Title page. Title: A conversation-analytic study of time-outs in the Dutch national volleyball. competition. Author: Maarten Breyten van der Meulen

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1 Title page Title: A conversation-analytic study of time-outs in the Dutch national volleyball competition Author: Maarten Breyten van der Meulen

2 A conversation-analytic study of time-outs in the Dutch national volleyball competition There are few studies of volleyball time-outs available. That is remarkable, given the professionalism and size of the sport worldwide. Therefore, choosing a topic of research for my thesis was rather straightforward. In the process of finishing my master s degree in communication studies at the University of Groningen I conducted a conversation-analytic study of volleyball time-outs. In this article, I will briefly describe the main results and recommendations based on the study. First, I will expatiate on conversation analysis and the main principles thereof. Then, I will expound on the main results, which will hopefully stimulate volleyball coaches to reflect on their communication during time-out. Conversation analysis in a nutshell Conversation analysis or discourse analysis is an area of research that analyses verbal communication, e.g. conversation. All sorts of conversation can be object of research such as telephone calls and television interviews, but also volleyball coaches time-outs. Time-outs are a very specific form of communication and follow fixed patterns of speech. The yell at the end of the time-out is an illustrative example of a fixed expression at a fixed moment. In conversation analysis, the researcher does not conduct experimental research, but reviews actual conversation. To be able to review conversation repeatedly,

3 conversation is recorded and written down word-by-word (that process is called transcription). Recording conversation is essential, because we only partially know what we do during conversation. Simultaneously, verifiability increases by this process. The results I will discuss below are based on 49 transcribed time-outs of 5 male coaches in the Dutch first- and second-highest level of competition. The transcriptions were explored in search of fixed patterns of speech, revealing the overall structure and reoccurring actions within that structure. The main aim of the study is to develop a conceptual framework that allows coaches to reflect on their communication in time-outs. Attitude-focused and game(strategy)-focused Reviewing the overall structure of time-outs, two categories emerge from the data: Attitude-focused and game(strategy)-focused time-outs. The coach instructs the team by using situations from the game in game(strategy)-focused time-outs, whereas mind-set or attitude is the centre of attention in attitude-focused time-outs. In game(strategy)-focused time-outs, the coach uses a problem/solution structure: He describes game-situation the problem and subsequently offers an instruction the solution to this problem. Most attitude-focused time-outs have characteristics of a pep talk, but also when the coach discusses mental factors, such as flow and willingness to take risks the coach in fact refers to player-attitude. Therefore, mental state as well as attitude can be the focus of attention in attitude-focused time-outs. In the majority of time-outs, the

4 coach describes the current mental state or a description from which that can be deduced, and subsequently describes what he would like to see. Thus, also attitudefocused time-outs have some sort of problem/solution structure. Despite of differences in content, the structure of attitude-focused and game(strategy)-focused time-outs is comparable. Due to the comparable structure, it will be no surprise that the boundaries between the described time-out categories are not as black and white as described above. Although most time-outs can, for the most part or fully, be placed in one of these two categories, some time-outs show elements of both categories. In many of those cases, the coach describes a problem in the game(strategy) and offers an attitudebased solution. Dialogue or monologue In most cases, the coach instructs in a larger unit of speech, a monologue, with the athletes in a listeners role. To create this larger unit of speech, the athletes will have to gather around the coach and listen. The coach signals this transition by using transition markers, such as okay, listen, or hey ladies. By using these transition markers, the coach constitutes athlete availability for a larger unit of speech. A short pause (<1 second) that comes up in most cases is used to assess athlete availability to listen and after that the coach can start by introducing the first topic. In some cases, athlete availability is unsatisfactory. The coach then uses stronger opening signals: okay is followed by listen or listen becomes pay attention. With these

5 proceedings the coach and athletes jointly constitute a so-called plenary participation framework. The fragment below exemplifies that: Extract 1: Monological time-out with transition markers 1 (fluitsignaal scheidsrechter) (whistle referee) 2 (9.4) 3 Coach: hee mannen we moe- hee guys we hav- 4 (0.9) 5 we moe-in deze fase moeten we ervoor waken dat we met we hav-in this phase have we to be careful that we with we hav-in this phase we have to be careful not to mind 6 andere dingen bezig gaan other things mind other things Transcription conventions (2.0) Pause of (for example) 2,0 seconds Afbre- Indicates an abrupt halt in utterance Time-out opening usually starts monologically: the coach asks for attention and determines the moment to express the first instruction. Now and then, transition markers are missing, but we can assume that transition is then marked nonverbally. The fragment below is an example of a time-out without transition markers. The coach immediately starts with a pep talk. Noteworthy is the immediate response of one of the athletes with a similar encouragement, thereby seemingly taking over the

6 coaches stimulating role. In this case, the athletes do not wait for instruction in a larger unit of speech, but participate in the pep talk. Interaction is therefore dialogical from the start, which also makes it harder for the coach to extend his instruction: Extract 2: Dialogical time-out without transition markers 1 Coach: time-out time-out 2 (2.0) 3 (fluitsignaal scheidsrechter) (whistle referee) 4 (2.5) 5 Coach: KOM OP WE GAan 'm gewoon pakken nog COME ON WE GO it just take still COME ON WE CAn still just take it 6 (0.5) 7 Speler: yes we gaan 'm PAkken straal dat- STRAAL DAT UIT yes we go it TAke express that-express THAT yes we can TAke it express that-express THAT Transcription conventions CAPITALS Utterance is noticeably louder than the text surrounding it Discussion between players Sometimes, the coach struggles to install the plenary participation framework. Athletes for instance discuss the referee s decisions or blocking strategy, right

7 before the start of the coaches instructions. The coach consequently has to soothe discussion and can only start instruction afterward. An example below: Extract 3: Soothing discussion 1 Coach: mag ik nog een time out? can I another time-out? can I have another time-out? 2 (fluitsignaal scheidsrechter) (whistle referee) 3 (3.2) 4 Speler: verdomme rechtdoor (weg)= dammit line (away)= 5 Coach: =>nee nee maakt niet uit maakt niet uit< =>no no does not matter does not matter< =>no no doesn t matter doesn t matter< 6 luister s goed listen carefully 7 (0.9) Predictability of conversation Conversation has all sorts of fixed patterns and structures. Predictability in the process helps efficiency. One way to improve predictability is to use topic markers, such as list markers. Examples of list markers are one, two, in addition and furthermore. Since most time-outs include one or two instructions, beginning a topic with a list marker improves clarity and predictability. Beginning topics with a list marker, such as first, indicates multiple topics, thus multiple instructions.

8 Explaining instructions List markers indicate the overall structure of a time-out. Within topics, the coach instructs his athletes and those instructions are nearly always surrounded by one or multiple accounts. Accounts are used to explain and justify instructions. The coach uses instructions to teach his athletes something on the spot and in such a way that his instruction will (hopefully) take effect immediately. The coach explains a recognisable situation in which alterations should be made, and also gives leads to the athletes how to incorporate the instructions. If an athlete understands why and how an instruction should be executed, instead of following it blindly, chances of success increase. Additionally, the athlete will sooner be willing to perform the instruction and it is plausible that the learning effect will maintain longer. An instruction often looks like this: 1) a situation or description of a problem (account); 2) the solution to that problem (instruction); 3) an advantage of the instruction (account). Extract 4: An instruction surrounded by accounts 1 Coach: (1) we spelen niet onaardig maar we hebben niet dat vuur in we play not bad but we have not that fire in (1) we don t play bad but we do not have the fire in 2 onze ogen wat we de vorige set hadden our eyes that we the last set had 3 (0.3) our eyes that we had the last set

9 4 (2) dat moeten we wel hebben that have we should have (2) we should have that 5 (3) want anders zijn we niet goed genoeg because otherwise are we not good enough (3) because otherwise we are not good enough In this extract, the coach gives a benefit-account in (2) by explaining what happens if the instruction is not followed. Three types of accounts emerge from the data: the problem-account, the benefitaccount and the boost-account. The problem-account occurs most frequently: the coach analyses a problematic type of game situation and offers the solution in the form of an instruction (e.g. extract 5). The coach uses the benefit-account to illustrate the benefit of the instruction (e.g. extract 6). And when coaches mainly aim on preservation of the current play, the boost-account is used (e.g. extract 7): Extract 5: Problem-account (1) followed by solution (2) 1 Coach: het enige waar ik vin dat we nog wat meer uit kunnen halen the only where I find that we yet some more out can benefit the only thing I think we should be able to benefit more from 2 is onze verdediging. (1) daar vallen nog wat te makkelijk is our defence. there fall still some too easy is our defence. (1) balls fall on the ground too easily 3 balletjes op de grond en dat is toch even een vorm van balls on the ground and that is still a from of and that s just a form of 4 agressiviteit hoor (2) dat is gewoon de bal willen- willen aggressiveness that is just the ball want- want

10 aggressiveness (2) that is just to be willing- to be willing to 5 pakken get go for the ball Extract 6: Instruction (1) followed by benefit-account (2) 1 Coach: (1) gewoon VOL rechtdoor dicht en vooral just completely line closed and especially (1) just keep the line closed completely and especially 2 bij die nummer zeven moet je echt echt rechtdoor with that number seven should you really really straight with that number seven you should really really close the 3 die wil alleen maar rechtdoor she wants just straight line she only wants line 4 (2) en als je dat goed doet en goed lang wacht and if you that well do and good long wait (2) and if you do that well and wait long enough 5 dan heb je 'm altijd rem je 'm of pak je 'm than got you it always slow down you it or get you it than you will always slow it down or kill it Fragment 7: Boost-account (1) followed by instruction (2) 1 Coach: luister (1) we komen elke keer terug listen we come every time back listen (1) we come back every time 2 (2) dat gaan we nu weer doen that go we now again do (2) and we will do that again now

11 End with a closing technique Coaches only have 30 seconds for their time-out, thus, closing the time-out is equally important as opening it. Coaches usually indicate the end of a time-out by stating a final game-instruction and compose it as a common statement or conclusion. For instance, they present the instruction as a commonly accepted truth with gewoon (just), elke bal (every ball), or altijd (always) (e.g. if you do, then you will always (extract 6)). Repetition is a commonly used closing technique as well. By repeating the words you started with, for example your first instruction, the circle is completed. Simultaneously, the instruction is repeated, which means players will enter the field with that instruction, and therefore, be more likely to execute it. An example of repetition as a closing technique of the time-out can be found in extract 8: Extract 8: Repetition as a closing technique 1 Coach: oke (.) ma-(nnen) okay (.) me-(n) 2 zeventien punten negen eigen fouten al seventeen points nine own faults already (20 lines omitted) 22 Coach: linkshandige middenman en eigen foutenlast beperken left-handed middle player and own mistakes limit left-handed middle player and limit our own mistakes 23 zeker in moeilijke situaties goeie oplossingen zoeken especially in difficult situations good solutions search 24 komaan search for good solutions especially in difficult situations comon

12 The main goal of the described research is to develop a conceptual framework that allows coaches to reflect on their communication in time-outs. In this article, I briefly described coach-athlete communication in time-outs. Development of more knowledge on volleyball can lead to a change of insights and thereby helps the development of the sport. Therefore, I sincerely hope that this article will stimulate volleyball coaches to think about their communication in time-outs and their coachathlete communication in general. References 1) Meulen, M. B. van der (2013). A conversation-analytic study of time-outs in the Dutch national competition (master s thesis). University of Groningen, The Netherlands 2) Mazeland, H. (2003). Inleiding in de conversatieanalyse. Bussum: Coutinho (English title: Introduction to conversation analysis)

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