New Methods for Performance Monitoring of J2EE Application Servers

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1 New Methods for Performance Monitoring of J2EE Application Servers Adrian Mos (Researcher) & John Murphy (Lecturer) Performance Engineering Laboratory, School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Ireland Tel: , {mosa, ABSTRACT There is a growing need for high performance enterprise distributed systems that provide the scalability and availability required by modern enterprise portals and e- commerce systems. New technologies such as Enterprise Beans help building these systems by providing the framework to support the increasingly complex applications. Their performance, however, is not guaranteed by the technology itself and it is mostly the responsibility of the developers to build the application so that it meets the required performance needs. We present a number of approaches for monitoring existing Enterprise Beans applications in order to help the developers identify performance problems at an object-oriented level. I. INTRODUCTION Large enterprises begin to depend on the Internet for business because this allows for massive cost reductions and also for reaching new customers. However, this makes issues such as reliability, application response time and scalability, critical. Distributed systems have proven to be the solution to address these needs because of their inherent approach to managing computational resources. Enterprise Beans [1] (EJB) is the newest distributed-objects technology built on top of the highperformance RMI-IIOP [2] and its declared purpose is to provide a framework for fast development of highly scalable and reliable applications. Just as with CORBA or other distributed technologies, the performance of the implemented applications is not guaranteed by the technology alone, it must be achieved through good design and coding practices. There is a need for tools that aid the developers in designing and implementing distributed applications to perform as expected. The purpose of this paper is to present a number of approaches to performance monitoring of EJB applications and to put our work in context with related efforts in the area of performance monitoring. Our proposed final monitoring solution provides the developers with detailed object-oriented information about the events that take place in the monitored applications and therefore help them better understand and correct the performance problems. The paper is organized as follows. In Section II we present a number of related projects in the area of performance monitoring of CORBA applications (where most of the research has been done) and describe their relation to our work. Section III is an overview of the EJB framework. The approaches for EJB performance monitoring that we have identified are presented in Section IV. A report of the current status of the work and also a summary of obtained results are presented in Section V. Finally, Section VI presents the conclusion. II. RELATED WORK There are a number of research projects in the area of performance monitoring of distributed systems. The vast majority of them are concerned with CORBA technology and a few with, but they are only at RMI, RMI-IIOP level. The Enterprise Beans technology is new and although built on top of CORBA and RMI-IIOP, it adds many features to the existing technologies. The added features are provided by the application server, which controls the access to the EJB components. The application server usually creates and manages a pool of EJB instances, spawns different JVMs as needed, controls transactions and security to name only a few. By taking these things into consideration, and by leveraging the EJB architecture, we have identified a monitoring approach that integrates well in J2EE compliant application servers, as opposed to a CORBA solution, which would find it very difficult to capture information in an EJB environment. The following is a brief description of a number of research projects in the area of performance monitoring and how they relate to our work. OrWell [3] is a monitoring environment for CORBA distributed applications. It uses an event class hierarchy to notify a number of observers about the interactions in a system. It provides detailed analysis of the monitored system, however the authors do not present how the event distribution units (EDP) are dynamically attached to the existing objects. It is also not clear whether the monitoring environment is portable across different operating systems or not. The main similarity with our work is in the monitoring concepts of using one additional component for each monitored object in order to obtain dynamic run-time information. Wabash [4], [5] is a tool for testing, monitoring and control of CORBA distributed systems. It uses CORBA interceptors to capture run-time information and therefore is similar to our preferred approach in that it is

2 non-intrusive. However, Wabash uses geographical information to group monitoring components, which is not applicable in EJB environments where the application server controls the distribution of components JEWEL [6] is also a monitoring environment for distributed applications. Because it uses a different approach to non-intrusive monitoring, it is more likely to be used in LANs where additional monitoring resources are available. In order for the system s sensors to not affect the original system s behaviour, it requires a separate physical LAN. The main advantages of this system is that large amount of data is filtered and analysed, however the analysis and results are presented at the communication protocol level and provide information such as mean bytes per packet or protocol usage, which do not give an object-oriented view of the system. III. OVERVIEW OF EJB APPLICATIONS Enterprise Beans architecture is a component architecture that allows the creation of scalable and reliable distributed applications. It is the core of the 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) [7] framework and provides a number of complex services such as Messaging Service, security, transactionality and database integration, that the EJB components can use, thus helping the developers concentrate their efforts in fulfilling the application requirements rather than spending time on developing the underlying architecture. Another important advantage of the EJB architecture is that it is completely portable across compliant application servers that implement it. The typical three-tiered architecture of current J2EE enterprise Internet applications is depicted in Figure 1. Client Side HTML applet application Web Server JSP Servlet XML J2EE Compliant Application Server EJB Container Other J2EE technologies Mail, XML, JDBC, Messaging, Transactions Tier 1: Presentation Tier 2: Application Logic Figure 1 Usually, the client is a web browser but sometimes it can also be a stand-alone application that will access the web server or even directly connect to the application server. The web server is responsible for providing the content to the client and it is also responsible for getting the user input (i.e. from forms or applets). The web server delegates the user requests to the application server, which is responsible DB Tier 3: Storage for the application logic of the system. The application server uses deployed EJB components for providing application functionality such as a shopping cart or a membership system. These EJB components (beans) reside in the EJB container and can communicate with each other or with other J2EE services and the storage system (the database server). The database server stores the application data and is usually a RDBMS, which is accessed by the EJB components through SQL. It is also used for the persistence of some enterprise beans, in which case the EJB container is responsible for managing the communication with the database. A more in-depth description of the EJB model (as seen from the developer s point of view) is shown in Figure 2. It depicts the way clients communicate with enterprise beans that reside in an application server. In the previous diagram, the clients of the application server in tier 2 are the JSP and Servlet components residing inside the web-server. So, the web-server is usually the client of the application server in the threetiered approach. Client Code Servlets, beans etc. 1 EJB Home EJB Object EJB Container 3 4 Actual bean When a client accesses an Enterprise Bean deployed in an application server, the following steps are performed: 1. The client obtains a reference to the Home Object of the deployed bean (generated automatically by the EJB server at deployment time). This is done using Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). It will then ask the home object to create an EJB Object so that it can access the bean s business methods. The business methods are the operations that the Actual Bean will expose to clients. 2. The EJB Home object creates a new EJB Object for the required bean. This object is not the actual bean (created by the application developers) but a server-generated object that will act as a proxy between the client and the actual enterprise bean. This EJB Object will have all the public methods of the enterprise bean and will delegate the requests to the actual enterprise beans. 3. After the client receives a reference to the newly created EJB Object, it can begin using the business methods of the bean. Since the client doesn t have direct access to the enterprise bean, it will invoke the desired 2 Figure 2

3 methods on the server-generated object. 4. The EJB Object forwards all method invocations to the actual bean, which will perform the required operations and return the results to the EJB Object, which in turn will return the results to the client. Since EJB Object provides a number of services to the actual bean, its functionality is more complex than just forwarding method calls. For example it could check to see if the client has the rights to call a specific method and raise an exception if it doesn t. Or it could spawn a transaction and call the required method in the transaction s context. All this additional processing is performed transparently to the client and does not involve writing any code for the developer. There are two types of EJBs: session and entity. Starting with EJB 2.0 specifications, there is also another type, message-driven beans. However the differences in these types are not relevant for the purpose of this paper. IV. PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF EJB APPLICATIONS The current web-based commercial performance profiling tools provide a performance analysis based on use-cases recorded by the tester. The tester has to record a series of actions, which the tool will later use to simulate a large number of clients concurrently accessing the web tier (part of the whole J2EE application), each client performing a selection of the recorded use cases. These tools provide an excellent aid in identifying flows in the business processes, and can give a good idea of the global system performance but they do not point to the application objects and methods that cause the performance problems. There are also a small number of tools that will do scalability testing by generating clients to fit all the application objects (i.e. clients that will invoke all the business methods of all the EJBs). They provide a better performance perspective from the EJB developer s point of view but, in our opinion, can t give an accurate image of the performance hotspots that the real functional system will have, because they don t take into consideration all the real-world interactions in the system. We propose different approaches to performance monitoring. Instead of generating clients by recording and playing different use-cases or by inspecting the deployed components, our methods do not involve any client generation. The system is left running in the realworld environment and all the interactions that take place inside the application server are constantly monitored. The simplest and most frequent interactions are method invocations on the system objects. One possible way to achieve this monitoring could be to infiltrate a spy-application in the EJB server. This would have the intention of capturing and analyzing all the method invocations that take place. We have identified two methods of doing this, both with their advantages and disadvantages. In Figure 3 there is a closer look in the form of a sequence diagram at what happens when EJB clients access services (methods) of EJB components. In order to be able to track all the business method invocations, we need to insert listeners somewhere along the invocation path. This could be between the client and EJB Object, in the EJB Object, between the EJB Object and the, or in the bean instance itself. The first option means listening for the Remote Method Invocation (RMI) requests at a low level, implying modification to the EJB server code. This is just not feasible, is very hard to do, prone to errors and would give a result that is not portable across other application servers. The last option implies access to the bean code, modifying it, recompiling the bean and re-deploying the bean. It is not a clean method in terms of maintenance and also it doesn t allow for a fully automated monitoring tool to be produced. The other two methods are detailed below. A. Modifying the EJB Object The EJB Object corresponding to a specific bean is a container-generated object that acts as a proxy [8] between the clients and the bean itself. Its class is automatically generated at the time of bean deployment, and it has all of the bean s exposed business methods. One of the reasons this EJB Object is needed is that it enables the EJB servers to track and complement all the method invocations that take place between clients and enterprise beans. By altering the generated EJB Objects so that they alert a monitor every time a method is invoked, we can extract all the needed information from the system. One drawback to this approach is that not all the EJB application servers make the generated EJB EJB Home EJB Object : client 2: business method 3: performs the operation Figure 3

4 : client EJB Home EJB Object (modified) Monitor 2: method tracking logic 3: invocation notification 4: business method 5: performs the operation Object source code available and so it would be hard to alter it. A solution is to create a plug-in for a number of specific application servers (provided the respective vendors would agree to disclose some parts of the server source code) that would modify the creation of the EJB Objects. The generation of EJB Objects would be now performed in such a way that each time an EJB Object receives a request for a service, it would alert the monitor. This plug-in can be more easily created for open-source application servers such as JonAS [9] and Enhydra [10]. Figure 4 illustrates the operation sequence of the modified server. B. Inserting the listener between EJB Object and the This method does not interfere with the server itself. Instead, it proposes an approach in which a spy application is actually deployed inside the EJB container like a regular application. This application is generated and deployed automatically based on the currently deployed, functional, real application. To do this, an installation module must inspect all the components that the real application contains, and Figure 4 create a proxy for each of them. There will be a proxy [8] bean corresponding to each real enterprise bean from the application model. These proxy beans are responsible for stealing the identity of the original beans. In this way, all the clients that will require services from the original beans will actually receive references to the proxy beans. The proxy beans, having the same business methods as the original beans, will act as the EJB Objects from the previous method (the modified EJB Objects), by notifying the Monitor of the ongoing invocations, and then delegating the service call to the original bean. Figure 5 illustrates the functionality of the spy application. In order for the deployment of the spy application to be successful, the installation module must perform the following steps: 1. Obtain the XML deployment descriptors of the original application. These XML descriptors are specified in the EJB architecture and are used to enable the EJB containers to provide implicit middleware services to the enterprise beans. The developer does not have to code anything to the middle-ware API for these services (e.g. persistence, transactionality EJB Home EJB Object proxy bean stolen name modified name : client Monitor 2: business method 3: method tracking logic 4: invocation notification 5: business method 6: performs operation Figure 5

5 and security) to be available to the beans. The XML descriptors also provide detailed information about the classes each bean uses and their roles. 2. Using the information from the XML descriptors, a proxy bean will be generated for each bean, having the same name as the original bean. 3. The original beans will be given a different identity, known by the proxy beans. 4. Both sets of beans (the spy and the modified application) will be deployed in the EJB server. We favor this approach because it allows for a portable and extendable monitoring framework to be built. V. CURRENT STATUS AND RESULTS SUMMARY Since the initial submission of this paper, we have implemented a monitoring system that serves as proof of concept for approach B. The implementation provided us with the means to perform a number of experiments that show how much the monitoring system affects the performance of the target application. For testing purposes, a small application consisting of a HTML page, a servlet and two Enterprise Beans has been built. Users use a web browser to load in the HTML page, which has a simple form. After completing the form, the user submits it to the Servlet object, which in turn calls all the methods of the two EJBs. The two EJBs have a total of four methods out of which three have fixed delays (created using the Thread.sleep method) and one is a bubble sort method that populates and sorts an array of 5000 elements. We have plotted the response times as perceived by the users with and without the attached monitoring system. Figure 6 shows the results. Figure 6. Monitoring overhead A large increase in the number of simultaneous uses results in a similarly large increase in the number of object being created in the EJB container. When the monitoring system is used, the number of objects that are being managed by the container more than doubles since for each actual there is one spy responsible for signaling the monitor about specific events. However, the results show that even for large numbers of simultaneous users, the response times as perceived by them do not change dramatically when the monitoring system is used. VI. CONCLUSION Developers face important issues when building complex distributed applications and performance is probably the most important one. We have presented a number of approaches for monitoring Enterprise Beans application in order to help developers find performance problems when they arise. All the proposed methods have the disadvantage that the resulting server configuration will suffer performance losses compared to the original configuration. In method A, the modification of the EJB Objects will incur only a reasonably small overhead on the functionality of the system. Method B will generate a bigger performance loss because of the number of additional objects needed. However, tests have shown that even with method B, the performance alteration is not significant. Nevertheless, the purpose of both approaches is to provide a method for spotting the problems in the design and implementation of the system, and not to measure the performance of the unaltered system. So, even if the modified system will run slower, it will have enough information to point to the design hotspots, to assist developers in finding which are the most accessed methods and objects, which take the most time. REFERENCES [1] Sun Microsystems, Enterprise beans Technology, [2] Matjaz B. Juric, Ivan Rozman, Simon Nash 2 Distributed Object Middleware Performance Analysis and Optimization, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, August 2000, No. 8, pages [3] R. Weinreich, W. Kurschl, Dynamic Analysis of Distributed Object-Oriented Applications, Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference On System Sciences, January 6-9, 1997, Kona, Hawaii. [4] B. Sridharan, B. Dasarathy and A. P. Mathur, On Building Non-intrusive Performance Instrumentation Blocks for CORBA-based Distributed Systems, 4th IEEE International Computer Performance and Dependability Symposium, Chicago March [5] B. Sridharan, S. Mundkur and A. P. Mathur, Nonintrusive Testing, Monitoring and Control of Distributed CORBA Objects, TOOLS Europe 2000, St. Malo, France, June [6] F. Lange, R. Kroeger, M. Gergeleit, JEWEL: Design and Measurement of a Distributed Measurement System, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, November 1992, pages [7] Sun Microsystems, 2 Platform Enterprise Edition, [8] Mark Grand, Patterns in, Wiley Computer Publishing, [9] JOnAS Open Application Server, [10] Enhydra Enterprise Application Server,

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