1 Marriage and the State Lesson Plan Student Objectives Understand the role of the state in regulating the institution of marriage and the rights and responsibilities of married people. Learn about the ancient roots of the institution of marriage and how marriage is understood in different religious traditions. Explore the tensions between social customs and institutions and democratic decisionmaking. Analyze the reasons for supporting and opposing the legalization of same-sex (gay and lesbian) marriage. Identify areas of agreement and disagreement with other students. Decide, individually and as a group, whether our democracy should permit same-sex couples to marry just as heterosexual couples are allowed to do. Reflect on the value of deliberation when deciding issues in a democracy. Question for Deliberation Should our democracy permit same-sex couples (gay and lesbian) to marry? Materials Lesson Procedures Handout 1 Deliberation Guide Handout 2 Deliberation Activities Handout 3 Student Reflection on Deliberation Reading Selected Resources Deliberation Question with Arguments (optional use if students have difficulty extracting the arguments or time is limited) 2009 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
2 Marriage and the State In 2001, The Netherlands became the first country in the world to legalize samesex (homosexual) marriage. Prior to that law, only couples consisting of a man and a woman could marry. After the law passed, Anne-Marie Thus and Helene Fassen became the first same-sex couple in the world to be officially married. We re totally ordinary, says Thus. In the next few years, other countries passed similar laws Belgium in 2003, and Spain and Canada in Today, seven countries and five U.S. states recognize same-sex marriage for gay and lesbian couples. The Dutch marriage law and others like it have sparked controversy. Many opponents of same-sex marriage insist that it will lead to destruction of the institution of marriage. These opponents question the limits of democratic decision-making in overturning long-standing social customs and institutions. Defining and Regulating Marriage Marriage can have both a civil (secular) and a religious element (Andryszewski, 2008). The state offers civil marriage, which is regulated by the government. A civil marriage grants the legal rights of marriage to a couple. A religious marriage ceremony also includes two additional dimensions. The couple vows fidelity to God and their faith tradition. In turn, the couple asks for and receives sanction from God and the community of believers for their marriage. Religious institutions such as churches, synagogues, and mosques have their own rules for whom they will or will not allow to marry Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
3 Most democracies today restrict marriage to heterosexual couples. For example, The Family Code of the Russian Federation, enacted in 1996, clearly requires the voluntary consent of the man and the woman in marriage. The Family Code of Lithuania defines marriage as one man and one woman and prohibits same sex marriage. Indeed, marriage terms indicating a heterosexual (male and female) relationship are the norm. In the English common law, the tradition that forms the basis and context for the American legal system, marriage could occur only with the consent of both parties. While having more than one spouse (polygamy) was practiced in other cultures Moses in the Hebrew Bible had two wives and the Prophet Muhammad in the Qur an had four marriage in the English legal tradition was unmistakably between one man and one woman ( Marriage: An Overview, Legal Information Institute). In most democracies, the national government typically regulates marriage. Marriages in the United States fall under each state government s lawmaking authority. State governments set certain rules about marriage, including minimum age requirements for marriage and prohibitions on marriages between certain close relatives, such as a parent, brother or sister, or aunt or uncle. All states also limit marriage to monogamy, or two people. As of this writing, every state except Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont restricts marriage to one man and one woman. Traditionally, states must honor marriage licenses issued by other states. However, in 1994, the national government passed a law called the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which allows states to ignore licenses issued to same-sex couples in other states. Deliberating in a Democracy 2009 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 2
4 Marriage: Responsibilities, Benefits, and Rights Some important responsibilities go with marriage. Married people share responsibility for rearing their children and sending them to school; if they fail to take care of their children, the state can remove their children from their home. They must take care of and pay for any property they own. Married couples receive some tax breaks; conversely, if one person cheats on taxes, the spouse is not legally liable, but the couple s assets (what they have) may be severely affected. Divorced individuals must take steps to provide economically, if necessary, for their former partners. Getting married brings with it a great many benefits that cover virtually every aspect of a person s life. In the United States and in Europe, married people can automatically hold joint property and inherit the property of a loved one who dies without a will. They are protected (in most cases) from testifying against each other in court. Spouses are entitled to collect health benefits, unemployment benefits, veterans benefits, and death benefits if their spouse is injured or dies. Married people automatically have the right to visit a spouse or a child in hospital, and to take family leave for extended illness or the birth of a child. Any children born to them are assumed to be theirs. Some democratic nations and localities have offered civil unions. A civil union is a secular marriage-like relationship regulated by the government. It allows couples to have some of the rights that married couples have. In 2006, for example, the Czech Republic passed a law that allowed same-sex couples to have a type of civil union called a registered partnership. The partners in this relationship have inheritance rights, the right to appeal court judgments on behalf of each other, and the privilege not to testify in court against each other, among other rights. Significantly, registered partnerships, like Deliberating in a Democracy 2009 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 3
5 other civil unions, do not allow the couples to adopt children, unless they dissolve the partnership and one of the partners adopts as a single parent. Marriage: Law and Tradition Many who view marriage as a purely secular or legal relationship as well as those whose religious beliefs recognize same-sex marriage believe marriage rights should belong to gay and lesbian couples who wish to marry. They believe the government should not discriminate against same-sex couples by denying those rights. Those who view marriage as a primarily religious relationship often believe that government should not extend marital rights to couples in a way that would reject the teachings of their religious tradition. They argue that redefining marriage offends the fundamental values of millions of people and contradicts the long-standing representation of a family by a mother, father, and child or children. In traditional Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, marriage is understood as a heterosexual institution. Orthodox Christianity and the Catholic Church explicitly forbid same-sex partnerships of any kind. Islamic law, as well, only recognizes the validity of marriage between a man and a woman. Today, however, certain Protestant Christian and Jewish denominations have called for civil recognition of same-sex marriages, and their clergy have performed weddings for gay and lesbian couples. A few historically Catholic countries also have broken with tradition. Spain legalized same-sex marriage in 2005, and Slovenia legalized same-sex registered partnerships in Some parts of historically Catholic Latin America have legalized civil unions. Since 2003, for example, residents of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, can have same-sex civil unions. And since 2007, residents of Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, may do so as well. Deliberating in a Democracy 2009 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 4
6 The predominantly Muslim country of Albania has seen change in marriage laws. In July 2009, Prime Minister Sali Berisha proposed a measure in the parliament to give same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual couples. Albanian opponents, including Muslims, Catholics, and Orthodox Christians, condemn Berisha's proposition as sinful, but also as politically corrupt. According to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, a democratic tradition allows the majority in a society to set moral standards. Scalia has written that to criminalize same-sex relations is well within the range of traditional democratic action, and warned against the invention of a brand-new constitutional right by a Court that is impatient of democratic change (Lawrence v. Texas, 2003). The brand new right he mentioned was legalized same-sex relationships, including marriage. Significantly, the U.S. Supreme Court rejected religious freedom as a defense when it outlawed polygamy (Reynolds v. United States, 1878) Advocates of the rights of same-sex couples to marry, on the other hand, find support for redefining marriage in legal traditions and democratic principles. The UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, for example, states in Article 23 that The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall be recognized. When Spain legalized same sex marriage, Spanish Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero said that Parliament was expanding the opportunities for happiness of our neighbors, our colleagues, our friends and our relatives and building a more decent society" ( Spain Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage, 2005). While marriage has been presumed to be heterosexual in English and American law, that legal tradition also includes the democratic principles of equal protection and due process, which the courts Deliberating in a Democracy 2009 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 5
7 have in some cases applied to marriage. For example, in 1967 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution prohibited states from denying marriage licenses to interracial couples (Loving v. Virginia, 1967). Marriage and Children Founding a family remains a special area of concern for people who oppose samesex marriage. Opponents of same-sex marriage contend that the tradition of heterosexual marriage has always fundamentally been about procreation. Children need both mothers and fathers, states Robert H. Knight, who helped draft the federal Defense of Marriage Act in the United States, and marriage is society s way of obtaining them. Supporters of same-sex marriage counter that marriage certainly includes the right to found a family but is not exclusively centered on that right. They point to legitimate marriages without children. Married couples traditionally find companionship and love, as well as rights to property. They also obtain rights to adopt children. Therefore, a heterosexual couple who cannot procreate is similarly situated to a same-sex couple with regard to adopting children. Also, assuming that children need both mothers and fathers, the case for traditional marriage is not strengthened by high divorce rates of heterosexual couples. Statistical evidence has shown that as many as 41 percent and perhaps 50 percent of heterosexual marriages in the United States end in divorce (New York Times, 2005). Supporters say allowing same-sex marriages would enable the establishment of more, not fewer, families. And children's best interests would be protected. The executive director of Amnesty International Ireland has argued, Because a same-sex couple is denied access to civil marriage, any adopted child parented by a same-sex couple will not Deliberating in a Democracy 2009 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 6
8 have the same rights, entitlements and protections afforded to a child adopted by a heterosexual couple. Similarly, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court held in its decision to legalize same-sex marriage in 2003 that the government s goals in promoting procreation and ensuring good homes for child-rearing were not promoted by a ban on same-sex marriage (Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, 2003). Law and Democratic Change In democracies that recognize same-sex marriage, society must make significant adjustments to laws and policies. Opponents of same-sex marriage argue that those adjustments would place too great a burden on traditional heterosexual marriages. Opponents also point out that public opinion is still firmly against legalizing same-sex marriage. In the United States, about 40 percent of citizens support making same-sex marriages legal (Gallup, May 2009). About 44 percent of European Union citizens feel the same way (Eurobarometer, 2006). This tension exists also with respect to children. Less than a third of EU citizens, for example, feel that same-sex couples should have rights to adopt children. In contrast, a 2003 survey in the United States showed that 60 percent of adoption agencies accept applications from homosexual men and women, with more and more agencies seeking training in working with those parents. It s ironic and interesting, says Harvard University historian Nancy Cott, that same-sex marriage advocates and conservatives of the family-values school both agree on the value of marriage and how crucial it is as a social institution ( The Future of Marriage, Harvard Magazine, November-December 2004). Deliberating in a Democracy 2009 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 7
9 Marriage and the State Selected Resources 60 th Anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights, Albanian gays welcome PM's same-sex marriage plan, American Psychological Association, APA Policy Statement: Sexual Orientation, Parents and Children, Andryszewski, Tricia. Same-Sex Marriage: Moral Wrong or Civil Right? (Twenty First Century Books, 2008). Child Welfare League of America, Position Statement on Parenting of Children by Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adults, Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie. Global View of Gay Marriage, CBS News, 4 March 2004, Czech Registered Partnership Law, Eskridge, William N. and Darren R. Spedale. Gay Marriage: For Better or Worse? What We ve Learned from the Evidence (Cambridge, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007), ction&ots=hd2ytmegth&sig=wie2dvu8iodcu2u9zqqxp1w4be#v=onepage&q=netherlands%20%20gay%20marriage%20%20reaction&f=false. Gays denied right to adopt, Prague Post, 8 July 2009, Green, Jennifer. Spain Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage, Washington Post, July 1, 2005, Hodder, Fraser Harbour. The Future of Marriage. Harvard Magazine, November-December 2004 pp Hull, Katherine E. Same-sex Marriage: The Cultural Politics of Love and Law, (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006), ction&ots=z1tgj4uf_w&sig=gty94p34d0ytlva6wzgttdk8ias#v=onepage&q=netherlands&f=false. Hurley, Dan. Divorce Rate: It s Not As High As You Think, New York Times, 19 April 2005, ILGA, Mexico City Embraces Gay Unions, BBC News, 17 March 2007, National Family Policy Concept," adopted by SEIMAS (Lithuanian Parliament), 2008, (Lithuanian). The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life: Issues: Gay Marriage, Public opinion and same-sex unions, Russian Civil Code, Slovenia to legalize soon same-sex marriage: minister, Agence France Presse, July 2, 2009, Sunstein, Cass R. The Right to Marry, University of Chicago Law Review (Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No. 76, October 2004). Brief of Amici Curiae American Center for Law & Justice, at 8 9, In Re Marriage Cases, 43 Cal. 4 th 757 (2008) Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
10 Deliberation Question Marriage and the State Deliberation Question with Arguments Should our democracy permit same-sex couples (gay and lesbian) to marry? YES Arguments to Support the Deliberation Question 1. Marriage offers benefits that should be open to every member of democratic society. Married people can automatically hold and can inherit joint property, collect government benefits, visit their spouse or child in hospital, and take family leave for extended illness or the birth of a child. Gay and lesbian couples deserve to enjoy these rights and privileges just as heterosexual couples do. Government should not discriminate against same-sex couples by denying these rights. 2. While marriage certainly includes the right to found a family, it is not the only reason people get married. People marry for love and companionship, and they marry for economic reasons. There are also plenty of legitimate marriages without children, as well as singleparent families or blended families with a parent and children from two different marriages. All of these families are legitimate, as long as there is love and respect in the home qualities that both heterosexual and same-sex parents can provide. 3. The basic rights of people who are gay or lesbian should not be subject to a religious veto. Religious traditions in a democracy deserve respect, but they are not the foundation of democratic laws. Slavery was once accepted by Christians, Jews, and Muslims, but today all three traditions condemn slavery. Religious traditions also are not monolithic. Certain Protestant Christian and Jewish denominations have called for civil recognition of same-sex marriages, and their clergy have performed weddings for gay and lesbian couples. Religious practices, like democratic norms, evolve over time. 4. Allowing gays and lesbians to marry would create more, not fewer, families. And children's best interests would be protected. Our democracy s desire to encourage people to have children in good homes is by recognizing same-sex marriage, not banning it Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
11 Deliberation Question Marriage and the State Deliberation Question with Arguments Should our democracy permit same-sex couples (gay and lesbian) to marry? NO Arguments to Oppose the Deliberation Question 1. All democracies have laws limiting who can marry. There are minimum age requirements and prohibitions against marrying close relatives. Most western democracies also limit marriage to two people. Moreover, democratic tradition allows the majority to the set moral standards for a society. In both European countries and the United States, a majority of the public is firmly against legalizing same-sex marriage. Our democracy can reasonably limit marriage to one man and one woman. 2. To permit gay and lesbian couples to marry will overturn centuries of custom and tradition. Marriage in both American and European law system has been unmistakably understood as between one man and one woman. By contrast, the calls for change to this tradition are very recent. Rushing to make such a change will cause great disruptions. Our democracy can wait a few generations to see whether such a radical change is really necessary. 3. The understanding of marriage as a relationship between one man and one woman is central to many religious traditions. Marriage is thus a sacred as well as a legal institution. Our democracy should not extend marital rights to couples in a way that would reject the teachings of these religious traditions and offend the values of millions of people. 4. Marriage has always fundamentally been about procreation. Marriage is the accepted way to create and raise children. Gay and lesbian partners cannot naturally procreate, nor can they simulate the long-standing representation of a family by a mother, a father, and a child or children Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
12 Step One: Introduction Lesson Procedures Introduce the lesson and the Student Objectives on the Lesson Plan. Distribute and discuss Handout 1 Deliberation Guide. Review the Rules of Deliberation and post them in a prominent position in the classroom. Emphasize that the class will deliberate and then debrief the experience. Step Two: Reading Distribute a copy of the Reading to each student. Have students read the article carefully and underline facts and ideas they think are important and/or interesting (ideally for homework). Step Three: Grouping and Reading Discussion Divide the class into groups of four or five students. Group members should share important facts and interesting ideas with each other to develop a common understanding of the article. They can record these facts and ideas on Handout 2 Deliberation Activities (Review the Reading). Step Four: Introducing the Deliberation Question Each Reading addresses a Deliberation Question. Read aloud and/or post the Deliberation Question and ask students to write the Deliberation Question in the space provided on Handout 2. Remind students of the Rules for Deliberation on Handout 1. Step Five: Learning the Reasons Divide each group into two teams, Team A and Team B. Explain that each team is responsible for selecting the most compelling reasons for its position, which you will assign. Both teams should reread the Reading. Team A will find the most compelling reasons to support the Deliberation Question. Team B will find the most compelling reasons to oppose the Deliberation Question. To ensure maximum participation, ask everyone on the team to prepare to present at least one reason. Note: Team A and Team B do not communicate while learning the reasons. If students need help identifying the arguments or time is limited, use the Deliberation Question with Arguments handouts. Ask students to identify the most compelling arguments and add any additional ones they may remember from the reading. Step Six: Presenting the Most Compelling Reasons Tell students that each team will present the most compelling reasons to support or oppose the Deliberation Question. In preparation for the next step, Reversing Positions, have each team listen carefully for the most compelling reasons. 2005, 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
13 Team A will explain their reasons for supporting the Deliberation Question. If Team B does not understand something, they should ask questions but NOT argue. Team B will explain their reasons for opposing the Deliberation Question. If Team A does not understand something, they should ask questions, but NOT argue. Note: The teams may not believe in or agree with their reasons but should be as convincing as possible when presenting them to others. Step Seven: Reversing Positions Explain that, to demonstrate that each side understands the opposing arguments, each team will select the other team s most compelling reasons. Team B will explain to Team A what Team A s most compelling reasons were for supporting the Deliberation Question. Team A will explain to Team B what Team B s most compelling reasons were for opposing the Deliberation Question. Step Eight: Deliberating the Question Explain that students will now drop their roles and deliberate the question as a group. Remind the class of the question. In deliberating, students can (1) use what they have learned about the issue and (2) offer their personal experiences as they formulate opinions regarding the issue. After deliberating, have students find areas of agreement in their group. Then ask students, as individuals, to express to the group their personal position on the issue and write it down (see My Personal Position on Handout 2). Note: Individual students do NOT have to agree with the group. Step Nine: Debriefing the Deliberation Reconvene the entire class. Distribute Handout 3 Student Reflection on Deliberation as a guide. Ask students to discuss the following questions: What were the most compelling reasons for each side? What were the areas of agreement? What questions do you still have? Where can you get more information? What are some reasons why deliberating this issue is important in a democracy? What might you or your class do to address this problem? Options include teaching others about what they have learned; writing to elected officials, NGOs, or businesses; and conducting additional research. Consider having students prepare personal reflections on the Deliberation Question through written, visual, or audio essays. Personal opinions can be posted on the web. Step Ten: Student Poll/Student Reflection Ask students: Do you agree, disagree, or are you still undecided about the Deliberation Question? Record the responses and have a student post the results on under the partnerships and/or the polls. Have students complete Handout , 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago.
14 Handout 1 Deliberation Guide What Is Deliberation? Deliberation (meaningful discussion) is the focused exchange of ideas and the analysis of arguments with the aim of making a decision. Why Are We Deliberating? Citizens must be able and willing to express and exchange ideas among themselves, with community leaders, and with their representatives in government. Citizens and public officials in a democracy need skills and opportunities to engage in civil public discussion of controversial issues in order to make informed policy decisions. Deliberation requires keeping an open mind, as this skill enables citizens to reconsider a decision based on new information or changing circumstances. What Are the Rules for Deliberation? Read the material carefully. Focus on the deliberation question. Listen carefully to what others are saying. Check for understanding. Analyze what others say. Speak and encourage others to speak. Refer to the reading to support your ideas. Use relevant background knowledge, including life experiences, in a logical way. Use your heart and mind to express ideas and opinions. Remain engaged and respectful when controversy arises. Focus on ideas, not personalities. 2005, 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
15 Handout 2 Deliberation Activities Review the Reading Determine the most important facts and/or interesting ideas and write them below. 1) 2) 3) Deliberation Question Learning the Reasons Reasons to Support the Deliberation Question (Team A) Reasons to Oppose the Deliberation Question (Team B) My Personal Position On a separate sheet of paper, write down reasons to support your opinion. You may suggest another course of action than the policy proposed in the question or add your own ideas to address the underlying problem. 2005, 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
16 Name: Date: Teacher: Handout 3 Student Reflection on Deliberation Large Group Discussion: What We Learned What were the most compelling reasons for each side? Side A: Side B: What were the areas of agreement? What questions do you still have? Where can you get more information? What are some reasons why deliberating this issue is important in a democracy? What might you and/or your class do to address this problem? Individual Reflection: What I Learned Which number best describes your understanding of the focus issue? [circle one] NO DEEPER MUCH DEEPER UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING What new insights did you gain? What did you do well in the deliberation? What do you need to work on to improve your personal deliberation skills? What did someone else in your group do or say that was particularly helpful? Is there anything the group should work on to improve the group deliberation? 2005, 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
Farzad Family Law Scholarship 2014 Should the right to marry for same-sex couples become a federal constitutional right by amendment to the United States Constitution or remain a State issue? The United
MARRIAGE RIGHTS I N I L L I N O I S FOREWORD At Equality Illinois, we work to promote a fair and unified Illinois where everyone is treated equally with dignity and respect and where all people live freely
Why is same-sex marriage important? The Equality Network is strongly of the opinion that the law should allow same-sex marriages, and, more generally, that marriage should be available to couples regardless
Same-Sex Marriage in the United States Thousands of peaceful demonstrators gathered outside the Supreme Court in Washington, DC this week. They were there to show their support for or opposition to same
The 14 th Amendment and Same-Sex Marriage Do laws and constitutions that prohibit same-sex marriage violate the 14 th Amendment? Marriage is more than just a union between two people who love each other
EQUAL MARRIAGE RIGHTS FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES [Voted by the Directorate of the UCC Office for Church in Society, November 16, 1996 1 ] Background Ideas about marriage have shifted and changed dramatically
The Call to Marriage is Woven Deeply into the Human Spirit: A Message on Marriage from the Catholic Bishops of New Jersey God who created man and woman out of love also calls him to love the fundamental
Dan Kotowski State Senator M118 Capital Bldg. Springfield, IL 62706 Dear Mr. Kotowski, I am a student at Maine West High School who wants to bring to your attention the issue of same sex marriage. I am
Landmark Case Overview: Same Sex Marriage Rights Halpern et al v. Attorney General of Canada et al Synopsis prepared by the Ontario Court of Appeal From April 22 to 25, 2003, a panel of the Court of Appeal
Moral Issues and Catholic Values: The California Vote in 2008 Proposition 8 October 2008 How the Survey Was Conducted Moral Issues and Catholic Values: The California Vote in 2008 Proposition 8 reports
Gay Marriage In many countries around the world have talked about gay marriage a long time, but it is hard to make a decision whether gay marriage should be legal. There are some reasons why some people
GIBBS LAW FIRM, P.A. 5666 SEMINOLE BOULEVARD, SUITE TWO TELEPHONE: (727) 399-8300 SEMINOLE, FLORIDA 33772 FACSIMILE: (727) 398-3907 January 4, 2011 VIA EMAIL email@example.com Mr. Kevin McCoy West Virginia
IN RE MARRIAGE CASES (California): 2008 These cases present the issue of the legality of gay marriage bans, in the context of previous State domestic partnership (CA) or civil union (CT) Statutes, under
MARRIAGE FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES IN CALIFORNIA Frequently Asked Questions Last Updated: July 9, 2015 NOTE: This document is intended to provide information for same-sex couples who are considering getting
Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act: A factsheet Marriage is a hugely important institution in this country. The principles of long-term commitment and responsibility which underpin it bind society together
Equal marriage What the government says Easy Read Document Important This is a big booklet, but you may not want to read all of it. Look at the list of contents on pages 3, 4 and 5. It shows what is in
In Support of Equal Marriage Rights for All [Adopted at the Twenty-fifth General Synod of the United Church of Christ on July 4, 2005] Beloved, let us love one another, because love is from God; everyone
Supreme Court's landmark ruling legalizes gay marriage nationwide Reuters By Lawrence Hurley 6/26/2015 Supreme Court gay marriage ruling WASHINGTON, June 26 (Reuters) - The Supreme Court ruled on Friday
THE FIELD POLL THE INDEPENDENT AND NON-PARTISAN SURVEY OF PUBLIC OPINION ESTABLISHED IN 1947 AS THE CALIFORNIA POLL BY MERVIN FIELD Field Research Corporation 601 California Street, Suite 900 San Francisco,
SHORT COURSE GCSE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LIFE REVISION BOOKLET Background Revision File Section 3: Marriage and the Family Key Words 1 Cohabitation Marriage Faithfulness Pre-marital sex
RELATIONSHIPS REVISION GUIDE Key Concepts CHASTITY No sex before marriage to remain sexually pure for marriage. LOVE One of the most powerful human emotions that joins people together. RESPONSIBILITY your
Chapter 4: Same Sex Marriage and the First Amendment By Robert Brandon Anderson, Research Director Ages of experience have taught us that the commitment of a husband and wife to love and to serve one another
MARRIAGE vs. REGISTERED PARTNERSHIP: FULL EQUALITY OR SEGREGATION FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES? Robert Wintemute, Professor of Human Rights Law, King's College London "Against Sexual Apartheid: A ceremonial act
Homily for 4 th Sunday Easter, UW Newman, 04-29-12 The Good Shepherd is always seeking out his lost sheep. Our Lord says, I have other sheep that do not belong to this fold. These also I must lead, and
Premarital Counseling Survey This survey is designed to help the counselor understand who you are, where you re at in your current relationship, and how you view love and marriage. You may find some of
Public Religion Research Institute AFRICAN AMERICAN & HISPANIC REPRODUCTIVE ISSUES SURVEY PUBLIC RELIGION RESEARCH INSTITUTE JUNE 14 JUNE 23, 2012 N=810 American adults N=813 American adults ASK ALL: Q.1
WINDSOR BAPTIST CHURCH Marriage, Divorce & Remarriage March 2005 Marriage in Scripture: Marriage is a creation ordinance. That is to say it was instituted by God at the beginning of human history as his
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA CIVIL UNION BILL (As presented by the Portfolio Committee on Home Affairs (National Assembly)) (The English text is the offıcial text of the Bill) (MINISTER OF HOME AFFAIRS) [B
II BEING A COUPLE 0 Introduction Everyone creates his/her identity through various group affiliations (family, workplace, philosophy or religion, couple etc.). Examining the socio-cultural dimensions that
TUV Response to Gay Marriage consultation Traditional Unionist Voice is a Unionist political party which has representation in the Northern Ireland Assembly and at local government level in the Province.
Equality with Human Rights Analysis Toolkit The Equality Act 2010 and Human Rights Act 1998 require us to consider the impact of our policies and practices in respect of equality and human rights. We should
This is a publication of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs FAQ Same-sex marriage 2010 1 1. Same-sex marriage 2. Alternative types of partnership 3. Conversion 4. Recognition abroad 5. Non-Dutch
1 Same-Sex Marriage: Breeding Ground for Logical Fallacies One cannot offer any disagreement that same-sex marriage has gained a great deal of publicity in the recent years. While the issue played a large
Michael Bailey 1 Shifting Sensibilities: Attitudes toward Same-sex Marriage, Past, Present and Future America is a large, diverse country with some three-hundred twenty million people. With that many people
Spain, long dominated by autocratic rulers and adherence to a conservative Roman Catholic orthodoxy, excited the imaginations of lesbians and gay men worldwide when in 2005 it became one of the first countries
Goodridge, et al. v. Department of Public Health, State of Massachusetts 440 Mass. 309 (2003) (Abridged by Instructor) MARSHALL, C.J. Marriage is a vital social institution. The exclusive commitment of
Position Paper on Adoption Law Reform March 2013 Department of Health and Human Services Introduction What is adoption? Adoption is the legal process which permanently transfers all the legal rights and
Summary of the law on SEXUAL ORIENTATION DISCRIMINATION This booklet sets out the basic employment rights to which workers are entitled under the sexual orientation discrimination provisions of the Equality
Matthew 5:31-32 Divorce and Remarriage Introduction I. Matthew 5:31-32 A. Verse 31 It was also said 1. This is actually an inference from the Law. 2. Deuteronomy 24:1-4 When a man takes a wife and marries
"!" EQUAL CIVIL MARRIAGE: A CONSULTATION RESPONSE! PLAID CYMRU THE PARTY OF WALES JUNE 2012 " " EQUAL CIVIL MARRIAGE: A CONSULTATION RESPONSE PLAID CYMRU THE PARTY OF WALES JUNE 2012 Equal Civil Marriage:
Peter A. Brown, Assistant Director, (203) 535-6203 Tim Malloy, Assistant Director (203) 645-8043 Rubenstein Associates, Inc., Public Relations Pat Smith (212) 843-8026 FOR RELEASE: JULY 23, 2015 COLORADO,
CAN SAME-SEX MARRIAGES COEXIST WITH RELIGION? Josh Friedes I. INTRODUCTION Thank you, it is a real pleasure to be here today. As Valerie 1 said, I am filling in for someone. 2 What I am going to do today
GCSE RE Revision & Homework Booklet 1 Name: Key concepts: We all have different types of relationships with different people. e.g. friends, parents, grandparents, boy/girlfriends, teachers, faith community,
CHILD PLACING AGENCY RELIG. CONFLICT H.B. 4188 (H-2), 4189, & 4190: ANALYSIS AS REPORTED FROM COMMITTEE House Bill 4188 (Substitute H-2 as reported without amendment) House Bills 4189 and 4190 (as reported
C H A R T E R O F V A L U E S OF C I T I Z E N S H I P AND I N T E G R A T I O N SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL - MINISTRY OF INTERIOR OFFICIAL TRANSLATION ITALY AS A COMMUNITY OF PERSONS AND VALUES Italy is one of
Clearer rules for international couples frequently asked questions Why does the EU need to act to help international couples? There are around 122 million marriages in the EU, of which around 16 million
1 Summary of Marriage Commission Report 1. Why was the Commission formed? In response to Resolution C003 of General Synod 2013 the Council of General Synod (CoGS) formed the Marriage Commission to undertake
MOVING MARRIAGE FORWARD BUILDING MAJORITY SUPPORT FOR MARRIAGE A REPORT FROM FREEDOM TO MARRY Our nation is engaged in a crucial conversation about why marriage matters. More than 100 million Americans
THE BASICS Custody and Visitation in New York State This booklet answers common questions about custody and visitation when the parents cannot agree about who is responsible for taking care of the children.
Community Legal Information Association of Prince Edward Island, Inc. Legal Information for Same Sex Couples People in same sex relationships often have questions about their rights and the rights of their
A Guide to the Human Rights Act A booklet for People with Learning Disabilities Human Rights Human Rights Illustrations by CHANGE Picture Bank What s inside This booklet,..................................1
Each of the 4 questions you choose to answer on the 4 topics we have chosen will be broken down into (a) (b) (c) and (d) type questions. Below it shows you what the questions look like and more importantly
Marriage A United Church of Canada Understanding 1 Marriage A United Church of Canada Understanding The United Church of Canada, 2005 2 Executive Summary Marriage A United Church of Canada Understanding
CHURCH INSURANCE Religious Expression and Your Church A Practical Guide to Protect Your Ministry Same Gender Marriage.... 3 Sample Policies.... 6 Religious Expression Coverage Claims Scenarios.... 9 2015
PUBLIC DIVIDED ABOUT DEFINITION OF MARRIAGE Results Of A Public Opinion Poll On Same-Sex Marriage September 5, 2003 Methodology Nationally representative survey of 1,015 Canadian adults, aged 18 and over.
5 Reasons Why Christians Should Not Obtain a State Marriage License by Rev. Matthew Trewhella Every year thousands of Christians amble down to their local county courthouse and obtain a marriage license
The CAFFA Connection Second Parent Adoption By Susan Frances, Esq. 2012, Vol. 39, No. 2 Second parent adoptions, also known as co-parent adoptions, are adoptions in which the parents are a lesbian or gay
MARRIAGE EQUALITY RAMIFICATIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT S DOMA DECISION OUTLINE: 1. The March to Marriage Equality 2. Guam s Treatment of SSMs 3. Local and Private Benefits I. THE MARCH TO MARRIAGE EQUALITY
For release in paper of December 21, 2003 The New York Times/CBS News Poll December 10-16, 2003 Wednesday, December 10-Saturday, December 13 N=1,057 Sunday, December 14 Tuesday, December 16 N=857 All trends
Brought to you by Alamo Insurance Group Supreme Court Strikes Down DOMA, Clears Way for Same-Sex On June 26, 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court announced decisions in two significant cases regarding laws affecting
Annulment and Dissolution of Marriage in the Catholic Church Annulment Definition -- An annulment is a declaration by a local Diocesan Marriage Tribunal that a marriage never existed as a sacramental union
Impact of Breast Cancer Genetic Testing on Insurance Issues Prepared by the Health Research Unit September 1999 Introduction The discoveries of BRCA1 and BRCA2, two cancer-susceptibility genes, raise serious
THE PUBLIC POLICY RESEARCH LAB Dr. Kirby Goidel Dr. Belinda C. Davis Michael Climek Lina Brou Sponsored by the Reilly Center for Media & Public Affairs Manship School of Mass Communication Louisiana State
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FROM COUPLES WHO ARE CONSIDERING GETTING MARRIED IN SAN FRANCISCO On February 12, 2004, the county clerk in San Francisco began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples,
The Rights and Obligations of Civil Partners and other Same-Sex Couples Note: This pack is for your information only. It is not intended to be a substitute for legal advice. 1 2 IRISH COUNCIL FOR CIVIL
KNOW YOUR RIGHTS MARRIAGE EQUALITY The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges that the constitutional right to marry extends to same-sex couples. As a result, gay, lesbian, and transgender Texans
KNOW YOUR RIGHTS MARRIAGE EQUALITY The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges that the constitutional right to marry extends to same-sex couples. As a result, gay, lesbian, and transgender Texans
S E R V I N G C A N A D I A N S Marriage and Legal Recognition of Same-sex Unions A Discussion Paper November 2002 Marriage and Legal Recognition of Same-sex Unions A Discussion Paper November 2002 Table
A BRIEF SUMMARY OF FAMILY LAW AS IT AFFECTS LGBT (LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDERED) PERSONS IN FLORIDA By Michael E. Morris, Attorney at Law Updated January 2013 First, this is a summary of some
OVERVIEW OF THE EQUALITY ACT 2010 1. Context A new Equality Act came into force on 1 October 2010. The Equality Act brings together over 116 separate pieces of legislation into one single Act. Combined,
Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 CHAPTER 30 Explanatory Notes have been produced to assist in the understanding of this Act and are available separately 10.75 Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 CHAPTER
Legislative Brief Supreme Court Strikes Down DOMA, Clears Way for Same-Sex Marriage in California On June 26, 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court announced decisions in two significant cases regarding laws affecting
Opinion Poll Missouri Small Businesses Support Workplace Nondiscrimination Policies June 4, 2013 Small Business Majority 1101 14 th Street, NW, Suite 1001 Washington, DC 20005 (202) 828-8357 www.smallbusinessmajority.org
Job Application form Post Applied for: Closing Date: form Job Reference: form Please complete this form in black ink. Applications received after the closing date will not normally be considered. THE INFORMATION
AP PHOTO/GREGORY BULL Collateral Damage How the Defense of Marriage Act Harms the Troops and Undermines the U.S. Military Katie Miller and David McKean February 2013 WWW.AMERICANPROGRESS.ORG Introduction
Supplementary Submission to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Same-Sex: Same Entitlements Australian Lawyers for Human Rights Inc (ALHR) is a national network of Australian lawyers active
Fees and Remissions Although this form is not part of the ET1 it must be returned with the claim form if you are making your claim by post. This will assist our staff in confirming that the correct fee
A guide to marriage For a marriage to be legally recognised in England and Wales it must comply with certain legal requirements. However, many women find that their marriage, although formally recognised
Materials Provided by Shelley Bishop and Matt Voorhees Same Sex Marriage & Related Issues in Missouri Program Description: A survey of the status of the law, same sex dissolution and custody issues, the
ONE OF US, questionnaire on bioethics f o r candidates for European elections 2014 Europe, protection of life and respect for human dignity Last year, almost 2,000,000 EU citizens all over the 28 Member
I Corinthians 7:10-16 Divorce and Remarriage What follows is a copy of some of my notes on the subject of divorce and remarriage from my web site apttoteach.org. I Corinthians 7 10 But to the married I
Module 5: Sex: Sodomy and Gay Marriage Introduction Perhaps none of the topics discussed in this course has received as much attention in the early years of this century as those associated with homosexuality.
The Sanctity of Marriage I. Introduction We believe marriage is a gift from God for the blessing of men, women and children and for the good of society. However, given the present practice of cohabitation
FAQ EDUCATION What education will be required for Soldiers and their families when repeal occurs? Soldiers will be informed of the change in policy and expectations for behavior. Members involved in certain
Equality assessment toolkit Guidance and forms January 2012 Translations and other formats For information on obtaining this publication in another language or in a largeprint or Braille version please
Flash Eurobarometer EUROPEAN YOUTH: PARTICIPATION IN DEMOCRATIC LIFE REPORT Fieldwork: April 2013 Publication: May 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for