1 Risk Assessment and Cloud Strategy Development: Getting it Right this Time! Barbara Endicott-Popovsky, PhD University of Washington Center of Information Assurance and Cybersecurity Kirsten Ferguson-Boucher Aberyswyth University, Wales Dept of Information Studies
2 If the Internet were a street, I wouldn t walk it in daytime 90% of traffic is spam 1-3% of all traffic is malicious Unprotected PC infected in minutes Organized crime makes more on the Internet than drugs fda7ha?docid=cng.a00f a06189a0276c763e93a4.131 Take from Internet >doubles e-commerce
3 It is not pretty out there CYBER-CRIME Courtesy: K. Bailey/E. Hayden, CISOs
5 Cyber Attack Sophistication Continues To Evolve High Intruder Knowledge Attack Sophistication Low disabling audits self-replicating code password guessing Source: CERT 2004 back doors sweepers exploiting known vulnerabilities password cracking packet spoofing burglaries sniffers hijacking sessions Cross site scripting stealth / advanced scanning techniques Staged denial of service attack distributed Tools attack tools www attacks automated probes/scans GUI network mgmt. diagnostics Attackers Technical Skills bots Courtesy: K. Bailey/E. Hayden, CISOs
6 What have we learned from our experiences with the Internet? DESIGN IN CYBER SECURITY!! 6
7 Internet Conceptual Design Requirements: Purpose: Connect limited number of trusted researchers Permit sharing of limited computer resources Survive subordinate-network losses Share research data Two communications Not considered: CYBER SECURITY! 7
8 What lessons can users transfer to the Cloud? DESIGN IN CYBER SECURITY!! 8
9 Center for Information Assurance and Cybersecurity NSA-CAE-R Projects Grants Publications Community Sponsors Research Research IP Consulting Directed Research Classes Workshops UW Certificates Agora Practitioner Community Community Outreach Academics PRCCDC IRMSCI Institute Unintended Consequences Lecture Series
10 The Ponemon Institute, April 2011 SECURITY OF CLOUD COMPUTING PROVIDERS STUDY 10
11 Summary Findings "These findings indicate that respondents overwhelmingly believe it is the responsibility of users of cloud computing to ensure the security of cloud resources they provide. The majority does not believe their cloud services include the protection of sensitive data. Further, only 19 percent of US cloud providers and 18 percent of European cloud providers strongly agree or agree that their organization perceives security as a competitive advantage in the cloud marketplace." 11
12 Cloud Provider Sample Size 12
13 Lack of Confidence in Security of Cloud Resources
14 Who is Most Responsible for Ensuring Security of Cloud Resources? 14
15 Country Locations of European Sample 15
16 Who is Most Concerned about Cloud Security
17 UK Perspective STORING INFORMATION IN THE CLOUD 17
18 Research aim: UK context Investigate the management, operational and technical issues surrounding the storage of information in the cloud and provide an overview of Cloud Computing uses and challenges relating to common records keeping practices Develop a toolkit to assist Information Professionals in assessing the risks and benefits of outsourcing information storage and processing in the cloud
19 Research methodology Literature Review on CC and Information Governance and Assurance Evidence still in early adoption stage in which technical concerns and product reviews dominate Consultations: Online questionnaire (further evidence of embryonic stage still to gain ground with information professionals in the UK ) Interviews (3 case studies Guardian Media Group, Melrose Resources and the Cabinet Office, UK government) Event Storing Information in the Cloud Unconference: Manchester, England
20 Survey results 30% have used CC for <1 17% are actively planning to use CC 41% interested but no active plans
21 Main concerns Destruction of data Loss of control over data Data protection Confidentiality Availability of service
22 Governance: What are the issues? Privacy/Data protection Compliance and e-discovery Integrity of data Confidentiality of data/unauthorised access Ability to audit service Loss of control over data and services
23 Unconference outcomes: RISK to the organisation Cloud computing is based on risk-assessment and establishing a trust relationship with providers Know the risks and make a choice!
24 Toolkit for outsourcing to the cloud Top ten questions 1. Which process, application and information can be moved to the cloud to gain efficiency and cost benefits while satisfying the organisation s security and compliance requirements? 2. How can the organisation be harmed if systems, applications, services or information are accessed by unauthorised people and information is being made available to the public? 3. How are information and systems protected against unauthorised access (e.g. hacking, interception, user misuse) by the cloud service provider? 4. How can the organisation ensure the integrity, authenticity and reliability of information stored in the cloud? 5. What are the organisation s responsibilities regarding the security of infrastructure and information in the cloud for the chosen cloud service and deployment models?
25 Toolkit for outsourcing to the cloud Top ten questions continued How can the organisation apply its records and information management programmes (e.g. classification, retention) to the cloud environment? What is the impact of outsourcing services and information to the cloud on the legislative and regulatory requirements of the organisation (e.g. DP, FOI, SOX, e-discovery, copyright, licensing etc.)? How should the organisation audit and monitor cloud services and establish relevant service level agreements? Will the organisation be able to negotiate contracts and agreements that fit their risk assessment and compliance environment? What are the total costs of setting up and managing the cloud services?
26 Top 10 of Cloud Computing Concerns these cluster loosely into those attendant with performance, specifically efficiency and cost, monitoring and total costs; those relating to alignment with organisational objectives i.e. organisational responsibility and impact of outsourcing; those associated with ensuring information assurance and value through information governance and assurance programmes and the protection of systems; the perceived risk to the organisation and the robustness of the contracts and outsourcing procedures figured highly in ranking.
27 Top 10 of Cloud Computing Concerns It is clear from the findings that many of the concerns associated with cloud computing relate to specifically to information governance and assurance, i.e. the handling of data in the cloud. Decisions must be taken after consideration of the wider context of organisational strategy.
28 Information Governance and Assurance They form part of a complex structure of assessments regarding information value, alignment, performance and assurance. All of these operate within an overreaching risk framework. VAAPR: pronounced Vapour: Value; Alignment, Assurance in Performance and Risk framework Holistic approach to information governance and assurance
29 Information Governance and Assurance Take advantage of changes in user practice for the organisational objectives Work in conjunction with existing processes and procedures Add value, but ensure assured and operating within performance and risk framework There are different concerns when preparing to use cloud computing services, to those most relevant when managing and ultimately operating in the cloud
30 Guide to data governance for privacy, confidentiality and compliance Data classification and quality; protective measures, data partitioning and processing; compliance and risk management, identity and access management; service integrity, endpoint integrity Moving into the cloud: viability, transparency, compliance Secure infrastructure, identity and access control, information protection, auditing and reporting Data privacy principles Risk/gap analysis
31 Toolkit for outsourcing to the cloud Preparing for the cloud Information classification Risk assessment Managing the cloud Information management Compliance Contract and cost Monitoring, auditing and reporting Operating in the cloud Security Availability Identity and access management
32 Preparing for the Cloud initial deliberations focus on alignment with business objectives: the legal framework in which organisations operate, the existing internal systems for staff and other resources, the IT infrastructure and central business drivers and current initiatives. different for each organisation, effective anticipation of the related risks and the identification of mitigation strategies. value added elements that information can bring to the organisation: identification of the information to be serviced in the cloud and some form of classification to enable its retrieval and effective usage.
33 Managing the Cloud assurance and performance aspects of information governance and assurance guarantees relating to the continuing authenticity, reliability and integrity of the information contracts and service agreements are the documents which embody these understandings and support the specific nature of these arrangements. cost/benefit analyses and indeed the wider performance measurements which can be used to assess how effective, efficient, flexible and therefore sufficient the cloud solution is proving necessitate constant monitoring. clear exit strategy continually reassessing and reapplying the risk criteria, across the spectrum of information governance concerns, a balanced approach to cloud usage is achievable.
34 Operating in the Cloud information assurance and information value: assessing policies and procedures for physical, personnel, infrastructure, information and access security. availability of the service, appropriate provision of access to information, business continuity: continuing access to information despite interruptions and failures at any stage of the lifecycle, combined approaches to governance and assurance challenges should ensure robust and comprehensive solutions.
35 Information management Consideration: ensure that information stored in the cloud will be managed according to the organisations information management and compliance programmes in order to maintain authenticity, reliability and integrity of information over time and to ensure that information is accessible and retrievable for legal and regulatory compliance.
36 Managing in the cloud: Information Management Rationale: The organisation needs to ensure that policies and procedures surrounding the management of the whole life-cycle of information are administered and validated for information stored in the cloud in the same way they are administered onsite. The main aspects of managing records are the classification, appraisal and disposal of information in order to improve efficiency and facilitate compliance
37 Questions - general What impact will the management of information stored in the cloud have on existing information management policies and procedures Can cloud providers assure that their information security systems can support the authenticity and reliability of the organization s information, including metadata and log files Will it be possible to show that information is fully encrypted and protected against unauthorised disclosure
38 Questions make and fix In what format is information created, transferred and stored in the cloud What implication does the format of information stored in the cloud have for access, retrieval and preservation What metadata can be applied to information stored in the cloud and can it be managed and searched Does the organisation need to apply additional metadata to information stored in the cloud than it would apply to information stored in-house? What kind of metadata would that be?
39 Questions keep and seek classified (full classification) and supplied with relevant metadata to ensure efficient identification and retrieval provisioned access and usage rights to categories of information retention and disposal schedules how are they applied and executed how will information be destroyed overwritten timescales available, audit and certification of destruction preservation needs permanent or long term retention transferred to digital archive? place of legal deposit? remain in the cloud?
40 Define the risks Legal Risk we don t ensure that the right stuff including the content, context and structure is selected to meet legal requirements Structural Risk we don t design systems and architecture so that the right stuff is suitably managed through out the lifecycle System Risk we don t monitor the activities throughout the lifecycle of the digital object Business Risk we don t monitor the activities sufficiently to ensure that the creators, managers and users are adhering to the rules and regulations that have been put in place
41 Risk framework Business Quadrant: data mining and security Legal Quadrant: data governance Controls Checks Access Appraisal Authenticity Confidentiality System Quadrant: data repositories/ warehousing Containers Preservation Availability Context Classification Reliability/ integrity Structure Quadrant: data classification and metadata
42 Solutions Business Quadrant: data mining and harvesting Legal Quadrant: data governance Controls: access security and enabling Checks: appraisal retention and disposal System Quadrant: data warehousing and repositories Containers: information assurance, digital preservation Context: Business classification schemesrecords plans and thesaurus Structure Quadrant: data classification and binding
43 Future Research little actual research has been undertaken to formally assess the impact of Cloud Computing on professional information management practice. Many existing publications focus predominantly on the technical issues and many of the wider compliance and organisational issues are not fully addressed issues relating to trust and understanding, relating to the benefits and also the challenges to organisational governance provided by moving digital assets to the cloud benefits in broadening the Cloud Computing Toolkit to include wider Information Governance and Assurance dimensions, which are of concern for all organisations in making any cloud or technology implementation decisions and which impact directly on the confidence of decision makers regarding their strategies genericized to for all information, regardless of format, to include data held on mobile technologies, social media and technologies of the future
44 Contact Information Kirsten Ferguson-Boucher Aberyswyth University, Wales Barbara Endicott-Popovsky University of Washington Center for Information Assurance and Cybersecurity 44
45 Questions? 45
46 Security of Cloud Computing Providers Study Ponemon Institute April, 2011
47 (Cont d.)
48 A list of cloud computing resources relevant to the records and information management community has been made available on Google Docs and can be accessed at https://docs.google.com/doc?docid=0aumd4s CCg7uaZGRxczNybndfMTZjODM4bXhmNw&hl= en. Everyone can contribute further relevant resources to the Google document. Online resources have been bookmarked in Delicious and are available at
49 Outcomes of the unconference in the form of participants concerns and suggestions widely inform the findings and recommendations of this report. Speaker sessions and participant feedback have been recorded and are available at The toolkit: ents/cloud_computing_toolkit-2.pdf
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