5 PREFACE This report summarizes the results from the 2013 Household Socio-Economic Survey in which the National Statistical Office (NSO) had collected information every month in all provinces and in both municipal and non-municipal areas (January to December, 2013). The report aims to present important statistics such as income, expenditure, debt, and income distribution of household. In the 2013 survey, it was found that households in the whole country had average monthly income and expenditure 25,194 and 19,061 Baht, respectively. The average amount of debt was 163,087 Baht per household which was about 6.5 times of the average monthly income. A decrease in income inequality has been observed. More precisely, when all households were equally devided into 5 groups, the percentage share of income of the loest income group and that of the highest income group decreased by 0.5 percent and 1.9 percent respectively, while the middle income group (quintile 2 4 ) experienced the increase of the income share. In addition, the decrease of the Gini Coefficient from in 2011 to in 2013 also confirmed the better of income distribution as a whole. The National Statistical Office (NSO) absolutely hopes that this report would be useful for any agency, both in public and private, academic institutions, and people in general.
10 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The National Statistical Office carried out the 2013 Household Socio-economic Survey from January to December The survey covered household samples in both municipal and nonmunicipal areas in every province. The sample size for this survey was 52,000 households. The survey collected detailed information on income, expenditure, debt and asset of households as well as their housing characteristics. In the survey, expenditure data referred to expenditure on necessary items for daily life, which excluded saving and capital formation expenditure such as purchase or hire-purchase of house and land. The result of the 2013 SES is as following. 1. Household Income (2013) The result of the 2013 survey showed that household nationwide earned on average 25,194 baht per month. The major source of income (73.8%) was from economically activities such as wages and salaries (40.8%), followed by net profit from non-farm business (18.5%), and net profit from farming (14.5%). Income from economically inactive was mainly from assistance from other person outside the household or from the government (10.5%), followed by income from asset and property rental such as interest receipt (1.3%). The other source of earning was from assistance in terms of welfare/goods and services (13.0%). Figure 1 Percentage Distribution of Monthly Household Income by Source of Income (2013) From Current Transfers 10.5% From Property Income 1.3% Other Money Receipts 1.4% Non - money Income 13.0% 2. Household Expenditure (2013) During the 2013 survey, household nationwide spent on average 19,061 baht per month. Of this amount, 34.4 percent was mainly spent on food, beverages and tobacco (of which 1.1 percent was paid for alcoholic drinking), followed by expense on vehicles and transportation (20.0%), housing and household appliances (19.2%), personal care/ clothing/footwear (5.5%), communication (3.1%), education (1.7%), recreation and entertainment (1.6%), medical (1.5%), and activities related to religious (1.1%). In addition, household also had nonconsumption expenditure such as expenses on taxes, gifts, insurance (non-accumulative), lottery, and interest payment, which was accounted for 11.9 percent. Non - Consumption Expenditure, etc. (taxes, contributions, interest payment, etc.) 25,194 Baht 40.8% Income from 73.8% Economically Active 18.5% 34.4% 20.0% 11.9% 19, % Consumption Baht Expenditure, etc. 19.2% 5.5% 3.1% 1.7% 1.6% 1.5% 1.1% 14.5% Food, Beverages and Tobacco Vehicle/Transportation Housing, Household Operation Personal care/clothing/footwear Communication Education Recreation/Entertainment Medical/ Health care Religious Activities Wages and Salaries Net Profit from Business Net Profit from Farming 1/ Figure 2 Percentage Distribution of Monthly Household Expenditure by Type of Expenditure (2013) 1/ 1/ expenditure on necessary items for daily life, which excluded saving and capital formation expenditures such as purchase or hire-purchase of house and land, etc.
11 3. Household Debt (2013) More than half of households in the whole country (53.8%) were indebted. The average amount of debt was 163,087 baht per household. The main purpose of borrowing was for household spending (75.0%), which consisted of buying house/ land (36.8%), household consumption (36.7%) and loan for education (only 1.5%). For the share of loan for investment and others purpose (25%), higher than those for non-farm business (13.4 and 11.6 percent respectively) Figure 3 Percentage of Indebted Households and Percentage of Average Amount of Debt per All Households by Purpose of Borrowing (2013) Non - Indebted Households 46.2% Average Amount of Debt 163,087 Baht/Household Indebted Households 53.8% 36.8% 36.7% 1.5% 13.4% 10.5% 1.1% Household spending (75.0%) Purchase/Hire Purchase of House and/or Land Household Consumption Expenditure Education Investment and others (25.0%) Farming Business Others 4. Indebted Household : Formal and Informal Loans (2013) 4.1) Number of Indebted Household The survey revealed that the majority of indebted households borrowed from formal sector. Of these indebted households, 91.7 percent was borrowed from formal sector alone, 3.7 percent was reported the loan from both formal and informal sector, and 4.6 percent was reported the loan from informal sector alone. It was discovered that the average amount of debt from formal sector was 49 times of that from informal sector (159,816 Baht and 3,271 Baht respectively) which was higher than the survey year 2011 as the difference amount was previously 33 times (130,930 Baht and 3,970 Baht respectively). Figure 4 Percentage of Indebted Households and Average Amount of Debt per All Households by Type of Debt (2013) Both Formal and Informal Loans 3.7% 91.7% Formal Loan Only Informal Loan Only 4.6% Average Amount of Formal Loan 159,816 Baht/Household Average Amount of Informal Loan 3,271 Baht/Household 4.2) Amount of Debt For the formal loan, 37.3 percent was borrowed for buying house/land which was increased from the year 2011 (34.5%), followed by loan for household consumption (36.7%), loan for agricultural business (13.5%), and loan for non-farm business (10.1%). There was only 1.5 percent for the purpose of loan for education. For the informal loan, 36.4 percent was borrowed for household consumption, which was decreased from the year 2011 (40.5%). This was followed by loan for non-farm business (26.4%), loan for buying house/land (15.1%), and loan for agricultural business (12.7%). There was only 1.5 percent for the purpose of loan for education. Figure 5 Percentage of Average Amount of Formal and Informal Loan per All Households by Purpose of Borrowing (2013) (1) Purchase/Hire Purchase of House and/or Land Education 1.5% (5) Others 7.9% (3) Purchase/Hire Purchase 15.1% of House and/or Land Formal Loan (5) Education (6) (4) 1.5% Others Business 0.9% (3) 10.1% Farming 13.5% 37.3% 159,816 Baht 36.7% (6) Informal Loan (2) Business (2) Household Consumption Expenditure (4) 26.4% Farming 12.7% 3,271 Baht (1) 36.4% Household Consumption Expenditure
12 5. Household Income, Household Expenditure, and Household Debt (2013) 5.1) By Region Considering household income, household expenditure, and household debt by region, the survey result showed that households in Bangkok Metropolis and the three provinces nearby, which are Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, and Samut Prakan, earned the highest average monthly income of about 43,058 baht. In addition, households in this region also had the highest amount of household expenditure and household debt which were 32,425 baht and 273,795 baht, respectively. The proportion of expenditure per income in this region was 75.3 percent. However, the highest proportion of expenditure per income was found for households in Central region, which was 78.7 percent. As a result, households in Central region would have less money for saving or for repaying debt comparing to other region. In contrast households in Northern region had the lowest ratio of expenditure to income of about 73.0 percent. Figure 6 Average Monthly Household Income, and Average Amount 1/ of Debt per All Households Expenditure by Region ( 2013) Baht 300, , , ,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10, ,087 25,194 19,061 Whole Kingdom 43,058 32, ,795 Greater Bangkok 2/ 145, , , ,931 26,114 19,728 19,267 19,181 14,066 15,092 2/ Including Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani and Samut Prakan. 27,504 20,372 Central North Northeast South Debt Income Expenditure Region 1/ 5.2) By Household Socio-economic Class (by type of occupation) (2013) Concerning by type of occupation, the survey result showed that households of employed professional/technical/executive workers earned the highest average income of about 56,037 baht, followed by households of operators in non-farm business, households of production workers, households of clerical/sales/service workers, and households of farm operators who mainly rented land/ occupied free (33,882 baht, 22,513 baht, 22,345 baht and 21,697 baht, respectively). Households which earned low average income were those of general workers 13,915 baht. However, households which earned high income also had high expenditure and debt. 1/ Figure 7 Average Monthly Household Income, Expenditure and Average Amount of Debt per All Households by Socio-economic Class (2013) Baht 600, , , , , , ,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10, , , , ,498 60,207 25,194 33,882 21,449 21,697 14,210 19,061 15,45814,545 10,474 38,972 23, ,174 42,613 62,746 56, , ,575 61,788 16,265 22,345 22,513 14,971 13,915 12,384 13,87918,753 18,554 13,353 Income Expenditure Socio-economic Class 1 Whole Kingdom 5 Own-Account Workers, Non-Farm 8 General Workers 2 Farm Operators, Mainly Owning Land 6 Professional, Technical and 9 Clerical Sales and Services Workers 3 Farm Operators, Mainly Renting Land/Free Administrative Workers 10 Production Workers 4 Fishing, Forestry, Agricultural Services 7 Farm Workers 11 Economically Inactive Debt 1/ expenditure on necessary items for daily life, which excluded saving and capital formation expenditures such as purchase or hire-purchase of house and land, etc.
13 1/ 6. Comparing Income, Expenditure, and Household of Debt (2004 to 2013) During 2004 to 2013, the overall figure showed that income was higher than expenditure on necessary items for daily life. Income had increased from 14,963 baht in 2004 to 25,194 baht in 2013, and in the meantime, expenditure had increased from 12,297 baht to 19,061 baht. Considering the difference between income and expenditure in 2013, it was found that the difference was averagely 6,133 baht per household or approximately 2,044 baht per capita (household size equals 3.0). Concerning the proportion of debt to income from 2004 to 2013, it was found that the figure in 2011 had the lowest ratio (5.8 times) comparing to other years. 7. Comparing Percentage of Indebted Households and Average Amount of Debt per All Households (2004 to 2013) Considering the pattern of the ratio of debt per income 2004 to 2013 it was the found that the proportion decreased continuously from 66.4 percent in 2004 to the lowest at 53.8 percent in However, the amount of debt was increased from 104,571 Baht in 2004 to 163,087 Baht in The debt in 2013 was increased from 2011 by 20.9 percent Indebted Households (Percent) , , , , , , , Figure 9 Percentage of Indebted Households and Average Amount of Debt per All Households (2004 to 2013) Average Amount of Debt (Baht) 200, ,000 50,000 Indebted Households Average Amount of Debt 1/ Figure 8 Average Monthly Household Income and Expenditure and Ratio of Household Debt to Monthly Income (2004 to 2013) Year Income/Expenditure (Baht) 30,000 Ratio of Debt to Income (Times) , , , , ,000 17,787 18,660 17,403 19,061 14,963 16,205 15,000 14,311 14, ,297 10, , Year Income Expenditure Ratio of Debt to Income 8. Comparing Distribution of Household Income (2011 to 2013) In analyzing income distribution during 2011 to 2013, households were equally divided into 5 groups, from those with the lowest to the highest of their monthly income per capita (the first group earned the lowest income, while the fifth group earned the highest income). The result showed that the share of income for the highest income group 1/ expenditure on necessary items for daily life, which excluded saving and capital formation expenditures such as purchase or hire-purchase of house and land, etc.
14 accounted for 46.8 percent, while that for the lowest income group was only 6.0 percent. However, the survey revealed the lower of income inequality as the income share of the highest income group was decreased 1.9 percent from the year 2011, while that of the middle income group (group 2 to 4) was increased. In addition, the Gini Coefficient for the five quintiles decreased from in 2011 to in An average monthly income per capita increased from 7,226 baht in 2011 to 8,180 baht in Households of the highest income group had an average monthly income per capita rising from 21,953 baht to 24,528 baht, and households of the lowest income group also experienced an increase in an average monthly income per capita rising from 1,896 baht to 1,973 baht. Figure 10 Share of Household Current Income by Quintile Groups (2011 and 2013) Share of Current Income (Percent) Share of Current Income Per Capita Current Income 1,973 1,896 4,109 3,512 6,195 5,220 9,675 8,053 Per Capita Current Income ( Baht ) 25,000 24,528 21,953 20,000 15,000 10,000 5, Quintile Groups (Lowest Income) (Highest Income) Gini Coefficient (Quintile Groups) Per Capita Current Income 7,226 8,180
20 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background The National Statistical Office (NSO) first conducted the Household Socio-economic Survey in 1957 and repeatedly organised the survey round every five years. Due to the rapid economic expansion and the social change, during 1987 and 2004 the survey was conducted every two years, and from 2006 onwards NSO has carried out the survey every year. The 2013 survey is the twenty - five round of this kind. By the survey redesigned process, two types of questionnaires were used; the core module (the questionnaire of household members and expenditures) which is used to collect the data every year, and the special module (the questionnaire of household income) which is conducted every two years. 1.2 Objective The objective of the survey is to collect the detailed information on economics and social matters of the household such as income, expenditures, assets, liabilities, structure of household members, housing characteristics, migration and remittance transfer as well as the information on access to social welfare/government program and public services. 1.3 Scope and Coverage The survey covered all private, noninstitution households residing in all provinces, and also in both municipal and non-municipal areas (excluding households of foreign diplomats and other temporary residents). 1.4 Time Reference 1) During the past 12 months During the past 12 months refers to the twelve months before the month in which the interview was conducted. For instance, an interview conducted in February 2013, during the past 12 months referred to the period from February 2012 to January The time reference during the past 12 months is used to ask for the information on household income and the expenditure on goods and services, which are occasionally occured during the year, then calculated for an average expenditure per month. 2) The previous month The previous month refers to the calendar month before the month in which the interview was conducted. For example, an interview conducted in February 2013, the previous month referred to the period from 1 to 31 January 2013.
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