1 ALCOOLS AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BASIC TERMS AND CONCEPTS: The organic compounds which contain the ydroxyl (-O) functional group are called Alcohols. The process in which sugars convert into ethanol and carbon dioxide by catalysis of enzymes in yeast is called Fermentation. The organic compounds which contain the Carboxylic (-COO) functional group are called Carboxylic acids. The organic compounds which is produced from the reactions between carboxylic acids and alcohols are called Esters. The reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol to produce an ester and water is called Esterifications. ANALYSE: Describe the alcohols as a homologous series containing O group Draw the structures of alcohols, C1 to C4, and name the unbranched alcohols 1.1 ALCOOLS 1. Alcohols are organic compounds containing the hydroxyl (-O) Functional group which is responsible for their properties and reactions.
2 2. NAMING AND STRUCTURES OF ALCOOLS a) The general formula for alcohols is Cn2n+1O or Cn2n+2O. b) The molecular formula of an alcohol differs from the molecular formula of the corresponding alkane by an additional oxygen atom. EXAMPLES: ALKANE ALCOOL Methane (C4) Methanol (C4O) Ethane (C26) Ethanol (C26O) Propane (C38) Propanol (C38O) c) The relative molecular mass of each member in the alcohol series differs from the next by 14 because each member differs from the next by an additional C2-unit. d) The first four alcohols are shown in the table below. NAME MOLECULAR FORMULA STRUCTURAL FORMULA FULL STRUCTURAL FORMULA METANOL C3O OR C4O C3O - C- O -
3 ETANOL C25O OR C26O C3C2O - - C- C- O - - PROPANOL C37O OR C38O C3C2C2O C- C C- O BUTANOL C49O OR C410O C3C2C2C2O C- C- C- C-O EXAMPLE1: The structural formula of pentanol is C3-C2-C2-C2-C2O Which of the following compounds is an isomer of pentanol and has similar chemical properties as pentanol? C3 - A.) C3 - C - C - O B). C3 O - C - C- C3 C - C- - C.) C3 - C2 - O - C2 - C2 - C3
4 D.) C3- C2 - C2 - C2 - C = O ANALYSE: A and C have the same molecular formula as pentanol, C5 12 O. A,C and pentanol have different structural formulae. ence, A and C are the isomers of pentanol. Only A has the same functional group, the O group, as pentanol. ence, A and pentanol have similar chemical properties. SOLUTION: A is an isomer of pentanol and has similar chemical properties as pentanol. 1.2 PROPERTIES OF ALCOOLS 1. PYSICAL PROPERTIES: a) Alcohols are soluble in water, but their solubility decreases as the molecular size increases.
5 METANOL BUTANOL METANOL WATER SOLUTION BUTANOL LAYER WATER LAYER Methanol is very soluble in water but Butanol is only slightly soluble in water. b) The table below shows the physical state, solubility and boiling points of some alcohols. ALCOOL PYSCIAL STATE SOLUBILITY IN WATER BOILING POINT ( O C) METANOL Liquid Very soluble 65 ETANOL Liquid Very soluble 78 PROPANOL Liquid Soluble 97 BUTANOL Liquid Slightly soluble 118
6 2. CEMICAL PROPERTIES: a) COMBUSTION An alcohol, such as ethanol, burns in air or oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. combustion C25O (aq) + 3O2 (g) 2CO2( g ) + 32O ( g ) Ethanol Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water Vapour TIPS FOR STUDENTS: You will frequently be asked to balance the chemical equations for the combustion of alkanes, alkenes or alcohols. Make sure you know how to balance the equations for these reactions. b) OXIDATION Ethanol is slowly oxidised by air to ethanoic acid if certain bacteria are present. Wine or beer turns sour when it is exposed to air. This is because bacteria in the air oxidises ethanol in wine or beer to ethanoic acid, using oxygen from the air. It is therefore important that wine is kept tightly corked. In the laboratory, oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid occurs readily when it is heated with acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution (K2Cr2O7).
7 oxidation C25O + 2 [ O ] C3COO ( aq ) + 20 ( l ) Ethanol Oxygen From Ethanoic Acid Water Oxidising Agent Mixture of ethanol Acidified potassium dichromate (VII) solution is a mixture of potassium dichromate (VI) solution and dilute sulfuric acid and acidified potassium dichromate(vi) Distillate eat Cold Water (Ethanoic acid ) Oxidation of Ethanol to Ethanoic Acid IN TIS REACTION, Acidified potassium dichromate (VI) acts as the oxidising agent and ethanol acts as the reducing agent,
8 The dichromate ions, Cr2O7 2 -, (orange) are reduced to chromium (III) ions, Cr 3+, (green). Ethanol can also be oxidised to ethanoic acid when it is heated with acidified potassium manganate (VII), KMnO4. In this reaction, the management (VII) ions, MnO4 -, are reduced to manganese (II) ions, Mn 2+. The colour change is from purple to colourless. COMMON ERROR ACTUAL FACTS An alcohol is an alkali because it contains groups Alcohol are neutral compounds. The hydroxyl (-O) group in alcohols is covalent and neutral. In contrast, the hydroxide (O-) group in alkalis is ionic (negative ion) and basic. ANALYSE: Describe the formation of ethanol
9 State some uses of ethanol 1.3 PRODUCTION OF ETANOL: 1. Ethanol can be made in two ways: a) Catalysed addition of steam to ethane b) Fermentation of glucose 2. Manufacturing ethanol from catalysed addition of steam to ethane a) When a mixture of ethane and steam is passed over phosphoric (V) acid, 3PO4, at 30 0 C and a pressure of 60 atm, ethanol is produced. b) Phosphoric (V) acid acts as a catalyst in this reaction. 3PO4 (aq) C2= C2 (g) + 2O ( g ) C,60 ATM C3C2O (aq) Δ = - 45 kj Ethene Steam Ethanol Ethanol Unreacted Ethane Recycled Reaction ChambeR ( 3000C, 60 atm,catalyst ) Condenser Ethanol + Water Steam
10 MANUFACTURE OF ETANOL 3. PREPARATION OF ETANOL BY FERMENTATION OF GLUCOSE: a) Fermentation is a chemical process in which microorganisms such as yeast act on carbohydrates (e.g. sugar and starch) to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. b) In this process, yeast is added to ma sugar solution and the reaction mixture is left in a warm place (about 37 0 C ) for several days. c)the yeast breaks down the sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Glucose solution + Yeast Lime Water Preparation of ethanol by fermentation of glucose solution
11 The chemical equation for fermentation is: YEAST C612 (aq) 2C25O (aq) + 2CO2 (g) 37 0 C Glucose Ethanol Carbon dioxide d)it is impossible to make pure ethanol by fermentation because yeast is killed when the mixture contains more than 15 % ethanol. e) Pure ethanol can be obtained from the dilute solution of ethanol by fractional distillation. TIP FOR STUDENTS: You will often be asked in the examination to describe and reactions of organic compounds. 4. COMPARE TE TWO METODS OF PRIPARATION OF ETANOL ETANOL FROM ETENE ETANOL BY FERMENTATION
12 User non-renewable resource User renewable resources Crude oil Fractional distillation Cracking Ethene ydration Sugar (sugar cane, grapes ) Fermentation Ethanol Ethanol Reaction is fast Produces more pure ethanol Produces dilute solution of ethanol Carried out at high temperature and high pressure Carried out at room conditions EXAMPLE 2: Which of the following reactions produce water as one of the products? 1 Combustion of ethanol 2 Fermentation of glucose 3Oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid 4. Conversion of ethane to ethanol: A) 1 and 3 only B) 2 and 4 only C)3 and 4 only D) 1,2 and 3 only
13 ANALYSIS Ethanol + Oxygen Combustion Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose Fermentation ethanol + Carbon Dioxide Ethanol oxidation Ethanoic Acid + Water Ethene + Steam Ethanol SOLUTION: Combustion and oxidation of ethanol produce water as one of the products (i.e.,option A). 5. USES OF ETANOL: a) AS A SOLVENT It is a good solvent for complex organic molecules that are not soluble in water.
14 Ethanol also evaporates quickly, making it suitable for use in deodorants, perfumes and after-shave lotions. b) AS A FUEL Gasohol (10% ethanol and 90% petrol) is used in some countries as a fuel for motor vehicles. Methylated spirit (85%, 5% methanol and 10% water) is used in spirit lamps. b) IN ALCOOLIC DRINKS Ethanol is a constituent of wine and beer. ANALYSE: Describe the carboxylic acids as a homologous series containing the COO group Draw the structures of carboxylic acids, and name the unbranched acids 1.4 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS:
15 1. All carboxylic acids have the functional group, -COO(or CO2), which is called the carboxyl group. 2. Naming and structures of carboxylic acids: a) Carboxylic acids have the general formula, Cn 2n+1COO or Cn2nO2. b) The first four carboxylic acids are shown in the table below. NAME MOLECULAR FORMULA STUCTURAL FORMULA FULL STRUCTURAL FORMULA METANOIC ACID C2O2 COO O - C - O - ETANOIC ACID C24O2 C3COO -O -C- C -O - PROPANOIOC C36O2 OR C25COO C3C2COO - - O C- C C- O- -
16 TIPS FOR STUDENTS: When naming a carboxylic acid, making sure you include the carbon atom in the COO group. Thus, C3C2C2COO is named butanoic acid as there are four carbon atoms in the molecule. c) The molecular formula of a carboxylic acid differs from the molecular formula of the corresponding alkene by an additional two oxygen atoms. ALKENE CARBOXYLIC ACID Ethene (C24) Ethanoic acid (C24O2) Propene (C36) Propanoic acid ( C36O2 ) Butene (C48) Butanoic acid (C48O2)
17 ANALYSE: Describe the formation of ethanoic acid Describe the reactions of carboxylic acids with carbonates, bases, reactive metals and alcohols 1.5 FORMATION AND PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: 1. There are two ways to produce ethanoic acid: a) Oxidation of ethanol by atmospheric oxygen in the presence of certain bacteria b) eating a mixture of ethanol and acidified potassium dichromate (VI) 2. Physical properties of carboxylic acids: a) Methanoic acid and ethanoic acid are colourless liquids at room temperature. b) Methanoic acid and ethanoic acid are completely miscible with water. c)carboxylic acids turn blue litmus paper red. BLUE LITMUS PAPER TURNS RED CARBOXYLIC ACID REACTION WIT LITMUS 3. Chemical properties of carboxylic acids:
18 a) Carboxylic acids are weak acid because they only partially dissociate into ions. EXAMPLE: In an aqueous solution, ethanoic acid dissociates partially to form hydrogen ions and ethanoate ions. C3COO( aq ) + ( aq ) + C3COO - ( aq ) b) The table below shows the reactions of carboxylic acid with carbonates, bases, reactive metals and alcohols. REACTION WIT PRODUCT EXAMPLES CARBONAT ES Salts, Water and Carbondiox ide C3COO ( aq ) + Na2CO3 ( s ) 2C3COO - Na + ( aq )+ 2O ( l ) + CO2 ( g ) Ethanoic Acid Sodium Carbonate Sodium Ethanoate Water BASES Salt and Water C3COO(aq) + NaO ( aq ) C3COO - Na + ( aq ) +2O (l ) Ethanoic Acid Sodium ydroxide Sodium Carbonate Water RECTIVE METALS Salt and ydrogen 2C3COO ( aq ) + Mg ( s ) (C3COO)2Mg( aq ) + 2 ( g )
19 Ethanoic Acid Magnesium Magnesium Ethanoate ALCOOLS ( REFER TO SECTIUON 20.6 ) Ester and Water CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID C3COO +C3C2O C3COOC2C3+ 2O ( l ) Ethanoic Acid Ethanol Ethyl Ethanoate Water TIP FOR STUDENTS: Make sure the formulae of the metal salts of the carboxylic acids are correctly written. For Example: the formula of Calcium Ethanoate is (C3COO)2 Ca and not C3COOCa. EXAMPLE 1.3 Name and write the structural formulae of the carboxylic acids, A, B and C in the following reactions. A+NaCO3 B + Mg C + CuO C3C2COONa+2O+CO2 (COO)2Mg + 2 (C3C2C2COO)2 Cu + 20 SOLUTION: A is propanoic acid, C3C2COO. B is metrhanoic acid, COO.C is butanoic acid, C3C2C2COO. COMMON ERROR ACTUAL FACTS
20 The general formula for carboxylic acid is Cn2n+1 COO (where n = 1, 2, 3. ). The general formula for carboxylic acid is Cn2n+1 COO (where n = 1, 2, 3. ). When n = 0, the carboxylic acid is COO, methanoic acid. TEST YOURSELF: Describe the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol to form an ester State some uses of esters 1.6 ESTERS: 1. Esters are colourless, neutral liquids which are insoluble in water. They have sweet and fruity smell. 2. Esters are made by the reaction of carboxylic acids with alcohols, using concentrated sulfuric acid as the catalyst. This reaction is called esterification. EXAMPLE: Ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol to form the ester, ethyl ethanoate.
21 DROPER REACTION MIXTURE CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID (CATALYST) TEST TUBE OLDER ESTER( ETYL ETANOATE ) ETANOIC ACID + ETANOL WATER WATER + SULFURIC ACID MAKING AN ESTER IN TE LABORATORY O EAT O - C- C- 0 + O C C C C O C C + 2O ETANOIC ACID ETANOL ETYL ETANOATE WATER Carboxylic acids will react with alcohols only when the mixture is heated with a few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid (the catalyst). The reaction is reversible. 3. MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL FORMULAE OF ESTERS: a) The molecular formula of esters is the same as the molecular formula of carboxylic acids, i.e. Cn2nO2.
22 b) The functional group of esters is the carboxylate group, -COO-. The structural formula of an ester is usually written as: Ester (carboxylate)group O O R- C O - R or R - 0 C - R Name derived Name derived Name derived from the acid from the alcohol from the acid 4. NAMING OF ESTERS: a) The names of esters end in oate, for example, methyl ethanoate. b) The name of an ester consists of two parts: The first part tells us the name of the alcohol. The second part tells us the name of the carboxylic acid used to prepare the ester. c.) The following table shows the names and structural formulae of some common esters together with the alcohols and carboxylic acids used to prepare them.
23 NAME OF ESTER MOLECULAR FORMULA STRUCTURAL FORMULA OF ESTER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USED TO MAKE TE ESTER METYL METANOATE C2402 O C3 0 - C Alcohal Carboxylic acid methyl methanoate METANOL, C3O METANOIC ACID, COO ETYL ETANOATE C4802 O C C Ethanol, C3C2O Ethanoic acid, C3COO C3 Ethyl Ethanoate ETYL PROPANAOTE C51002 O C25 0 -C - Ethanol, C3C2O Ethanoic acid, C3C2COO C2C3 Ethyl Propanoate 5. Uses of Esters:
24 a) Simple esters are responsible for the fragrant smell of flowers and fruits. Besides natural esters, chemists also make synthetic esters by the reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols. b) Esters are used As food flavourings, As solvents for organic compounds such as nail polish remover, For making perfumes. COMMON ERROR ACTUAL FACT Organic compounds such as alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters are in soluble in water. It is true that all esters are insoluble in water. but lower members of alcohols and carboxylic acids are soluble in water. STRUCTURAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. a) Draw the structures of methanol and ethanol, the first two members of the homologous series of alcohols. b) Suggest why a small amount of methanol, which has poisonous properties, is often added to ethanol prepared for industrial uses.
25 C) Ethanol can be manufactured by the catalytic addition of steam to ethane. i) Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. ii) The density of ethanol is 0.8 g/cm 3. Calculate the maximum volume of ethanol which can be made from 1440 dm 3 of ethane, measured at room temperature and pressure. ANSWER: 1. a) methanol C O Ethanol --C C O b) Ethanol used in the industry usually costs much less than alcoholic beverages (because it is not taxed). Methanol is added to ethanol used in the industry to prevent the consumption of industry ethanol as an alcoholic beverage. c) i) C O C 2 5 O ii) Number of moles of ethane = = 60 1 mole of ethane reacts to give 1 mole of ethanol. Maximum number of moles ethanol =60 Relative molecular mass of ethanol =2(12) (1) =46
26 Maximum mass of ethanol formed = 60 x 46 = 2760 g Maximum volume of ethanol formed = = 3450 cm 3 2)Anaerobic respiration in yeast converts glucose (C 6 12 O 6 )to ethanol and carbon dioxide. This process, also known as fermentation, is used to make alcoholic drinks. a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the fermentation of glucose. b) The Carbon dioxide produced during fermentation quickly displaces air,thus allowing fermentation to take place under anaerobic conditions. Suggest why it is important that fermentation takes place in the absence of oxygen. c) Suggest why fermentation alone cannot be used to make alcoholic drink containing more than 14% of ethanol by volume. Name the physical process which can be carried out after fermentation to obtain alcoholic drink with a ethanol content. ANSWER: 2. a) C 6 12 O 6 2C 2 5 O +2CO 2 b) it is important that fermentation takes places in the absence of oxygen because oxygen will oxidize ethanol and convert it to ethanoic acid. Ethanoic acid sour and its presence ruins the taste of alcoholic drinks. c) This is because yeast cannot survive in a liquid which contains more than 14% ethanol by volume. The physical process is distillation. 3. Compound D addition of Compound E steam
27 C 3 C 2 C 2 O reflux with Compound F acidified K 2 Cr (aq) a) Name compound E b) Draw the structure of an alcohol which is an isomer of compound E. c) Draw the full structural formula of compounds of D and F, d) Name the type of reaction which takes place when compound E is refluxed with acidified K 2 Cr 2 O 7 (aq) and describe what will be observed.? ANSWER: 3. a) Propanol b) C C C O c) Compound D C C C= Compound F
28 O --C C C O d) This is an oxidation reaction. When compound E is refluxed with acidified K 2 Cr 2 O 7 (aq), the orange K 2 Cr 2 O 7 turn green. CARBOXYLIC ACID 1. Monocarboxylic acid J is naturally in strawberries. J has the following composition by mass: c, 48 6%;, 8.2%; %. Neutralisations of a sample of 0.37 g of J requires 25 cm 3 of 0.20-mol.dm 3 sodium hydroxide. a) Calculate the empirical formula f J. b) Calculate the relative molecular mass of J and hence, derermine is molecular formula. c) Name monacarboxylic acid J. d) Draw the fulla structural formula of J. 2.a) Ethanoic acid can be produced synthetically by reacting methanol and carbon monoxide.
29 i) Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. ii) Calculate the maximum mass of ethanoic acid that can be obtained from10 tonnes of methanol. b) Ethanoic acid reacts with magnesium and sodium carbonate. i) write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between ethanoic acid and magnesium. 3. Alcohol S reacts with carboxylic acid T to form the ester propyl methanoate. a) Write the molecular formula of the other produce formed in this esterification reaction. b) Name alcohol S and carboxylic acid T. Alcohol S Carboxlic acid T a) Draw the full structural formula of the ester proptl methanoate. 1. The structures of ester Y is shown below.s O 3 C C C 3 O a) Name ester Y. b) Write the molecular formula ester Y. c) Carboxylic acid Z is an isomer of ester Y. Name carboxylic acid Z.
30 d) A simple chemical test can be carried out to distinguish between ester y and carboxylic acid Z. name the chemical substance to be used. in each case, describe what will be observed. Substance Observation Answers: Alkanes: 1. a) C 5 12 b) propanal c) 2C n 2n+2 + (3n+1)O 2 2 n CO 2 + (2n+2) 2 O d) C n 2n O e) pentanoic acid 2. a) butylamine c) i) As the number of carbon atoms increases, ht size of the amine molecules increases and the intermolecular forces become stronger. Thus, more energy is required to overcome the intermolecular forces and the boiling point increases. iii) 48 d) i) i) N 3 + Cl N 4 Cl ii) C 3 N 2 + Cl C 3 N 3 Cl 3. a) C % by mass A r 12 1 No. of members Mole ratio Simplest mole ratio 2 5
31 b) Molar gas Volume at r.t.p.= 24dm 3 Density of the hydrocarbon = 2.42 g/dm 3 Thus, mass of 1 mole of hydrocarbon = 2.42 x 24 =58 (nearest whole number) therefore, the relative molecular mass of this hydrocarbon is 58. Let the molecular formula of this hydrocarbon be (C 2 5 ) n. 29 n = 58 n=2 Thus, the molecular formula of this hydrocarbon is C a) C C C C C C C C 4. a) C C C C C 3
32 C 3 C C C C 3 b) i) Substitution reaction ii) C C C C C C C C C C C C Cl Alkenes 1. a) C 3 6 b) butyne c) C n 2n -2 d) Alkenes react with excess oxygen to give carboan monoxide True False Write
33 Alkynes undergo addition reactions. Alkynes are hydrocarbons. Alkynes are saturated compounds Write Write Write 2. X: butane Y: butane b) Similarly: Both the butane and butane molecules contain four carbon atoms which are covalently bonded to hydrogen atoms. Difference: All the covalent bonds in the butane molecule are single bonds while there is a C= C double bond in butane. a) Substance: Aqueous bromine c) Observation: when aqueous bromine is added to compound X, the colour of the oranges brown aqueous bromine does not change. When aqueous bromine is added to compound Y, the Orange-brown aqueous bromine becomes colourless. d) C C = C C C C C C
34 d) Compound Z is isomeric to compound Y. this is because compound Z has the same molecular formula but a different structure as compound T. 3. a) C C C C Br Br b) C C C C c) C C C C O b) O=C=O O 4. a) let the molecule of this alkene be(c 2 ) n. 14n= 70
35 n=5 Thus, the molecular formula of this hydrocarbon is C b) C C = C C C c) i) Reagent: hydrogen gas; Catalyst: nickel ii) C 3 C C C C 3 5.a) i) C 2 4 ii) C 3 6 iii) C b) For all the reactions in part a),longer chain alkanes are converted to shorter chain alkenes and alkenes. The shorter chain alkenes are more used as fuel than the longer chain alkenes as fuel. The alkenes produced, especially propene, are useful starting materials for producing various compounds in the chemical industry. 6.a) A polyunsaturated compound contains more than one C = C double bond. B) Nickel C) 1 more of vegetable oil reacts oil reacts with 2 moles of 2. No. of moles of 2 = =
36 No. of moles of Vegetables oil = 0, = Relative molecular mass of vegetable oil = =300 Alcohols: 1. a) methanol C O Ethanol --C C O b) Ethanol used in the industry usually costs much less than alcoholic beverages (because it is not taxed). Methanol is added to ethanol used in the industry to prevent the consumption of industry ethanol as an alcoholic beverage. c) i) C O C 2 5 O ii) Number of moles of ethane = = 60 1 mole of ethane reacts to give 1 mole of ethanol. Maximum number of moles ethanol =60 Relative molecular mass of ethanol =2(12) (1) =46 Maximum mass of ethanol formed = 60 x 46 = 2760 g Maximum volume of ethanol formed = = 3450 cm 3 2. a) C 6 12 O 6 2C 2 5 O +2CO 2
37 b) it is important that fermentation takes places in the absence of oxygen because oxygen will oxidize ethanol and convert it to ethanoic acid. Ethanoic acid sour and its presence ruins the taste of alcoholic drinks. c) This is because yeast cannot survive in a liquid which contains more than 14% ethanol by volume. The physical process is distillation. 3. a) Propanol b) C C C O c) Compound D C C C= Compound F O --C C C O b) This is an oxidation reaction. When compound E is refluxed with acidified K 2 Cr 2 O 7, the orange K 2 Cr 2 O 7 turn green.
38 11.5 Carboxylic acids 1. a) C O % by mass A r No. of moles Mole ratio Simplest mole ratio Thus, the empirical formula is C 3 6 O 2. B) Number of moles of sodium hydroxide = X 0.20= mole of sodium hydrogen reacts with 1 mole of J. Number of moles of J = Relative molecular mass of J = =74 Let the molecular formula of this hydrocarbon be (C 3 6 O 2 )n. 74n = 74 N=1 Thus, the molecular formula of this hydrocarbon is C 3 6 O 2. C) propanoic acid d) O --C C C O 2. a) i) C 3 O + CO C 3 CO 2
39 ii) 1 mole of methanol reacts to give 1 mole of ethanoic acid. Relative molecular mass of methanol = (1) + 16 =32 Relative molecular mass of ethanoic acid = (16) = 60 Maximum mass of ethanoic acid produced = b) i) 2C 3 CO 2 + Mg (C 3 CO 2 ) 2 Mg + 2 ii) 2C 3 CO 2 + Na 2 CO 3 2C 3 CO 2 Na + 2 O + CO 2 x10=18.75 tonnes 3. a) 2 O b) S: propanol T: methanoic acid c) O --C O C C C O e) it can be used as flavoring. 4. a) methyl ethanoate b) C 3 6 O 2 c) Propanoic acid d) Substance: Sodium carbonate Observation: when sodium carbonate is addd to ester y, no effervescence is observed. When sodium carbonate is added to carboxylic acid Z, effervescence is observed, and crbon dioxide ( a gas which gives a white precipitation with limewater) is produced.
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Ch17_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which molecule is a carboxylic acid? A) 1) B) C) D) E) CH3 CH2 CH2 NH2 2) Which molecule
Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I 1. (a) What do you understand by the following terms : (i) Organic chemistry (ii) Organic compounds (iii) Catenation?  (b) Why are there very large number of organic
TESTING FOR ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Caution: Chromic acid is hazardous as are many of the organic substances in today s experiment. Treat all unknowns with extreme care. Many organic substances are flammable.
CHM111(M)/Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION SECTION A Answer ALL EIGHT questions. (52 marks) 1. The following is the mass spectrum
THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE CHEMISTRY A Chains, Energy and Resources F322 *OCE/T73768* Candidates answer on the question paper OCR Supplied Materials: Data Sheet for Chemistry A
arboxylic acids F4 1 ARBXYLI AIDS Structure contain the carboxyl functional group includes a carbonyl (=) group and a hydroxyl (-) group the bonds are in a planar arrangement are isomeric with esters :-
Write your name here Surname Other names Pearson Edexcel Certificate Pearson Edexcel International GCSE Chemistry Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Paper: 2C Centre Number Candidate Number Thursday 16 January 2014 Afternoon
SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample
1 hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes Organic hemistry and Organic ompounds 2 An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain
Alkanes Chapter 1.1 Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties What s so special about carbon? Carbon has 4 bonding electrons. Thus, it can form 4 strong covalent bonds
Carbon and its Compounds Nature of Bond in Organic Compounds Types of Hydrocarbons Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons Functional Groups Important Organic Compounds & Their Reactions. Carbon s Capacity to Share
HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric
3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be
Identification of Unknown Organic Compounds Introduction The identification and characterization of the structures of unknown substances are an important part of organic chemistry. Although it is often
EDEXCEL IGCSE chemistry (separate award) Section 1: Principles of chemistry a) States of matter 1.1 understand the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in each of the three states of matter:
Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from
1 ALKANES General members of a homologous series with general formula n 2n+2 - non-cyclic only saturated hydrocarbons - all carbon-carbon bonding is single bonds are spaced tetrahedrally about carbon atoms.
1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse
WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.
Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations (Chapter 3) Chemical Compounds 1. Classification of Elements and Compounds Types of Pure Substances (Figure 3.4) Elements -- made up of only one type of atom
CLASS: X NCERT (CBSE) Chemistry: For Class 10 Page : 1 Question (1): What is organic chemistry? Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds of living matter i.e., plants and animals (CO 2, carbonates,
ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA 2008. május 15. KÉMIA ANGOL NYELVEN KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA 2008. május 15. 8:00 Az írásbeli vizsga időtartama: 120 perc Pótlapok száma Tisztázati Piszkozati OKTATÁSI ÉS KULTURÁLIS
Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51  Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is
Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions In a chemical reaction, one set of chemical
Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 9701/02 Paper 2 AS Level Structured Questions For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN
Lab #3: Solubility of rganic Compounds bjectives: - Understanding the relative solubility of organic compounds in various solvents. - Exploration of the effect of polar groups on a nonpolar hydrocarbon
CHAPTER 3 3 Solutions of Acids and Bases SECTION Chemical Compounds BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are strong and weak acids? What are strong
Stoichiometry Atomic Mass (atomic weight) Atoms are so small, it is difficult to discuss how much they weigh in grams We use atomic mass units an atomic mass unit (AMU) is one twelfth the mass of the catbon-12
YDROCARBONS What is Organic Chemistry? Organic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds containing carbon. Examples include carbon dioxide, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, alcohol, rubber, petrol, plastics
Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts A. Organic Chemistry-The study of containing compounds. 1. They occur extensively in nature because all living things are made of containing compounds.
31 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to develop skills in writing and balancing chemical equations. The relevance of this exercise is illustrated by a series
Experiment 8 Synthesis of Isopentyl Acetate Objectives To prepare isopentyl acetate from isopentyl alcohol and acetic acid by the Fischer esterification reaction. Introduction Esters are derivatives of
Chemical Reactions Topic 1 National Chemistry Summary Notes Rates of Reaction LI 1, 2 and 3 We know a chemical reaction has taken place when we notice one or more of the following things happening: Colour
Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical
Empirical Formula and Reacting Masses Revision - Higher Q. Perfumes contain a mixture of chemicals. The main ingredients of perfumes are a solvent and a mixture of fragrances. (a) A sample of the solvent
CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in
(adapted from Blackburn et al., Laboratory Manual to Accompany World of hemistry, 2 nd ed., (1996) Saunders ollege Publishing: Fort Worth) Purpose: To become familiar with organic molecules in three dimensions
Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part
Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry Soluble and insoluble salts The importance of knowing whether a salt is soluble or insoluble in water You will remember that acids react with carbonates to
Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl
Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry Chapter Goals Balance equations for simple chemical reactions. Perform stoichiometry calculations using balanced chemical equations. Understand the meaning of the term
EXPERIMENT 5 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan/Cherif Dehydration of Alcohols - Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Purpose - The purpose of this lab is to produce cyclohexene through the acid catalyzed elimination
INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids by Christopher Hamaker 1 Chapter 13 Properties of Liquids Unlike gases, liquids do
Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models The goal in this laboratory experience is to get you so you can easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed formulas,
CHAPTER 3 Metals and Non-metals Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following property is generally not shown by metals? (a) Electrical conduction (b) Sonorous in nature (c) Dullness (d) Ductility
EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models Introduction: The goal in this laboratory experience is for you to easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed
Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds