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1 presentation presentation Research, innovation and scientific development constitute themes that are inseparable from the mission attributed to the Secretariat of Science, Technology and Marine Innovation (SecCTM) in terms of knowledge. Therefore, SecTM, with the cooperation from the Research Institute of the Navy (IPqM), the Center of Analysis of Naval Systems (CASNAV) and Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira (IEAPM), is grateful to present the 26th edition of its scientific journal to the readers. This journal uncontestedly corroborates the model of SecCTM, Imperium per Scientia (Sovereignty for Sciente), and tries to disseminate, in Brazilian society and inside the Force itself, the need for scientific investigation, which, in turn, constitutes one of the main and vital basis for the growth of our country. Brazil lives a new reality, including a major spectrum of challenges in the technological field. In this sense, it is possible to recognize that studies carried out in the Brazilian Navy, more specifically in its Institutes of Science and Technology, are currently considered to be significantly representative, and known in Brazil and abroad for the quality and relevance of its projects. In this context, the Brazilian Navy, in accordance with the needs resulting from the fulfilment of its constitutional mission defending National Sovereignty with its highly skilled researchers and the unconditional support from the academy, the scientific community and entrepreneurs, has been presenting expressive results to generate more knowledge. This relevant contribution is another effort to consolidate the mentality of science and technology, which will definitely bring beneficial and permanent consequences for national development. SecCTM, through Revista Pesquisa Naval, has contributed throughout the years to encourage a healthy and essential exchange of knowledge. Since it is a channel used to display the scientific papers in the fields of interest of the Brazilian scientific community, it is always careful about the demands and requirements of society, as well as the challenges of the growing technological development, which can be part of the economic, human or environmental scopes. Therefore, I express my deep acknowledgment and recognition to all of those who, directly or indirectly, participated with dedication and effort to produce this Issue, which reflects the high standard of research carried out in the Brazilian Navy and in the Brazilian society. Finally, we would like to invite you to enjoy the knowledge in these pages. Enjoy your reading! SeRGIO ROBERTO FERNANDES DOS SANTOS Admiral Secretary of Science, Technology and Marine Innovation Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p. 1 1

2 Operational Environment SPECIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN ACOUSTIC MODEM FOR UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION Especificação, desenvolvimento e validação de um modem acústico para comunicação submarina Jefferson Osowsky 1, Fábio Contrera Xavier 2, Celso Marino Diniz 3, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões 4, Leonardo Martins Barreira 5 Abstract: This study aims to present the specification, development and validation of an acoustic modem prototype for underwater communication. It stemmed from an acoustic communication experiment, aimed at transmitting and receiving short texts in Morse code through a narrowband digital channel. In this first version, the modem uses frequency shift keying (FSK) modulation/demodulation to send/receive data to/from the receiver. Before transmission, to improve its reliability, data are coded via a convolutional forward error correction (FEC) code and then interleaved in order to reduce distortion caused by the communication channel and the burst error between successive symbols, respectively. A recent data transmission/reception experiment in a shallow water communication channel has been conducted in May 2012 at Enseada dos Anjos, Rio de Janeiro, to assess the performance of the first prototype. Keywords: Digital Communication. Underwater Communication. Underwater Acoustic. Underwater Acoustic Modem. Frequency Shift Keying Modulation. Forward Error Correction Code. Convolutional Coding. Resumo: Este trabalho visa apresentar a especificação, desenvolvimento e validação de um protótipo de modem acústico para comunicação submarina. Este trabalho surgiu a partir de um experimento de comunicação acústica que tinha por objetivo transmitir e receber textos curtos em código Morse através de um canal digital de banda estreita. Nesta primeira versão, o modem utiliza a modulação e demodulação por chaveamento de frequência (frequency shift keying - FSK) na transmissão e recepção dos dados, respectivamente. Antes da transmissão, para melhorar sua confiabilidade, os dados são processados por um código de correção antecipativo de erro (forward error correction - FEC) convolucional e então embaralhados (do inglês, interleaved) de forma a reduzir a distorção causada pelo canal de comunicação e o erro de burst entre símbolos contíguos, respectivamente. Um experimento recente de transmissão/recepção de dados em um canal de comunicação em águas rasas foi realizado em Maio 2012 na Enseada dos Anjos, Rio de Janeiro, para avaliar o desempenho deste primeiro protótipo. Palavras-chave: Comunicação Digital. Comunicação Submarina. Acústica Submarina. Modem Acústico Submarino. Modulação por Chaveamento de Frequência. Código de Correção Antecipativa de Erro. Codificação Convolucional. 1. Doctoral Student in Computational Modeling, National Laboratory for Scientific Computation Petrópolis, RJ Brazil. Fellow of DTI/CNPq, Underwater Communication Division, Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro Brazil Master s Degree Student in Oceanic Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil. Assistant in the Underwater Communication Division, Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro Brazil Electronic Engineer, Universidade Estadual de Campinas Campinas, SP Brazil Doctoral Student in Oceanic Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brasil. Supervisor of the Underwater Acoustics Group, Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira Arraial do Cabo, RJ Brazil Doctor in Oceanic Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brasil. Supervisor of the Underwater Acoustic Systems Group, Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha Ilha do Governador, RJ Brazil. 2 Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p. 2-10

3 Jefferson Osowsky, Fábio Contrera Xavier, Celso Marino Diniz, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões, Leonardo Martins Barreira 1. INTRODUCTION Over the years, underwater acoustic communication has been attracting attention from research institutes around the world due to its potential application in fields such as oceanography, oil and gas and naval defense (CHITRE et al., 2008a; CHITRE et al., 2008b; LACOVARA, 2008). In addition, given the ease with which sound travels in the ocean, acoustic communication is a more suitable method for transmitting and receiving data compared to electromagnetic communication. For example, the attenuation of a 1kHz electromagnetic wave propagating in the ocean is approximately 60 times greater than the attenuation of an acoustic wave in the same frequency. On the other hand, high-speed communication in underwater acoustic channels is challenging because of the narrow bandwidth, the multiple paths of the transmitted signal and the Doppler effect, among other limiting factors (LACOVARA, 2008; LI et al., 2008a, 2008b). In literature, there are studies that aim to reduce some of these effects through the use of multi-carrier modulation (BERGER et al., 2010; LI et al., 2008b; YEUNG et al., 2003), in particular, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM (CARRASCOSA; STOJANOVIC, 2010; LI et al., 2008a; LEE et al., 2006; TU et al., 2011), including in shallow water acoustics, where the effect of multiple paths is enhanced (PANARO et al., 2012; RADOSEVIC et al., 2010). Therefore, in this type of data communication, many yet unsolved problems can be found. In this study, the authors briefly present the stages of development of an acoustic modem prototype, implemented in a MatLab environment, and the preliminary results obtained in the transmission/reception of data via an underwater acoustic channel, in shallow waters, subject to additive noise, treated as a white Gaussian process (additive white Gaussian noise AWGN). The objective of this project is the development of a fully national acoustic modem that can be incorporated into the communication systems of the Brazilian Navy. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the experiment that led to the design of the acoustic modem prototype for underwater communication; Section 3 describes the development of this prototype to date; the results, achieved by another study, conducted at Enseada dos Anjos and its findings, are presented in Sections 4 and 5, respectively. 2. HISTORY The underwater acoustic modem prototype arose from the implementation of a simple, howevr effective acoustic communication code developed in a Matlab environment by researchers of the Underwater Acoustics Group (UAG) of Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira (IEAPM), whose main objective was the narrowband transmission of texts in Morse code. This experiment consisted of two modules: transmission/encoding module (MTx) and receiving/decoding module (MRx). The communication protocol specified for this initial experiment was based on the rule of dots, dashes and pauses described by Morse code, i.e., a point is encoded as a form of continuous waveform (CW) with duration of 0.3 seconds, and unit amplitude; a dash was represented by the combination of three consecutive points. Furthermore, a pause, encoded as a silence period equals to the dot separated dots and dashes. Two letters and two words are separated by two and three pauses, respectively. As an illustration of this protocol, the signal encoding the text MARINHA DO BRASIL (Brazilian Navy) is shown in Figure 1. Given any text, the MTx module was responsible for encoding it in Morse code symbols to build the signal to be sent, s(t), from the protocol described above. Note that, as the implementation of the modules was conducted in a MatLab environment, the signal s(t) was discretized into a s[k] sequence, with a sampling frequency of 44,1 khz. The discrete s[k] was then transmitted to the computer s audio output port, connected to an audio amplifier and an acoustic source. Thus, the sound energy was carried by an underwater channel, herein assumed to be AWGN, whose characteristic is to add noise w(t) with mean µ and variance σ 2 to the signal s(t). In the MRx module, the received signal s[k] + w[k] was acquired via hydrophone, scanned within a time window of 13 ms and with sampling frequency equals Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

4 Jefferson Osowsky, Fábio Contrera Xavier, Celso Marino Diniz, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões, Leonardo Martins Barreira a A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z b M A R I N H A D O B R A S I L Figure 1. example of a signal transmitted by MTx. (A) morse code symbols for the alphabet; (B) text encoded by the protocol of this experiment, MARINHA DO BRASIL (Brazilian Navy). AWGN channel MTx Audio output + w(t) s[k] s(t) Text s[k] + w[k] s(t) + w(t) Text MRx Audio input Figure 2. Block diagram of the underwater communication system using Morse code. to 44,1 khz. Then, the spectrum of the discrete signal s[k] + w[k] was analyzed and its density was calculated (OPPENHEIM; SCHAFER, 1999). If the spectral density was greater than a threshold, dependent on w(t) at that instant, the signal was detected and synchronized in time for a more efficient decoding. Finally, s[k] was identified and decoded in real time. Figure 2 shows the block diagram for this system. Note that the results of this experiment, conducted in IEAPM s test acoustic tank, enabled the development of acoustic modem prototype for underwater communication to be described in the next section. 4 Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p. 2-10

5 Jefferson Osowsky, Fábio Contrera Xavier, Celso Marino Diniz, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões, Leonardo Martins Barreira 3. THE UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC MODEM In the first step of this project, some research was made on modulation techniques and modulation to improve the performance of the previous experiment, which, until then, had its effectiveness ensured in a controlled environment. Among the existing modulation techniques, digital modulation (frequency shift keying FSK) was used for its simplicity and reliability. In short, this modulation consists of associating each symbol to be transmitted to a specific sinusoidal pulse frequency with default duration. Thus, the data become a series of pulses modulated into n different frequencies, being transmitted sequentially to the communication channel (WATSON, 1980). In order to reduce the bit error rate (BER) and raise the data transmission rate (bits per second - bps) in this type of communication channel, a more robust and effective protocol was specified, causing MTx and MRx modules to be redesigned. First, the 16-FSK modulation was chosen, with 16 different switching frequencies (channels), which allows the transmission of 4 bits per symbol. The frequency f Ck of each channel was defined as f Ck = f 0 + (k - 1) Δf, k = 1,..., 16, where f 0 and Δf are the lowest frequency used in modulation and the spacing between channels, respectively. The channel in position k modulates the 4-bit sequence that represents the number k in binary base, i.e, the binary data 0111 is transformed into k = 7 in decimal base, which, in turn, will be modulated by channel 7, with frequency equals to f C7 = f 0 + 6Δf. The format of the communication protocol is illustrated in Figure 3 and is described as follows. The message is packaged so that at the beginning and end of each transmission, a CW_STT signal, indicating its beginning, and a CW_STP signal, indicating its end, are sent, lasting f CW seconds and with frequency f CW, used in the demodulation phase as an indicative of the beginning and end times of the message, allowing the received signal to be analyzed within a known time window, thus facilitating synchrony, detection and decoding of the symbols. Each symbol (SYMB #k), k = 1,..., N, is encoded by a pulse with duration equals to ts + tg seconds, and in first seconds is the sinusoidal pulse that identifies the modulation channel of 16-FSK channel, as previously described. After this pulse comes a pause or silence of tg seconds, to reduce the effect of intersymbol interference caused primarily by delay spread, due to the multiple paths to which it is subjected during its propagating in the transmission medium (VITERBI; OMURA, 1979). It should be noted that an acoustic communication channel in shallow water has a long delay spread. Note that, in Figure 3, the pulse that identifies each of the symbols in the message is not defined by a pure sinusoidal signal, but by the multiplication of a sinusoidal signal through a window whose shape resembles that of a sine wave that measures half a cycle, known in literature as Hanning window, whose main features are the efficient distinction between low and high amplitude signals with close frequencies; the attenuation of side lobes; and the significant reduction of the signal s spectral leakage (OPPENHEIM; SCHAFER, 1999). During reception, at first, the CW_STT and CW_ STP pulses must be identified in the discrete signal received, s[k], thus allowing only the existing sequence between these markers, hereafter named {s}, to be routed to the FSK demodulation process. In this step, the {s} sequence is divided into {s}t subsequences with duration equals to ts + tg seconds, which are analyzed by a bank of digital band-pass filters, each tuned to a frequency f Ck, k = 1,..., 16, which identifies the channel received. However, because {s}t is corrupted by noise inherent in the means of communication, delay spread and fading due to multipath and Doppler shift, this procedure must be performed via a decision algorithm that analyzes the probability of the frequency f Ck being present in {s}t. Finally, the symbol corresponding to the channel that has the highest probability of having been received is stored in a buffer. To date, in addition to 16-FSK modulation and demodulation stages of the signal transmitted and received, respectively, the MTx and MRx modules perform three other functions illustrated in the block diagrams in Figure 4. These functions are briefly described as follows. ASCII (binary) to binary (ASCII) converter: converts a character in the ASCII table to their representation in binary, and vice versa. For example, character A is represented in the ASCII table by the integer 65, which, transformed into binary, becomes Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

6 Jefferson Osowsky, Fábio Contrera Xavier, Celso Marino Diniz, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões, Leonardo Martins Barreira CW_STT SYMB #1 SYMB #2 SYMB #3 SYMB #N CW_STP t cw t g t s t g t s t g t s t s t g t cw Figure 3. Specification of communication protocol of the underwater acoustic modem. Transmission/Encoding Module (MTx) ASCII 2 BIN converter convolutional coder interleaver 16-FSK modulator Reception/Decoding Module (MRx) 16-FSK demodulator convolutional coder deinterleaver ASCII 2 BIN converter Figure 4. Modules deployed to the underwater communication system. Convolutional encoder (decoder) (MUNIZ, 2011; VITERBI; OMURA, 1979): its main function is to add redundancy bits to the bit sequence containing the desired information, so that it can be retrieved at its destination even if the distortion caused by the communication channel has corrupted some of the original bits. This technique is part of the FEC codes class. Regarding the decoder, the Viterbi algorithm (VA) was used for having the best performance in relation to others from a probabilistic viewpoint. The VA infers the values in the input sequence of bits received and distorted by the communication channel to produce an output sequence with the highest probability of being transmitted. In this process, corrupted bits can be corrected. (De)Scrambler (VITERBI; OMURA, 1979): Most communication channels, in practice, have a statistical dependency between contiguous symbols transmitted. These are called channels with memory and significantly degrade the performance of encoders designed to operate in memory-less channels. This is because this memory reduces the number of independent degrees of freedom of the transmitted signals, causing the burst error (ELLIOTT, 1963). If the number of wrong contiguous symbols exceeds the code error correction capability (forward error correction - FEC), the decoder fails in recovering the original signal in its entirety. One technique used to reduce the error burst so as to improve the performance of the FEC and that requires no prior knowledge about the memory of the communication 6 Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p. 2-10

7 Jefferson Osowsky, Fábio Contrera Xavier, Celso Marino Diniz, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões, Leonardo Martins Barreira channel, since, in practice, this is impossible, is scrambling bits in the signal to be transmitted, thus eliminating the dependency between contiguous bits. The scrambling separates two adjacent bits from an FEC encoder at a distance L so that, after this process, the statistical memory between consecutive bits is reduced. For example, in the binary sequence 1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1 {, the numbers in subscript indicate the bit position in the sequence, given that L = 1 is the separation between bits in the scrambler. Then, the output signal of the scrambler, having as input the above sequence, would be { 1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1, Note that the higher the value of L, the lower the statistical dependence between the symbols. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In order to evaluate the performance of this first underwater acoustic communication system developed by UAG/ IEAPM, simulations were conducted first in a Matlab environment. In this context, a set with uniform random distribution containing 2,000 bytes was generated. This sequence of bytes was encoded by MTx in order to obtain the modulated signal to be transmitted. The acoustic modem configuration parameters were as follows: f 0 = Hz, Δf = 235 Hz, ts = 10 ms, tg = 50 ms, t Cw = 30 ms, f Cw = Hz and code rate equals to. These figures were taken from the analysis of the operational spectral range of the projector and the hydrophone used in the experiment conducted in Enseada dos Anjos, and from the analysis of the fading that occurs in this communication channel. A white Gaussian noise (AWG) or an impulse noise (IMP) was added to this signal, in order to generate a noisy signal with data (signal-to-noise ratio SNR) which was then processed by the MRx developed in this laboratory. The results achieved for BER versus SNR for both noises before and after the decoding process curves in blue and red, respectively are shown in Figure 5. The experiment conducted to evaluate the performance of a prototype underwater acoustic modem in a real environment took place in May 2012 in Enseada dos Anjos, Arraial do Cabo, RJ. The hydrophone used, model ITC 1001, was anchored in Praia dos Anjos at a depth of 7,3 meters and the sound source, model Lubell 1424HP, was { { installed in the AvPqOc (Oceanographic Research Vessel) Diadorim, 3 meters deep and 1,180 3,400 meters away from the hydrophone. The message chosen for this modem s performance test was the pangram in English the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog, which has the characteristic of comprehending all the letters in the alphabet, repeated 5 times with a space between sentences, totaling 219 characters, i.e., 1,752 bits. The same modem configuration parameters used in the Matlab simulations were kept. Note that, with a code rate equal to 1/2, the total number of bits transmitted was Six messages were transmitted from AvPqOc Diadorim and processed offline by the algorithm described in this article. As an example of the message transmission and reception procedure, the graphics containing the first 7 seconds of the signals transmitted and received, respectively, are shown in Figures 6a and 6c. In addition, Figures 6b and 6d show their respective spectrograms, in which the red color indicates the symbol that was transmitted by the respective channel. To evaluate the modem s performance, BERs were calculated before and after the decoding step for each message. It is noteworthy that the BER obtained before decoding is calculated from the bits received results shown in dark blue in Figure 7 and the BER obtained after the decoding is calculated with the 1,752 bits of the original message results shown in light blue in Figure 7. The best performance was obtained for the message labeled 28May , with BER (1) = and BER (2) = , being BER (1) before decoding (undecoded), and BER (2), after decoding (decoded), and the worst result was obtained by message 28May , BER (1) = and BER (2) = For this dataset, the mean BER corresponds to the following values: BER (2) = It should be noted that, in view of the BERs obtained before and after the decoding block, the convolutional encoding method applied to the version of this modem is efficient and robust, significantly correcting errors that occur during data transmission. For example, for messages 28May and 28May , their BER (1) are 44.91% and % higher than their BER (2), respectively. Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

8 Jefferson Osowsky, Fábio Contrera Xavier, Celso Marino Diniz, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões, Leonardo Martins Barreira 10 0 AWG - undecoded IMP - undecoded AWG - decoded IMP - decoded 10-1 BER SNR (db) Figure 5. Results of simulations conducted in Matlab for a 2,000 byte message. a Amplitude C Amplitude 1 Signal transmitted Duration (s) 1 Signal received Duration (s) b Frequency (Hz) D Frequency (Hz) Spectrogram of the signal transmitted Duration (s) Spectrogram of the signal received Duration (s) Figure 6. Signals transmitted and received by the acoustic underwater modem during the first 7 seconds. (A) signal transmitted and (B) its spectrogram; (C) signal received and (D) its spectrogram. 8 Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p. 2-10

9 Jefferson Osowsky, Fábio Contrera Xavier, Celso Marino Diniz, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões, Leonardo Martins Barreira May May May May May May BER Médio Results before decoding Results after decoding meters 1180 meters 2100 meters 2480 meters 3400 meters 3400 meters Figure 7. BERs of messages transmitted during the validation test of the acoustic modem and its average value. 5. CONCLUSIONS In this work, the design and implementation stages of an acoustic modem for underwater communication, emulated by software with 16-FSK modulation and convolutional coding, was described, and preliminary results obtained during its validation were presented. Given the results of the experiment in Enseada dos Anjos, the following changes are being implemented: insertion of a chirp signal in place of signals CW_STT and CW_STP seeking to improve synchronism between transmitter and receiver; selection of frequencies f Ck of channels in order to make them orthogonal, two by two, in order to reduce the intersymbol interference; replacement of band-pass digital filter banks with a bank of matched filters in order to improve the identification of the channel received by maximizing its signal-to-noise ratio (NORTH, 1963; SUSSMAN, 1960; TURIN, 1960); correction of the Doppler effect via interpolation techniques; and use of adaptive equalization techniques to compensate the distortive effects of the communication channel. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the crew of AvPqOc Diadorim for the constant support in the various experiments conducted by the UAG; 1st Lt. (EN) Vale, 1st Lt. (RM2-T) Giuseppe, Sub-Officer-EL (RM1) Nonato and trainee Marcos Felipe Medeiros for the conduction and organization of and effective participation in the experiment conducted at Enseada dos Anjos; the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the financial support granted, under grant number /2012-5/DTI. It is worth noting that study has the financial support of the Department of Science, Technology and Innovation of the Brazilian Navy (SecCTM), under protocol number TC 53000/ /2011. Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

10 Jefferson Osowsky, Fábio Contrera Xavier, Celso Marino Diniz, Marcus Vinícius da Silva Simões, Leonardo Martins Barreira REFEReNCeS BERGER, C.R.; ZHOU, S.; PREISIG, J.C.; WILLETT, P. Sparce Channel Estimation for Multicarrier Underwater Acoustic Communication: From Subspace Methods to Compressed Sensing. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, v. 58, n. 3, p , CARRASCOSA, P.C.; STOJANOVIC, M. Adaptative Channel Estimation and Data Detection for Underwater Acoustic MIMO- OFDM Systems. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, v. 35, n. 3, p , CHITRE, M.; SHAHABUDEEN, S.; STOJANOVIC, M. Underwater Acoustic Communications and Networking: Recent Advances and Future Challenges, Marine Technology Society Journal, v. 42, n. 1, p , CHITRE, M.; SHAHABUDEEN, S.; FREITAG, L.; STOJANOVIC, M. Recent Advances in Underwater Acoustic Communications & Networking. In: MTS/IEEE OCEANS 08 Conf., de setembro, Cidade de Quebec, Canadá, ELLIOTT, E.O. Estimates of Error Rates for Codes on Burst-Noise Channels, Bell System Technical Journal, v. 42, n. 5, p , LACOVARA, P. High-Bandwidth Underwater Communications, Marine Technology Society Journal, v. 42, n. 1, p , LI, B.; HUANG, J.; ZHOU, S.; BALL, K.; STOJANOVIC, M.; FREITAG, L.; WILLETT, P. Further Results on High-Rate MIMO-OFDM Underwater Acoustic Communications. In: MTS/IEEE OCEANS 08 Conf., de setembro, Cidade de Quebec, Canadá, LI, B.; ZHOU, S.; STOJANOVIC, M.; FREITAG, L.; WILLETT, P. Multicarrier Communication over Underwater Acoustic Channels with Nonuniform Doppler Shifts. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, v. 33, n. 2, p , LEE, J.; LOU, H-L.; TOUMPAKARIS, D.; CIOFFI, J.M. SNR Analysis of OFDM Systems in the Presence of Carrier Frequency Offset for Fading Channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication, v. 5, n. 12, p , MUNIZ, D.A. Decodificador de Viterbi com Complexidade Reduzida Baseado no Algoritmo-M e na Treliça Mínima Dissertação de Mestrado: CPGEI/UTFPR, Curitiba (PR) NORTH, D.O. An Analysis of the Factors which Determine Signal/ Noise Discrimination in Pulsed-Carrier Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, v. 51, n. 7, p , OPPENHEIM, A.V.; SCHAFER, R.W. Discrete-Time Signal Processing, NJ, EUA: Prentice Hall, PANARO, J.S.G.; LOPES, F.R.B.; BARREIRA, L.M.; SOUZA, F.E. Underwater Acoustic Noise Model for Shallow Water Communications. Aceito no XXX Simpósio Brasileiro de Telecomunicações, de setembro, Brasília, Brasil, RADOSEVIC, A.; FERTONANI, D.; DUMAN, T.M.; PROAKIS, J.G.; STOJANOVIC, M. Capacity of MIMO Systems in Shallow Water Acoustic Channels. In: 44a. Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Systems and Computers, de novembro, Pacific Grove, EUA, SUSSMAN, S. A Matched Filter Communication System for Multipath Channels. IRE Transactions on Information Theory, v. 6, n. 3, p , TU, K.; Fertonani D.; Duman T. M.; Stojanovic M.; Proakis J. G.; Hursky P. Mitigation of Intercarrier Interference for OFDM over Time-Varying Underwater Acoustic Channels. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, v. 36, n. 2, p , TURIN, G. An Introduction to Matched Filters. IRE Transactions on Information Theory, v. 6, n. 3, p , VITERBI, A.J.; OMURA, J.K. Principles of Digital Communications and Coding, EUA: McGrall-Hill, WATSON, B. FSK: Signals and Demodulation. WJ Tech-notes: The Communications Edge, v. 7, n. 5, YEUNG, L.F.; BRADBEER, R.S.; LAW, E.T.M.; WU, A.; LI, B.; GU, Z.G. Underwater Acoustic Modem Multicarrier Modulation. In: OCEANS 03 Conf., de setembro, San Diego, EUA, Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p. 2-10

11 Operational Environment Study of maturity of a project management office model: case of a scientific and technological institution of the brazilian navy Estudo da maturidade do modelo de um escritório de gerenciamento de projetos: o caso de uma instituição científica e tecnológica da Marinha do Brasil Fernanda Gomes Fontes 1, Stella Regina Reis da Costa 2 Abstract: This article presents the study of the evaluation of the level of maturity of an existing project management model in a scientific and technological institution of the Brazilian Navy. A self-assessment questionnaire of the applicable functions of the Project Management Office (PMO) in the studied military organization, based on the PMO Maturity Cube model, was administered to generate results concerning the current and desired levels of maturity. The main finding of the case study was the alignment of functions with the leading roles of a PMO, which was highlighted by most of the respondents. To improve the procedures and the level of organizational maturity in project management, some recommendations are made to the studied PMO. Keywords: Project Management. PMBOK. Project Management Office. PMO Maturity Cube. Organizational Maturity. Resumo: Este artigo apresenta o estudo da avaliação do nível de maturidade do modelo de gerenciamento de projetos existente em uma Instituição Científica e Tecnológica (ICT) da Marinha do Brasil (MB). A abordagem metodológica utilizada consiste na aplicação de um questionário de autoavaliação, baseado no modelo PMO Maturity Cube, buscando obter uma avaliação a respeito do nível, tanto atual quanto pretendido, das funções organizacionais cabíveis ao Escritório de Gerenciamento de Projetos, em inglês, Project Management Office (PMO), existente na Organização Militar (OM) estudada. Como um dos principais resultados decorrentes do caso estudado, pode-se destacar o alinhamento das funções identificadas pela maioria dos entrevistados com os principais papéis de um PMO. Visando à elevação do nível da maturidade organizacional em gerenciamento de projetos, são feitas recomendações para os procedimentos pertinentes ao PMO. Palavras-chave: Gerenciamento de Projetos. PMBOK. Escritório de Gerenciamento de Projetos. PMO Maturity Cube. Maturidade Organizacional. 1. INTRODUCTION In the current context of globalized economy, which is marked by fierce competition, very demanding clients, and extreme dynamism, companies constantly seek to excel in the corporate world. In this quest, these companies face the challenge of adapting to a fierce competition and scarcity of resources while not deviating from their strategic planning. In this respect, there is a growing understanding that the adoption and development of a project management methodology is an important factor in generating results aligned to the strategic objectives of an organization. According to 1. Master in Management Systems, Universidade Federal Fluminense Niterói, RJ Brazil. Civil servant of the Marine Systems Analysis Center Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil PhD in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil. Professor in Universidade Federal Fluminense Niterói, RJ Brazil. Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

12 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa Kerzner (2002), project management generates competitive advantage and improves efficiency and effectiveness, contributing to the company s survival. As a theoretical basis to project management, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) was created in 1987 and is currently in its fifth edition. It is a recognized standard for project management that describes norms, methods, processes, and a set of established best practices. In addition, the PMBOK Guide provides guidelines, defines management and related concepts, and describes the life cycle of project management and related processes. The Project Management Institute (PMI) considers this standard as the basic reference in project management for its professional development programs and certifications. According to Xavier (2005), PMBOK served as reference for the Brazilian standard NBR ISO 10006: Quality Management Guidelines for Quality Management in Project Management. PMBOK guides the appropriate application and integration of 42 processes categorized into five groups (initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing). These processes are strongly related with each other and consist of information inputs, techniques, and tools to transform information into a result that can be an input to another process. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the five groups with the Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) cycle. Initiating Planning PMBOK Processes Closing Figure 1. Diagram of the five project management groups and the PDCA cycle. Source: Jim Hertzfeld (2006). & Controlling Executing According to Kerzner (2002), the implementation of project management constitutes advanced project management, whose practice depends on the existence of a minimal infrastructure to support project managers and teams, such as standardization, resources, and information systems. To this end, companies have implemented organizational structures, to which are assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of projects under their domain. These structures are known as Project Management Offices (PMOs). According to Crawford (2002), the PMO is the organizational structure established to facilitate project management activities and to improve the administration of the organization through portfolio management and alignment of projects with corporate strategy. As the focus of project management switched from theory to its implementation, the concept of maturity in the project management came into being, which, according to Kerzner (2002), is the development of repetitive processes and systems to increase the probability of success of the projects submitted to them Objectives Brazilian companies are concentrating investments to achieve better results in their projects. However, failed initiatives due to lack of a consistent approach have been observed, which are often caused by methodologies that are not aligned to the organization s culture and needs. Investigation on the relationship between the level of maturity of an organization and the guidelines established in the PMBOK Guide can help in pointing out improvements for procedures, and also in establishing new metrics to evaluate these factors. This article is the result of research on the organizational maturity in project management. In the general framework, the research that originated this article aimed to verify the level of an organization s maturity in project management through the analysis of the existing project management model in an Institution of Science and Technology (IST) of the Brazilian Navy (BN). It is noteworthy that the focus of this study was on evaluating the maturity in project management of an IST of the BN that provides specialized technical services in different areas. More specifically, it was a self-assessment undertaken 12 Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

13 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa by the division that acts as the PMO in the military organization (MO) studied, with the prospect that it may be extended to their internal clients. Therefore, other aspects of project management were not investigated, and only a few definitions and explanations in the literature were included, with the depth and objectivity necessary for the understanding of basic concepts of organizational maturity and known maturity assessment models Maturity in Project Management The need for innovation in organizations has turned project management into an activity because the use of proper reference models for this purpose and the repetition of actions and practices provide agility and the ability to improve their processes. According to Prado (2008), as the knowledge and practices in project management are incorporated into the company s work, the performance in carrying out projects improves, allowing the optimization of results to the level of excellence. Therefore, project management maturity would be the ease with which an organization manages their projects, and the evolution and maturity of organizations can and should be planned as to allow their renewal and survival. However, this maturity may be at different stages, depending on the organization or its project conduction style, and is influenced by several other factors, such as its structure or the existing culture. This organizational maturity makes it possible to identify success factors and alternatives for correction and prevention of common problems that may impact the improvement of processes. Thus, project maturity consists of using practices that are adequate to the peculiarities of each organization, such as its operation field, complexity, size, and available resources, according to their planning and actions taken for the acquisition of skills. In Chart 1, some characteristics of mature and immature organizations are compared. It is also noteworthy that project management maturity has a life cycle experienced by the majority of companies. This cycle is depicted in Chart 2. The assessment of maturity level is done by comparing the parameters of the analyzed organization or area in the management of current and desired projects, as well as providing guidance to achieve the goals. Moreover, it is an effective benchmarking tool among the organization s own processes or compared with other companies to identify practices that generate better results for its business. According to Prado (2008), the mechanism that quantifies the ability of organizations in this context is the maturity model, which, in addition to aiding in the evaluation of the maturity level, helps the organization to prepare a plan for growth and improvement in this aspect. Still according to Prado (2008), maturity models are organized into levels, and companies whose projects are aligned with their strategies are usually at the highest levels, which corresponds to the perception that continuous organizational improvement in project management results in the strategic alignment of projects. Maturity models are also observed at the national level. According to PMSURVEY.ORG 2012 report, 23.4% of Brazilian companies said they plan to invest in evaluation and diagnosis of the project management maturity level. Chart 1. Immature organizations versus mature organizations. Immature Organizations Ad hoc; process improvised by professionals and managers. It is not strictly followed and the completion of projects is not controlled. Highly dependent on the professionals involved in the projects. Low vision of quality progress. Product functionality and quality can be compromised so that deadlines are met. Risky from the standpoint of the use of new technology. Excessive maintenance costs. Source: Adapted from Carvalho and Rabechini (2008). Mature Organizations Consistent with the lines of action, the work is effectively completed. The completion of projects is agreed upon, documented and improved continuously. Visible support from senior management and other managers. Well controlled fidelity to the project management process is audited and monitored. Product and process measurements are used. Disciplined use of technology. Planned and controlled costs. Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

14 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa Chart 2. Lifecycle of maturity in project management. Early Stages Recognize the need Recognize the benefits Recognize the applicability Recognize what needs to be done Acceptance by Executive Management Get visible support from executives Make executives understand project management Establish promoters at the executive level Be willing to change the way the enterprise is conducted Acceptance by Area Managers Get support from area managers Get the commitment of area managers Provide knowledge to area managers Be willing to release staff for training in project management Growth Recognize the usefulness of the life cycle phases Develop a project management methodology Get people to commit to the plan Minimize scope oscillations Set a project tracking system Maturity Develop a management control system for costs and schedule Integrate cost and programming control Develop a training program to improve project management skills Source: Adapted from Kerzner (2006). On the basis of these descriptions, one can observe the importance of understanding how project management maturity influences the results of projects and what is its relationship with the organization s strategy Considerations on PMO Maturity Cube The PMO Maturity Cube model was designed by Américo Pinto and developed together with Marcelo Foresti Cota, with the collaboration of Dr. Ginger Levin. According to Pinto, Cota, and Levin (2012), this model predicts that the PMO creates value for its customers and for the organization as a whole through the functions it performs, which is translated into services. Thus, the maturity of a PMO can be summarized by the degree of sophistication with which it provides each service under its domain. Consequently, there is a need for a self-assessment instrument due to wide range of possible functions of the PMO. Moreover, this maturity assessment model must provide the desirable interaction between the PMO functions while allowing it to identify only the intended functions, thereby generating a review on the existing and perceived needs. This self-assessment instrument should additionally allow the user to register the perceived improvement intentions in the maturity evaluation, which will facilitate the creation of an action plan. The simplicity of the method allows it to be self-administered, without the need for hiring consulting services. 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Following the taxonomy criteria proposed by Vergara (2007), this investigation is classified as an explanatory study, as it aims to clarify which factors contribute, in some way, to the occurrence of certain phenomena. In this study, we sought to investigate the application of the procedures of a PMO and its relation to the level of organizational maturity. Still according to Vergara (2007), this is an applied and field investigation, according to the following concepts: (i) applied, because it is motivated by the need to solve real problems in a practical manner; (ii) field, because it is carried out at the place where the phenomenon occurs or has any information to explain it. The criteria for choosing the case analyzed were defined as follows: (i) the existence of a well-defined organizational structure; (ii) the practice of project management activities; and (iii) an organizational unit with PMO features deployed. On the basis of these criteria, we selected the case of one MO that has adopted the methodology of PMI and provides specialized technical services in the areas of operational research, cryptology, information management, and systems development. 14 Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

15 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa The choice of the model to be applied in this study was based on the experience of the author in the environment under study, the applicability of the questionnaire in the MO, and the novelty of the model. Thus, the PMO Maturity Cube was considered to be an efficient and simple model to be applied as it does not require investment in specific software for compiling the data. The field study instrument applied was a questionnaire containing the PMO Maturity Cube evaluation model. To elucidate the object of the study, some closed questions were added, based on some PMO functions listed by Ortega (2009), which could be carried out in collaborative and consultative virtual environments. To verify the feasibility of application of the PMO Maturity Cube model questionnaire to the PMO under study, an expert in project management from the MO studied validated the questions. As a result, 85% of the questions were adjusted to the activities performed by this organizational unit. In view of the recommendation by the authors of the PMO Maturity Cube model that the questionnaire should be applied only to the components of the PMO, due to the predominance of technical language, eight test questionnaires were used to identify possible difficulties in the understanding of these terms and in the completion of the questionnaire. No problems that could compromise the data analysis were observed, and therefore, it was not considered necessary to establish mechanisms for clarification of terminology, in addition to those already used in the presentation of the questionnaire. The quantitative analysis used descriptive statistics, and the qualitative analysis was conducted by the author s perception of the results, in order to indicate actions to fill the identified gaps Criteria of the PMO Maturity Cube model Each stage corresponds to a specific score and, upon completion of the questionnaire; total scores corresponding to the current situation and to the situation desired by the organization are obtained, divided into the strategic, tactical, and operational approaches. On the basis of these scores, levels of current and desired maturity are calculated. The current maturity level in each approach is calculated by comparing the score on the current situation of the organization with the maximum possible score to be obtained in the model. The desired maturity level, in turn, is calculated by comparing the scores relative to the desired situation in the organization with the maximum possible score to be obtained for the model. The current maturity and the desired maturity levels are represented in percentages. The current maturity level represents the extent to which the PMO adheres to all the services possible of a PMO at its highest stage of maturity. In turn, the desired maturity level represents the level the PMO would like to achieve in a situation in which it would be fully adherent to its goals and mission, considering only the services that really of interest to it, at the expected maturity levels. Maturity levels are classified according to Table Considerations on the case under study The PMO under study, which was established in 2003, underwent a thorough reform in 2008, focusing more heavily on the elaboration of models and controls that could help with the managerial tasks while allowing a greater integration of the various stages of the project. Currently, this PMO works with an approximate portfolio of 60 projects, with different characteristics and budgets, with a team of four professionals. The PMO has a project management model, with standardized methodology and controls strongly implanted. This model is very dynamic, always seeking to offer solutions to any problems and adapting to the needs of managers and the senior management. Thus, the PMO operates predominantly in the integration management, scope, time, cost, and human resources. The guidelines determined by Table 1. Classification of maturity level by percentage obtained. Classification of Percentage Obtained Maturity Level 0 x 33 Basic 34 x 66 Intermediate 67 x 100 Advanced Source: Pinto, Cota and Levin (2012). Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

16 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa the PMO are described in the form of operational procedures, which are organized in a quality management system, accessible by all in the MO. In this respect, there is a system to support a part of these processes but it was developed in a limited application, which does not issue the necessary warnings, functioning more as an information repository. For this reason, other tools are required to consolidate all information needed for providing assistance to the senior management. Also, there is a database for material resources and services provided by another department of the MO, as well as individual spreadsheets, prepared manually by other sectors, for their own control. Thus, the mobilization of various sectors of the MO is needed for the extraction of the information required. It is noteworthy that some of these spreadsheets, due to being prepared manually, can cause unintentional errors in highly sensitive information, which can generate critical distortions. 3. RESULTS To allow a better visualization of the results obtained, the results were structured according to the component parts of the questionnaire Part 1: Respondent s Profile Table 2 shows average period of service of the respondents in the MO, as well as the average period occupying their current position. The high average period of service in the MO, observed in all positions, may indicate a high familiarity with the organizational structure and culture. It is clear, too, that respondents report not having occupied their current positions for long, showing that most of them are contemporary to the new structure of the PMO. This, however, may reveal little knowledge of the activities carried out by the PMO, in particular by managers and assistants. Although the division supervisors average period occupying that position is even lower, they generally occupy this position after having worked as a manager or assistant, which apparently indicates a greater organizational experience Part 2 Project Management Office Maturity Cube Model As the PMO Maturity Cube is a self-assessment tool, each respondent performed their individual assessment. The final consolidation of the questionnaires completed by PMO components was performed according to the following criteria, as indicated by the model s authors: (i) According to the lowest rating, in the case of the current maturity level; (ii) According to the highest rating, in the case of the desired maturity level. Considering that this study aimed to verify the ability of the model s questionnaire to extend to other than the components of the PMO, a new criterion will be presented for the consolidation of these values, which may ultimately enable the assessment of the PMO s maturity by these other players. It is the use of the mode measure that presents optimal representation for a large number of observations, rather than minimum and maximum, initially indicated in the model. Mode is a measure of position and the value that occur most often in a set of numbers (SPIEGEL, 1977, p. 74). For a better analysis, this part will be divided by the assessment group into: (i) PMO components; (ii) division supervisors; and (iii) managers or assistants Project Management Office components (using Minimum and Maximum) Table 3 shows that the three types of approaches set out in the model (strategic, tactical, and operational) had a balanced score, at the current level, in the assessment made by Table 2. Average period of service per position. Position PMO component Division supervisor Manager or assistant Average Period of Service in MO 18 years and 1 month 11 years and 11 months 8 years and 9 months Average Period of Service in Current Position 3 years and 5 months 1 year and 7 months 3 years and 7 months PMO: Project Management Office; MO: military organization. 16 Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

17 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa table 3. Score obtained for the current and desired levels, by approach, in the assessment by the Project Management Office components. Maturity Levels Approach Strategic Tactic Operational Current Desired the PMO components. However, a large gap between the current and desired levels can be observed. This shows the perception, by the PMO components, of a need for maturation of the functions they perform. Regarding the categorization of the PMO s maturity for each approach, Graph 1 shows that currently the PMO is at the basic level (between 0 and 33%). It can also be observed that currently the PMO acts with a slight tendency to operational approach. This is consistent with its reality, since shortly after its restructuring in mid-2008, the main focus was the development of management models for project planning and control. As for the desired level, the three areas of approach were at the advanced level (between 67 and 100%), with a slight predominance of the strategic and operational approaches. % % 93.10% 95.65% 16.67% 13.79% 17.39% Strategic Tactic Operational Approach Current Desired Division Supervisors (using the Mode Measure) Table 4 shows that the three approaches (strategic, tactical, and operational) have a balanced scoring at the current level, in the assessment made by the division supervisors. One can also see a wide gap between the current and the desired levels. Regarding the categorization of the PMO s maturity for each approach, Graph 2 shows that currently, in the perception of the division supervisors, the PMO is at the basic level (between 0 and 33%) in the three approaches, with a tendency to the operational and tactical approaches, and the latter shows a slight preponderance. As for the desired level, the three areas of approach were at the advanced level (between 67 and 100%), with an emphasis on operational and strategic approaches Managers or Assistants (using the Mode Measure) Table 5 shows that two approach levels (strategic and tactical) have balanced scoring, at the current level, in Graph 1. Maturity index by approach, in the assessment by the Project Management Office components. the assessment made for the managers or assistants. One can also see a large difference between the current and desired levels. Regarding the categorization of the PMO s maturity for each approach, Graph 3 shows that currently, in the perception of managers or assistants, the PMO is at the basic level (between 0 and 33%) in operational and strategic approaches, and at the intermediate level (between 34 and 66%) in tactical approach. As for the desired level, the three areas of approach were at the advanced level (between 67 and 100%), with predominance of the strategic approach PART 3 - CLOSeD QueSTIONS PReSeNTeD IN THe APPeNDIX In this part of the questionnaire, 19 possible functions to be performed by a PMO, to check the current stage of service provision and the possibilities for the future, were included. Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

18 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa table 4. Score obtained for the current and desired levels, by approach, in the assessment by the division supervisors, using the mode measure. Maturity Levels Approach Strategic Tactic Operational Current Desired % ,33% 89,66% 95,65% There was no convergence on the functions considered indifferent to being implemented by the participants in the three positions ,33% Strategic Tactic Approach Current Desired 27,59% 26,09% Operational Graph 2. Maturity index by approach, in the assessment by the Division Supervisors, using the mode measure. Chart 3 shows the functions considered interesting, to be implemented by the majority of respondents in the three positions investigated. The functions identified in Chart 3 are perfectly aligned with the definition, by the PMI and described in the PMBOK Guide, of the main roles of a PMO, such as: (i) to manage shared resources in projects; (ii) to identify and develop best practices and standards; and (iii) to promote education, training, and supervision. It is noteworthy that these same requisites were shared with other Brazilian companies interviewed for PM SURVEY. ORG 2012, represented as follows: 18.4% of the most common problems in project refer to the lack of a support tool; 70% of companies said they did not use tools for management (storage and retrieval) of the knowledge acquired in projects. However, 64% intend to change this situation; and 42.6% of businesses think that the monitoring of project portfolio is one of the most important features of any project management software. 4. ConCLUsions The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maturity level of the existing project management model in an IST of the BN. From the results obtained, it is possible to add with new points of improvement for procedures, as well as outlining recommendations, aiming to help other organizations align their project management processes. Is noteworthy that, at first glance, the relationship between project management maturity and project performance appears to be directly proportional. However, a higher level of maturity in project management favors, but does not ensure, that a larger number of projects are completed successfully, only indicating that the organization has the capacity and is able to carry out their projects successfully. One should also emphasize the importance regarding the perception of project success continuity. This study was designed to investigate the use of the potential instrument that can help the MO under study, especially its PMO, measure the effectiveness of its actions in achieving organizational expectations. However, the actual effectiveness of this instrument can be checked only by repeating the experiment, with any necessary adjustments. It is undeniable that the success of project management depends on a good management model, and therefore, the monitoring and control procedures established in this model are of utmost importance. Also, one cannot deny that automation and integration of all processes that affect the PMO would strongly minimize the risks of error from manual work, avoiding distortions in information that is highly sensitive to the MO. 18 Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

19 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa table 5. Score obtained for the current and desired levels, by approach, in the assessment by the Project Managers and Assistants, using the mode measure. Maturity Levels Approach Strategic Tactic Operational Current Desired % % 91.30% 82.76% 33.33% 34.48% 26.09% Strategic Tactic Operational Approach Current Desired Chart 3. Functions considered of interest for implementation by the majority of respondents of the three positions. Possible Functions to be Performed by the PMO - Identification, analysis, implementation and dissemination of best practices - Support, analysis and centralized monitoring of portfolio management, ensuring the link between deployment plans and project scopes - Support tool for the management of critical resources - Creation of a virtual space for mentoring or coaching activities in project management PMO: project management office. Graph 3. Maturity index by approach, in the assessment by the Project Managers and Assistants, using the mode measure. It is clear that information technology (IT) is capable of supporting multiple functions, applications, and enabling tools for project management, thus contributing to the organizational maturity. Thus, on the basis of observations obtained in the research, the author has the following recommendations: (i) Application of an integrated management system that will enable the PMO to implement the desired functions identified, thus raising the level of organizational maturity in project management. This need is especially important when it is observed that all functions not currently performed by the PMO and that were deemed interesting by the participants of the three positions, shown in Chart 3, need a strong technological infrastructure; (ii) That these IT solutions are compatible, as much as possible, with the reality of the organization and its human and physical resources. references CARVALHO, M.M; RABECHINI, Jr. R. Construindo competências para gerenciar projetos: teoria e casos. 2 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Atlas, p. CRAWFORD, J.K. The Strategic Project Office: A Guide to Improving Organizational Performance. New york: Marcel Dekker Inc, p. Guia PMBOK : Um Guia do Conhecimento em Gerenciamento de Projetos. 5 ed. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania: PMI, p. HERTZFELD, J Figura 1 - Analogia entre os cinco grupos do gerenciamento de projetos e o ciclo PDCA. Disponível em: <http:// Acesso em: 12 abr KERZNER, H. Gestão de Projetos: as melhores práticas. São Paulo: Bookman, p.. Gestão de Projetos: as melhores práticas. São Paulo: Bookman, p. Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

20 Fernanda Gomes Fontes, Stella Regina Reis da Costa ORTEGA, E.S. Virtualização do escritório de gerência de projeto: uma proposta de convergência das decisões estratégicas em resultados operacionais. 161p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Sistemas de Gestão) Departamento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, PRADO, D. Maturidade em gerenciamento de projetos. Série Gerência de Projetos v.7. Nova Lima: INDG tecnologia e serviços LTDA p. PINTO, A.; COTA, M.F.M.; LEVIN, G. PMO Maturity Cube, um modelo de avaliação de maturidade exclusivo para Escritórios de Projetos. Disponível em <www.pmomaturitycube.org>. Acesso em: 23 mar PM SURVEY.ORG 2012 Edition. Project Managemente Institute Chapters. Disponível em: <http://www.pmsurvey.org>. Acesso em: 13 fev SPIEGEL, M.R. Estatística: Resumo da Teoria. São Paulo: McGraw-Hill do Brasil, VERGARA, S.C. Projetos e relatórios de pesquisa em administração. 9. ed. São Paulo: Atlas, p. XAVIER, C.M.S. Gerenciamento de projetos: como definir e controlar o escopo do projeto. São Paulo: Saraiva, Revista Pesquisa Naval, Brasília - DF, n. 26, 2014, p

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