) = α + β 1τ X i + β 2τ H i + γ τ q i (2) The significance of quantile regression here is that the coefficient γ τ represents the marginal risk compensation of the individual worker conditional on the parameters of the explanatory variables estimated at the τ th percentile.
8 Table : Brief Descriptive Statistics Variables Mean Mean All Industries Manufacturing Female Age Tenure years Administrative Workers Household size Urban Regular Working Hours Public Employee Fatal Risk Injury Risk Log Hourly Wage No. of Subsectors Other variables included in regressions Education Dummies (5 categories, no schooling, less than secondary, secondary, vocational secondary, upper secondary level) Martial Status Dummies (4 categories, Never married, Married, Divorced, Spouse died) Firm Size Dummies (6 categories Less than 10 workers, 10-24, 25-49, , and 500 and more workers) Occupation Dummies (9 categories - one digit isco revision 88) Region Dummies (12 regions - Nuts1 classification) Industry Dummies (Industry dummies at Nace Revision 2)
9 Fatal Risk OLS Table : from OLS Hedonic Regression for Industrial Fatal Risk All Industries Manufacturing Industry Pooled Year 2010 Year 2011 Pooled Year 2010 Year 2011 Fatal Risk *** * ** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Female *** *** *** *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Year *** *** ( ) ( ) Observations 133,499 64,030 69,469 32,975 15,993 16,982 R-squared The omitted category for dummies; having no schooling for education, less than 10 workers for firms size, unmarried for marital status, the year 2010 for year effect, agricultural sector for industry, executive managers for occupations, the istanbul province for regions. We control region(12), year, occupation(9) and industry(84) fixed effects. For manufacturing the omitted category is food industry among 24 sub-sectors. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1. Robust standard errors in parentheses.
10 Injury Risk OLS Table : from OLS Hedonic Regression for Industrial Injury Risk All Industries Manufacturing Industry Pooled Year 2010 Year 2011 Pooled Year 2010 Year 2011 Injury Risk *** *** *** *** ** ** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Female *** *** *** *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Year *** *** ( ) ( ) Constant *** *** *** *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Observations 133,499 64,030 69,469 32,975 15,993 16,982 R-squared The omitted category for dummies; having no schooling for education, less than 10 workers for firms size, unmarried for marital status, the year 2010 for year effect, agricultural sector for industry, executive managers for occupations, the istanbul province for regions. We control region(12), year, occupation(9) and industry(84) fixed effects. For manufacturing the omitted category is food industry among 24 sub-sectors. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1. Robust standard errors in parentheses.
11 OLS Data The OLS estimation results reveal that fatal risk premium is positive in both samples but only significant in the manufacturing sample. The injury risk is positive and significant in all specifications The result that the fatal risk premium is insignificant in the broader sample needs to be explained. Cases of insignificant or negative coefficients are not rare in the VSL literature. The misspecification or construction of the risk variable might be responsible for the insignificant fatal risk premium in the industry-wide model. Dorman(1998) argues that it is not because disadvantaged workers attach less value to life...but they face a restricted set of options in which their preferences for safety are not given much weight...they have found their way into situations of high risk and low pay... p. 133 Fatal job risk coefficients for the manufacturing sector are very close, ranging from 0.011% to 0.014%. This range lies within the interval reported in (Viscusi, 2003). The injury risk premium ranges from 1.4% and 2.65% and it is positive and significant in all models. Except for 2011, coefficients are comparably larger for the manufacturing industry.
12 Accidents Risk Quantile Table : from Quantile Hedonic Regression for Industrial Accidents Quantiles (a) Fatal Risk All Industries Fatal risk * * *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Female *** *** *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Observations 133, , , , ,499 Pseudo R (b) Fatal Risk Manufacturing Industry Fatal Risk *** *** * ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Female *** *** *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Observations 32,975 32,975 32,975 32,975 32,975 Pseudo R The omitted category for dummies; having no schooling for education,less than 10 workers for firms size, unmarried for marital status, the year 2010 for year effect, agricultural sector for industry, executive managers for occupations, the istanbul province for regions. We control region(12), year, occupation(9) and industry(84) fixed effects. For manufacturing the omitted category is food industry among 24 sub-sectors. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1. Robust standard errors in parentheses.
13 Accidents Risk Quantile Table : from Quantile Hedonic Regression for Industrial Accidents Quantiles (c) Injury Risk All Industries Injury Risk *** *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Female *** *** *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Observations 133, , , , ,499 Pseudo R (d) Injury Risk Manufacturing Industry Injury Risk *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( Female *** *** *** *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Observations 32,975 32,975 32,975 32,975 32,975 Pseudo R The omitted category for dummies; having no schooling for education,less than 10 workers for firms size, unmarried for marital status, the year 2010 for year effect, agricultural sector for industry, executive managers for occupations, the istanbul province for regions. We control region(12), year, occupation(9) and industry(84) fixed effects. For manufacturing the omitted category is food industry among 24 sub-sectors. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1. Robust standard errors in parentheses.
14 Quantile In the broader industry-wide model, compared to the OLS results, the coefficient is not significant at the median. Other risk premia are significant at 10th, 25th,75th and 90th percentiles and increase with the wage reaching the highest premium at the 90th percentile. A similar pattern is partly valid for the manufacturing sector, although the coefficients are very close at the upper percentiles. There is no significant compensation for the lower 10th and 25th quantiles. In the manufacturing sample, the wage-risk trade-off at the median exceeds that of the mean (OLS) estimation (Evans et all., 2010) reports similar findings and argue that risk compensation increases along the wage distribution. In terms of injury risk similarly, the median exceeds the estimated mean risk premium for both samples. The lower 10th quantile does not have a significant coefficient for both samples. Compared to fatality risk compensation, the pattern of the wage/risk trade-off is quite different. The median has the highest value and the injury risk premium follows an inverse-u shape which does not conform with the findings of the literature
15 Calculation of VSL The monetary value of a statistical life or risk is based on the estimated risk coefficients in Eqs.(1) or(2) for a quantile of the wage distribution. 1 : V SL(τ j ) = [( w γ )τ j = β 1 τ j x w(τ j ) x 2000 x 1000] 1 2,000 working hours a year for a typical worker
16 Table : Estimated marginal impacts of job risk and associated values of statistical life (VSL) and injury(vsi) estimates by real wage percentiles. All Industries Manufacturing Industry Quantiles log (wage) Fatal Risk VSL Injury Risk VSI log (wage) Fatal Risk VSL Injury Risk VSI 10% , * * * - 25% , , * ,051 50% * , , ,866 75% , , , ,717 90% , , ,473, * - Mean * , , ,062 * not significant coefficients. VSL estimates are measured in 2011 dollars (1$=1.67 TL) and are calculated as the marginal impact of risk*real wage*2000 hours*10,000 VSI estimates are measured in 2011 dollars (1$=1.67 TL) and are calculated as the marginal impact of risk*real wage*2000 hours*100.
17 VSL and VSI In the broader sample, the VSL increases through wage quantiles ranging from 14,000 to 231,000 USD. For the smaller manufacturing sample, the corresponding VSL estimates are much higher, ranging from 520,000 to 1,473,000 USD. In both samples, lower wages provide very low or no earnings with regard to fatal risk. (Viscusi, 2003) document that the VSL (estimated using OLS) varies within the range of 4 million to 9 millions USD in various studies using US labor market data. It would be misleading to compare these VSL estimates with those of developed countries. Giergiczny et all.(2008) reports mean VSL estimates ranging between 0.8 and 2.4 million USD using Polish data. For Chile, (Parada et all, 2012) find a much higher VSL around 4.5 milion USD (uncorrected for selection bias) which is nine times greater than the mean estimation found in the manufacturing sector. Compared to these studies, the VSL for Turkey is relatively lower. Compared to Chile, VSI estimates ( USD) is very close to our estimate for the low wage earners. However, VSI estimations for the Turkish case remain very modest and are well below the range reported in Viscusi, 2003value.
18 Accident and hours The importance of institutional setting is the regulation of working conditions. Turkey is a notable example of the importance of institutional interaction between working hours and accident rates. The legal framework in Turkey gives incentives to firms to allocate the working hours of each worker in a week. According to the World Bank Doing Business Index (2010), the standard number of working hours in a day in Turkey is not restricted to eight as it is in the other countries. No daily standard workday has been established by law, only a maximum of 11 hours per day and of 45 hours per week (Art. 63, Labor Law, 2003). Working hours exceeding 45 hours per month are very common both in formal and informal sectors in the Turkish labor market. Work safety studies show that long working hours increase the likeliness of workplace accidents (Dembe et all.,2005); (Folkard and Tucker, 2003); (Vegso et all.,2007). The hazard rates for overtime workers increases by 61% and the adjusted injury rates increase by 37% for those who work 12 hours a day and by 23% for those who work 60 hours a week.
19 Table : Industrial Accident Risks by Industry Breakdown Manufacturing Non-Manufacturing All F I F I F I Fatal Risk * Injury Risk * Av. Regular Hours * * * * Av. Actual Hours * * * * Av. Tenure Years * * * * Share of Public Sector * Share of Unqualified Workers * * * pairwise correlation coefficients significant at the 5% level. F and I stand for fatal and injury risk respectively
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