Why mobile phone masts can be more dangerous than the phones

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Why mobile phone masts can be more dangerous than the phones"

Transcription

1 Why mobile phone masts can be more dangerous than the phones Andrew Goldsworthy BSc PhD, March 2008 Abstract Living cells have a range of negative feedback mechanisms that sense nonthermal radiation damage and use it to trigger various defence systems. These systems are expensive in energy and resources and also reduce metabolic efficiency. The object therefore has to be to keep this damage within tolerable limits rather than to eliminate it. They do this by cutting in only when they approach the limits of toleration. The effect is to keep the damage at or close to these trigger points over a wide range of radiation levels, ranging from that due to a mobile phone handset held close to the head, to that from a mast, which may be hundreds of metres away. The radiation from a handset may actually be less damaging since it is used only intermittently and the body has a chance to recover in between times. However, continuous irradiation from mobile phone base stations, DECT phone base stations and Wifi routers may not allow adequate recovery time, so chronic irradiation from these sources could be far more damaging and more likely to result in cancer, allergy-related conditions and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. There is an urgent need for further research in this area, since the assumption that the only biological effects of non-ionising radiation are due to heating, and fall off rapidly with distance, no longer fits the facts. Introduction People living close to mobile phone masts (base stations) frequently report symptoms of electromagnetic hypersensitivity such as dizziness, headaches, skin conditions, allergies and many others, the mechanisms for which are only just beginning to be understood (see The Dangers of Electromagnetic Smog). There is also growing anecdotal evidence for cancer clusters forming around them. However, we are regularly told by the mobile phone industry that these base stations are safe because their microwave radiation falls off rapidly with distance and is far too low to generate significant heat. Sadly, this is not true. It is based on the false assumption that it is only their heating effect that can cause damage and a serious misunderstanding of the ways in which living organisms use negative feedback to respond to changes

2 Dr. Goldsworthy on effects of EMR 2 in their environment, including the metabolic insults from mobile phones. There are hundreds of scientific papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals showing biological effects from non-ionising radiation that may be hundreds or thousands of times below the levels that cause significant heating (see Bioinitiative). Furthermore, these non-thermal effects include many independent and well-replicated studies showing that the radiation from mobile phone handsets can cause serious damage to the DNA of living cells in less than 24 hours, so we cannot regard these handsets as being safe for anything other than short-term use. Because of the extreme sensitivity of at least some cells to mobile phone radiation, it is likely that the much weaker radiation reaching people living or working close to base stations will also suffer adverse effects. Claims by the mobile phone industry that the base stations are safe because the radiation falls off rapidly with distance are flawed. Although the radiation level does indeed fall off as they say, the biological response will remain more or less constant over a wide range of signal strengths due to the ways in which living cells routinely use negative feedback to compensate for changes in their environment. Negative feedback The concept of negative feedback is extremely simple. For example, if your house is too hot you turn the heating down. This not only makes you feel more comfortable, it also saves fuel. You may regulate the heating manually or you might have a thermostat that does it for you by cutting off the heat when the temperature reaches a predetermined value. In either case, the effect is the same; whenever the temperature isn t right, the thermostat tries to correct it by making the heating system respond in the opposite direction; this is termed negative feedback. Negative feedback is also very familiar to engineers in the electronics industries where it has countless applications. A simple example is the automatic gain control in some radios. This feeds some of the signal going to the loudspeaker back to the amplifier section so that if it is too loud it turns down the gain to keep the sound volume more or less constant over a wide range of signal strengths. As you will soon see, this is very relevant to the way in which the different signal strengths from mobile phones and their base stations can give very similar biological responses. Negative feedback in living organisms

3 Dr. Goldsworthy on effects of EMR 3 Living organisms are full of negative feedback systems, where they are essential to their normal function and ability to respond to an ever-changing environment. For example, if your body finds that it has too much of a particular biochemical, it may turn down or turn off the activity of the enzyme system that makes it. This not only keeps other systems that depend on this chemical running smoothly, it also stops the body wasting resources by making a substance that it doesn t need. Biological feedback and non-thermal radiation So how does this form of biological feedback relate to mobile phones and their masts? Put very simply, because of the extreme sensitivity of at least some living cells to weak non-ionising radiation (see Bioinitiative), the question is not why the weak radiation from a distant mast does so much damage, it is why a handset next to the ear doesn t do very much more. The answer lies in our own negative feedback systems. The body is well able to detect the radiation and the resulting damage. It then puts into action a range of negative feedback measures to mitigate the effects. One of the most damaging effects of this form of radiation is the loss of some of the calcium that normally strengthens cell membranes (see Non-thermal bioelectromagnetic effects explained: Why calcium and potassium effects in the research are so important, for a simple explanation). This results in an increased leakage of materials through cell membranes that can affect many aspects of metabolism. These include damage to DNA, from digestive enzymes leaking from lysosomes (tiny membrane-bound structures in living cells that normally recycle waste), apoptosis (cell death), the generation of false nerve impulses from calcium leakage in brain cells (causing hyperactivity, impairing normal mental function and generating many of the known symptoms of electromagnetic hypersensitivity) (see The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields). Defence mechanisms Calcium expulsion The entry of free calcium ions into living cells is normally carefully regulated and small changes in their concentration play a vital role in controlling many aspects of metabolism. These can be disrupted if electromagnetically-induced

4 Dr. Goldsworthy on effects of EMR 4 membrane leakage lets extra and unscheduled amounts of calcium into the cell, either from the outside or from calcium stores inside. To compensate for this, there is a negative feedback mechanism that pumps surplus calcium out again, but this must be limited since, if the pumping were too effective, it would interfere with the small changes in calcium that normally control metabolism. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) The activation of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase is triggered by calcium leaking into cells and by nitric oxide produced by damaged mitochondria (membrane-bound particles that provide most of a cell s energy) The role of Nitric Oxide). This enzyme leads to the production of chemicals called polyamines that help protect DNA, and the other nucleic acids needed for protein synthesis from damage, including that from digestive enzymes leaking from lysosomes. Heat-shock proteins (HSP) These are perhaps wrongly named because they can also be produced directly in response to electromagnetic radiation at levels thousands of times lower than that which can generate significant heat. Their job is to combine with vital enzymes, putting them into a sort of cocoon that protects them from damage, but this also stops them working properly. Short-term limitations All of these negative feedback mechanisms are triggered by radiationdamage or directly by the radiation itself, and there may also be others that we still don t know about. Their collective role is to try to limit the damage, but they cannot completely eliminate it without disrupting the cell s normal functions. Consequently, they will be programmed not to cut in until the damage approaches intolerable levels. This effect will maintain the damage and observable symptoms close to the levels at which they cut in over a wide range of radiation intensities. Consequently, any adverse effects and observable symptoms, such as headaches and dizziness, from distant masts and local handsets may be approximately the same, at least in the short

5 Dr. Goldsworthy on effects of EMR 5 term. Long-term limitations Defence mechanisms against non-ionising radiation almost certainly evolved over countless millions of years to protect living organism from weak natural radiation such as the wide-band radiation from thunderstorms that we now perceive as static on our radio sets. However, they are designed only for intermittent use because they disrupt normal metabolism and are expensive in bodily resources and energy. These resources have to come from somewhere. Some may be drawn from our physical energy, making us feel tired. Some may come from our immune system, making us less resistant to disease and cancer. There is no hidden reserve. As it is, our bodies are constantly juggling resources to put them to best use. For example, during the day, they are directed towards physical activity but during the night, they are diverted to repair processes and to the immune system. Day and night irradiation from mobile phone masts (which run continuously) is likely to affect both, with little or no chance to recover. In the long term, this is likely to cause chronic fatigue, serious immune dysfunction leading to an increased risk of cancer, and many of the other symptoms frequently reported by people living close to mobile phone base stations. There are also a growing number of anecdotal reports that the continuous radiation from DECT phone base stations and Wifi routers can have similar effects, so that these too should be considered as being potentially unsafe. We should perhaps add to these the growing use of DECT cordless baby alarms. Although to date there is no firm evidence of adverse effects, these devices irradiate the baby continuously from nearby, but the child is probably too young to report the symptoms. In this case, a delay in the onset of sleep due to brain hyperactivity could be an early warning of potential longer-term damage that may not become apparent until later life. Even a mobile phone left switched on nearby has been shown to disrupt normal sleep rhythms in adults.

6 Dr. Goldsworthy on effects of EMR 6 Why we are not all affected This is due to natural biological variability and is quite normal. For example, not everyone who smokes dies of cancer; it just increases the risk. Similarly, not everyone will be equally affected by non-ionising radiation. There could be many reasons for this; some people may have higher levels of calcium in their blood, which will help stabilise their cell membranes. Others may have more effective natural defence mechanisms or mechanisms that cut in at different levels. Other people may have had their defence systems impaired, by either illness or prolonged electromagnetic exposure. Many more may be affected but have just put it down to the general stress of modern living and have not yet made the link between their symptoms and their now almost universal electromagnetic exposure. However, even if you are one of the lucky ones who suffer no obvious shortterm adverse effects from electromagnetic radiation, there is no cause for complacency. There is no guarantee that you will not suffer long-term effects or that the apparent lack of effect will continue as the general levels of electromagnetic exposure rise and our steadily aging bodies become less and less able to cope. What can we do about it? Very few people would want to give up their mobile phones, but if you have one, for your own personal safety, it is best to keep your calls on it short and relatively infrequent so that your body has a chance to recover in between times. Use text (which takes seconds to transmit) rather than voice calls and avoid making unnecessary downloads from the Internet. The choice is yours, but spare a thought for the people living near the base stations. Some of them may be more badly affected by their continuous irradiation but they have no choice. Your mobile calls will contribute to their problems, so your restraint may help them too. Postscript At present, legislation by many governments (presumably at the request of the mobile phone operators) prevents anyone objecting to the location of base stations on health grounds, and they have been advised not to recognise the problem. I hope that this article may go some way to achieving

7 Dr. Goldsworthy on effects of EMR 7 this much-needed recognition. The problem is far more serious than anyone has previously imagined. I have little doubt that the mobile phone industry will seek to dismiss this article as being mere theory. Yes, it is theoretical, but I have based it on known and well-established facts, and it fits these facts far more closely than their own assertions that the only possible biological effects of this sort of radiation are due to heating and that the radiation from base stations is therefore safe. In the light of these observations, I believe that the time may now have come for an urgent and independent reassessment of the situation based on new and thorough epidemiological, biochemical and medical research on the effects on humans of chronic irradiation. In the meantime, it would be advisable to call for a moratorium on the further expansion of these wireless services until the outcomes of this research become available, and safer means of mobile wireless communication devised. Andrew Goldsworthy BSc PhD is an Honorary Lecturer in Biology at Imperial College London.

Cell Phone. Radiation MCSA NEWS INSIDE THIS ISSUE: VOLUME 4 ISSUE 8 AUGUST Cell Phone Radiation. Walkup Talks Disability

Cell Phone. Radiation MCSA NEWS INSIDE THIS ISSUE: VOLUME 4 ISSUE 8 AUGUST Cell Phone Radiation. Walkup Talks Disability INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Cell Phone Radiation 1 MCSA NEWS VOLUME 4 ISSUE 8 AUGUST 2009 Walkup Talks Disability Vaccine Adjuvant Questioned Relationships and MCS Stephen s Healthy House Dampness Linked to Allergies

More information

What are radio signals?

What are radio signals? Mobile phones and other wireless technologies have become an integral part of everyday life. But does using a mobile phone regularly, or living near a base station, have any implications for our health?

More information

Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer

Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer June, 2011 Health Concerns About Cellular Phone Transmission Antennae and Base Stations In 2005, in response to community concerns and after reviewing the

More information

Regulation for wireless telecommunication equipment

Regulation for wireless telecommunication equipment Wireless devices Regulation for wireless telecommunication equipment * Wireless home telephones * Baby monitors * Wireless on the Internet * Bluetooth * Comparison of SAR values Introduction Do you wonder

More information

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1 SINGAPORE, 16 AUGUST 2001 HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY PRESS RELEASE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1 THE EMF HEALTH ISSUE 1 Over the past years a large number of scientific

More information

Mobile. Task 1. Report2: Mobile Phones and Radiation Page 1

Mobile. Task 1. Report2: Mobile Phones and Radiation Page 1 Mobile 2 Phones and Radiation Starting Point You may have seen headlines in newspapers and stories on TV about the health dangers of mobile phones. Some people have said they may cause cancer and infertility.

More information

Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long-term epidemiologic data. Surgical Neurology September 2009; 72; pp.

Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long-term epidemiologic data. Surgical Neurology September 2009; 72; pp. Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long-term epidemiologic data 1 Surgical Neurology September 2009; 72; pp. 205 215 Vini G. Khurana, PhD, FRACS, Charles Teo, MBBS, FRACS, Michael Kundi,

More information

Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp.

Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp. Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use 1 Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp. 799-807 Rash Bihari Dubey, Madasu Hanmandlu, PhD, and Suresh Kumar Gupta,

More information

Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters

Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters by Daniel Hirsch 1 31 January 2011 Abstract The draft report by the

More information

What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion

What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion AMTA relies on the expert judgment of independent public health authorities, such as the World Health Organization, for assessments of safety and

More information

Mobile use, radio signals and health

Mobile use, radio signals and health Mobile use, radio signals and health Mobile use, radio signals and health How does the mobile network work? Since the 1970s, the use of various types of radio transmitters has risen dramatically, to the

More information

within body bioelectricity is a biofield. It is due to concentration gradient generated across membrane of the cell.

within body bioelectricity is a biofield. It is due to concentration gradient generated across membrane of the cell. ABSRACT The thesis entitled A study of effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on health is based on observing influence of electromagnetic fields around us. Electromagnetic radiation may have an effect

More information

Harmonifi TM radiation guard

Harmonifi TM radiation guard Harmonifi TM radiation guard is based on innovative technology that protects you against mobile phone radiation. Email: info@harmonifi.com Web: www.harmonifi.com Social Media: @harmonifi Patented Swiss

More information

EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications. Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section

EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications. Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section Introduction How can we use Wireless Communication Safely? Wireless communication

More information

Understanding. Depression. The Road to Feeling Better Helping Yourself. Your Treatment Options A Note for Family Members

Understanding. Depression. The Road to Feeling Better Helping Yourself. Your Treatment Options A Note for Family Members TM Understanding Depression The Road to Feeling Better Helping Yourself Your Treatment Options A Note for Family Members Understanding Depression Depression is a biological illness. It affects more than

More information

Cell Phone Safety Recommendations

Cell Phone Safety Recommendations DANGER OF USING HANDPHONE - CAUTION!!! Dr. Carlo was hired by the Cellular Telephone Industry Association in 1993 to lead a $28 million, 7-year research program to determine if cell phones were safe. He

More information

Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies. Biochemistry Journal. August 1, 2007 405, pp.

Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies. Biochemistry Journal. August 1, 2007 405, pp. Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies 1 Biochemistry Journal August 1, 2007 405, pp. 559 568 Joseph Friedman, Sarah Kraus, Yirmi Hauptman, Yoni Schiff

More information

Are you feeling... Tired, Sad, Angry, Irritable, Hopeless?

Are you feeling... Tired, Sad, Angry, Irritable, Hopeless? Are you feeling... Tired, Sad, Angry, Irritable, Hopeless? I feel tired and achy all the time. I can t concentrate and my body just doesn t feel right. Ray B. I don t want to get out of bed in the morning

More information

Measurement of Protection from Cell Phone Radiation by 8ight Protect Disc

Measurement of Protection from Cell Phone Radiation by 8ight Protect Disc Measurement of Protection from Radiation by Protect Disc Research conducted by Lisa Tully, PhD, lisatully@earthlink.net Energy Medicine Research Institute, Boulder, CO May, Abstract A study was conducted

More information

Cellphones: Safe or Carcinogenic? Scientist 1 Scientist 2 non- ionizing radiation

Cellphones: Safe or Carcinogenic? Scientist 1 Scientist 2 non- ionizing radiation Cellphones: Safe or Carcinogenic? With an estimated five billion worldwide users, the public debate over cellphone and the possible link to cancer is one of critical importance. The concern is that cellphones

More information

ABOUT CONCUSSION. Head Injury Fact sheet

ABOUT CONCUSSION. Head Injury Fact sheet Head Injury Fact sheet 11 Somerset Street / PO Box 1168 Hamilton Telephone (07) 839 1191 Fax (07) 839 5648 Email: admin@thinknz.org.nz ABOUT CONCUSSION CONTENTS Information compiled by D Gronwall, PhD

More information

How safe are mobile phones?

How safe are mobile phones? How safe are mobile phones? Q This unit is about why scientists disagree. Different people produce different results and sometimes different people interpret the same results in a different way. The recent

More information

Lesson 1: Looking at risk. Mobiles: are they worth the risk? Rationale. Equipment. Starter

Lesson 1: Looking at risk. Mobiles: are they worth the risk? Rationale. Equipment. Starter Mobiles: are they worth the risk? This series of lessons combines young people s interest in mobile phones with the opportunity to develop their understanding of the effect that microwaves may have on

More information

About MS. An introduction to. An introduction to multiple sclerosis for people who have recently been diagnosed. What is MS? Is it common?

About MS. An introduction to. An introduction to multiple sclerosis for people who have recently been diagnosed. What is MS? Is it common? An introduction to multiple sclerosis for people who have recently been diagnosed When you have just been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, you will probably have many questions about the condition and

More information

Why Our Urban Trees Are Dying

Why Our Urban Trees Are Dying P A G E 6 Op-Ed Why Our Urban Trees Are Dying - Andrew Goldsworthy, PhD Electricity is carried in living organisms by ions. Introduction Trees are now dying mysteriously from a variety of diseases in urban

More information

It is much more than just feeling tired. It is described by people in many ways such as exhausting, overwhelming sleepiness and weakness.

It is much more than just feeling tired. It is described by people in many ways such as exhausting, overwhelming sleepiness and weakness. Choices Fatigue Fatigue is one of the most common invisible symptoms of MS and one which can have a major impact on all aspects of life. For some people it is the symptom that affects them the most. It

More information

CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER

CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER INTRODUCTION We are witnessing an era of great discovery in the field of cancer research. New insights into the causes and development of cancer are emerging. These discoveries

More information

Section 15.3 Long-Term Risks of Alcohol

Section 15.3 Long-Term Risks of Alcohol Objectives Identify five serious physical effects of longterm alcohol abuse. Describe the three stages of alcoholism. List in order three steps taken during recovery from alcoholism. Slide 1 of 25 Myth

More information

Therapies for Treatment- Resistant Depression. A Review of the Research

Therapies for Treatment- Resistant Depression. A Review of the Research Therapies for Treatment- Resistant Depression A Review of the Research Is This Information Right for Me or Someone I Care For? Yes, if: A doctor or health care professional has told you that you have major

More information

Overtraining with Resistance Exercise

Overtraining with Resistance Exercise ACSM CURRENT COMMENT Overtraining with Resistance Exercise One of the fastest growing and most popular types of exercise in recent years is resistance exercise, whether used for the purpose of general

More information

Indoor Environment Electromagnetic Radiation

Indoor Environment Electromagnetic Radiation Indoor Environment Electromagnetic Radiation Purpose: To increase the students awareness of the sources of electric and magnetic fields and the potential for adverse health effects from prolonged exposure

More information

How To Stop Smoking. Tamra Casper

How To Stop Smoking. Tamra Casper How To Stop Smoking Tamra Casper Ugly Facts About Smoking 52 million Americans smoke cigarettes. 400,000 people in this country die every year due to smoking related illnesses. Each cigarette you smoke

More information

Chapter 7. The Cell: Endomembrane System Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Vacuoles, Vesicles.

Chapter 7. The Cell: Endomembrane System Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Vacuoles, Vesicles. Chapter 7. The Cell: Endomembrane System Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Vacuoles, Vesicles Overview Play key role in synthesis (& hydrolysis) of macromolecules in cell

More information

Stress Guidance for Managers

Stress Guidance for Managers Stress Guidance for Managers The University has adopted a wellbeing approach to the management of stress and has revised its Management of Stress policy. The wellbeing approach is underpinned by a recognition

More information

ISO IEC 27002 2005 (17799 2005) INFORMATION SECURITY AUDIT TOOL

ISO IEC 27002 2005 (17799 2005) INFORMATION SECURITY AUDIT TOOL 9.1 USE SECURITY AREAS TO PROTECT FACILITIES 1 GOAL Do you use physical methods to prevent unauthorized access to your organization s information and premises? 2 GOAL Do you use physical methods to prevent

More information

Young Person s Guide to CFS/ME

Young Person s Guide to CFS/ME Young Person s Guide to CFS/ME The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health This leaflet has been developed as part of the Evidence based guideline for management of CFS/ME (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

More information

Wellness Recovery Action Plan WRAP. Personal Workbook

Wellness Recovery Action Plan WRAP. Personal Workbook Wellness Recovery Action Plan WRAP Personal Workbook GR/LD April 2004 Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) The Wellness Recovery Action Plan is a framework with which you can develop an effective approach

More information

Fatigue. Version 1. Prevention in the NZ Workplace. Fatigue prevention Version 1 July 2014

Fatigue. Version 1. Prevention in the NZ Workplace. Fatigue prevention Version 1 July 2014 Fatigue Prevention in the NZ Workplace Version 1 1 Contents Introduction... 3 What is Fatigue?... 4 Risk Management Approach to Fatigue... 5 Appendices... 11 Toolbox Talks: A, B, C.... 122 Heat Safety

More information

BLM Emerging Risks Team - Report on Mobile Phones/EMFs

BLM Emerging Risks Team - Report on Mobile Phones/EMFs BLM Emerging Risks Team - Report on Mobile Phones/EMFs November 2014 Malcolm Keen Solicitor, BLM London T 020 7865 3381 E Malcolm.keen@blmlaw.com 1 Introduction Use of mobile phones has of course increased

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell

More information

2. When temperature and wind chill falls below 35 degrees including the wind chill, students, are kept indoors.

2. When temperature and wind chill falls below 35 degrees including the wind chill, students, are kept indoors. Weather /Environmental Guidelines Time spent outdoors is an important part of the school day. It is difficult to set guidelines that fit every circumstance and condition in regards to outside activities.

More information

HOW GREEN IS YOUR CORDLESS PHONE? RF RADIATION REVIEW

HOW GREEN IS YOUR CORDLESS PHONE? RF RADIATION REVIEW HOW GREEN IS YOUR CORDLESS PHONE? RF RADIATION REVIEW WHAT DOES GREEN MEAN? The term green is the magic word of today and is being use ubiquitously with many products and processes for the indoor environment.

More information

MANAGING ANEMIA. When You Have Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure. www.kidney.org

MANAGING ANEMIA. When You Have Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure. www.kidney.org MANAGING ANEMIA When You Have Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure www.kidney.org About the Information in this Booklet Did you know that the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) offers guidelines and commentaries

More information

MOBILE PHONE MASTS COUNCILLOR NORMAN NUNN-PRICE 25 NOVEMBER 2006

MOBILE PHONE MASTS COUNCILLOR NORMAN NUNN-PRICE 25 NOVEMBER 2006 MOBILE PHONE MASTS COUNCILLOR NORMAN NUNN-PRICE 25 NOVEMBER 2006 Summary This paper is written in order to help the Working Party to formulate a practical policy on the siting of Mobile Phone Masts that

More information

UNDERSTANDING NEUROTRANSMITTER DISEASE (ND)

UNDERSTANDING NEUROTRANSMITTER DISEASE (ND) UNDERSTANDING NEUROTRANSMITTER DISEASE (ND) What are neurotransmitters? Normal brain function depends on good communication of information between nerve cells. Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers

More information

But You Look So Good!

But You Look So Good! But You Look So Good! Fotini (middle), diagnosed in 2007 My neurologist, my family doctor, even my aunt s visiting nurse they all say but you look so good for someone who has MS. My family seems to assume

More information

Physiology Chapter 1 Lecture

Physiology Chapter 1 Lecture Physiology Chapter 1 Lecture I. Anatomy and Physiology - structure and function. *many subdivisions in both areas. See Table 1.1, page 2 *structure and function are interrelated, the structure often determines

More information

CELL PHONE TOWERS TOWN OF INNISFIL

CELL PHONE TOWERS TOWN OF INNISFIL CELL PHONE TOWERS TOWN OF INNISFIL Dr. Jim Pfaff, MD, BSc, MHSc, DAvMed, Associate Medical Officer of Health Marina Whelan, CPHI (C), BSc., Manager, Health Hazards Lori Holmes, CPHI (C), BASc, Coordinator,

More information

Diabetes. Supporting Disabled Members in the Workplace. This short factsheet has been developed to help reps who are supporting members with diabetes.

Diabetes. Supporting Disabled Members in the Workplace. This short factsheet has been developed to help reps who are supporting members with diabetes. Supporting Disabled Members in the Workplace Diabetes This short factsheet has been developed to help reps who are supporting members with diabetes. Someone with diabetes may be entitled to the protection

More information

Alcohol and drug abuse

Alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol and drug abuse This chapter explores how alcohol abuse affects our families, relationships, and communities, as well as the health risks associated with drug and alcohol abuse. 1. Alcohol abuse

More information

Guideline for Hearing Conservation and Noise Control

Guideline for Hearing Conservation and Noise Control EVERYONE'S RESPONSIBILITY Guideline for Hearing Conservation and Noise Control February 2007 Guideline for Hearing Conservation and Noise Control Workplace Safety & Health Division 200 401 York Avenue

More information

PH0101 Unit 2 Lecture 6 Klystron Oscillator Reflex Klystron Traveling Wave Tube Biological effect of microwaves

PH0101 Unit 2 Lecture 6 Klystron Oscillator Reflex Klystron Traveling Wave Tube Biological effect of microwaves PH0101 Unit 2 Lecture 6 Klystron Oscillator Reflex Klystron Traveling Wave Tube Biological effect of microwaves 1 Klystron Oscillator A klystron is a vacuum tube that can be used either as a generator

More information

Published by the Labour Department

Published by the Labour Department Published by the Labour Department 9/2008-1-OHB118 This guide is prepared by the Occupational Safety and Health Branch, Labour Department This edition September 2008 This guide is issued free of charge

More information

Chapter 12. Temperature Regulation. Temperature Regulation. Heat Balance. An Overview of Heat Balance. Temperature Regulation. Temperature Regulation

Chapter 12. Temperature Regulation. Temperature Regulation. Heat Balance. An Overview of Heat Balance. Temperature Regulation. Temperature Regulation Chapter 12 Body core temperature regulation Critical for: Cellular structures Metabolic pathways Too high Protein structure of cells destroyed Too low Slowed metabolism Cardiac arrhythmias Homeothermic

More information

False Alarm/Unwanted Fire Signals Reduction Guidance

False Alarm/Unwanted Fire Signals Reduction Guidance False Alarm/Unwanted Fire Signals Reduction Guidance Compiled By: South Wales Fire and Rescue Service Contents Introduction Why reduce false alarms Typical Causes Actions that can be taken Introduction

More information

Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information

Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information Introduction The increasing use of mobile phones and other wireless technology has been accompanied by public debate about possible adverse effects on health.

More information

Engaging at Risk Populations in Vaccine Preparedness Research

Engaging at Risk Populations in Vaccine Preparedness Research Engaging at Risk Populations in Vaccine Preparedness Research Presentation by Annie Madden AIVL Executive Officer Hepatitis C Vaccine Initiative Workshop (Sydney) 15 October 2008 I have been asked to talk

More information

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Retina Foundation of the Southwest CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Retina Foundation of the Southwest CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Retina Foundation of the Southwest CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH Title of Research: Funding Agency/Sponsor: Study Doctors: Research Personnel:

More information

INFORMED CONSENT INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARTICIPATION IN A HEALTH AND FITNESS TRAINING PROGRAM

INFORMED CONSENT INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARTICIPATION IN A HEALTH AND FITNESS TRAINING PROGRAM INFORMED CONSENT INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARTICIPATION IN A HEALTH AND FITNESS TRAINING PROGRAM NAME: DATE: 1. PURPOSE AND EXPLANATION OF PROCEDURE I hereby consent to voluntarily engage in an acceptable

More information

A Depression Education Toolkit

A Depression Education Toolkit A Depression Education Toolkit Facts about Depression in Older Adults What is Depression? Depression is a medical illness. When sadness persists or interferes with everyday life, it may be depression.

More information

15 things you might not know about back pain

15 things you might not know about back pain 15 things you might not know about back pain Mary O Keeffe (University of Limerick), Dr Kieran O Sullivan (University of Limerick), Dr Derek Griffin (Tralee Physiotherapy Clinic) Managing back pain costs

More information

The BioInitiative Report shows Our Cellphone Safety Standards are off by about a Billion Percent!

The BioInitiative Report shows Our Cellphone Safety Standards are off by about a Billion Percent! The BioInitiative Report shows Our Cellphone Safety Standards are off by about a Billion Percent! By Virginia Brown, BioElectric Shield How do you feel when you are stressed out? We often think of stress

More information

Hazards of Mobile Waves & Prevention Studies

Hazards of Mobile Waves & Prevention Studies Hazards of Mobile Waves & Prevention Studies Prof. Rushabh Shah Barkha Gupta Khushali Desai ABSTRACT Mobile is the one of the biggest technology evolution of 21st Century. In this era use of mobile phones

More information

f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ065 WOMEN S HEALTH

f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ065 WOMEN S HEALTH The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ065 WOMEN S HEALTH It s Time to Quit Smoking What are the dangers of smoking? How does smoking affect the body?

More information

What actually is the immune system? What is it made up of?

What actually is the immune system? What is it made up of? This is a radio interview with Ken Sell, M.D., scientific director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Co-Chairman of the NIH Working

More information

Brain Cross Training Hormesis The Principle of Good Stress

Brain Cross Training Hormesis The Principle of Good Stress Brain Cross Training Hormesis The Principle of Good Stress Mark Ashton Smith Ph.D. 2015 1 CONTENTS Foreword 3 Stress and Homeostasis 4 Stress in Evolution 5 Vitagenes 6 Brain Benefits of Adaptive Cellular

More information

What do we mean by evidence?

What do we mean by evidence? 1 of 11 What do we mean by evidence? Background The following point needs to be made explicit to pupils Evidence is the outcome from measurements (data as in tables, graphs) and observations We use evidence

More information

MOBILE PHONES AND FERTILITY. Microwave radiation from mobile phones and wireless technologies has been linked to sperm and DNA damage

MOBILE PHONES AND FERTILITY. Microwave radiation from mobile phones and wireless technologies has been linked to sperm and DNA damage MOBILE PHONES AND FERTILITY Microwave radiation from mobile phones and wireless technologies has been linked to sperm and DNA damage In a study published in Fertility and Sterility (Vol. 89) in 2008 by

More information

A Short Course in Logic Zeno s Paradox

A Short Course in Logic Zeno s Paradox 1 Grappling with Good Arguments A Short Course in Logic Zeno s Paradox We ve seen that if we decide that an argument is good then we should be inclined to believe that the ultimate conclusion is true.

More information

Type 1 Diabetes. Pennington Nutrition Series. Overview. About Insulin

Type 1 Diabetes. Pennington Nutrition Series. Overview. About Insulin Pennington Nutrition Series Healthier lives through education in nutrition and preventive medicine Pub No. 32 Type 1 Diabetes Overview Type 1 Diabetes (DM) is usually diagnosed in children and young adults.

More information

1. You feel like you don t have control over your mind or physical body.

1. You feel like you don t have control over your mind or physical body. 9 Signs Your Anxiety Is A Problem (And What You Can Do About It) Everyone experiences anxiety it s part of life. But when anxiety becomes extreme or excessive it can start to impact your life in negative

More information

This is the new world of scalar electromagnetism, the zero-point energy, the energy of the absolute nothingness which existed before the world began.

This is the new world of scalar electromagnetism, the zero-point energy, the energy of the absolute nothingness which existed before the world began. What is Scalar energy? This is the new world of scalar electromagnetism, the zero-point energy, the energy of the absolute nothingness which existed before the world began. These new waves of energy are

More information

The most serious symptoms of this stage are:

The most serious symptoms of this stage are: The Natural Progression of Hepatitis C The natural history of hepatitis C looks at the likely outcomes for people infected with the virus if there is no medical intervention. However, the process of trying

More information

The Impact of Alcohol

The Impact of Alcohol Alcohol and Tobacco Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol are behaviors that often begin in adolescence. Although tobacco companies are prohibited from advertising, promoting, or marketing their products

More information

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz)

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) 1 2 The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) Frequencies of RF devices range from the low frequency AM broadcasts (80 MHz) to higher frequency mobile phones (1900 MHz) smart meters

More information

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus

More information

WEEKLY SAFETY MEETING All Euramax Subsidiaries HEAT STRESS. Safety Meeting Contents. Meeting Notice. Leaders Guide. Employee Handout.

WEEKLY SAFETY MEETING All Euramax Subsidiaries HEAT STRESS. Safety Meeting Contents. Meeting Notice. Leaders Guide. Employee Handout. Safety Meeting Contents Meeting Notice Leaders Guide Employee Handout Employee Quiz Meeting Sign-In Sheet Employee Puzzle PRIOR TO THE WEEKLY MEETING: - Post the meeting notice by the timeclock - Read

More information

Master Curriculum Topic Study: Human Body Systems

Master Curriculum Topic Study: Human Body Systems Master Curriculum Topic Study: Human Body Systems Session C Section I: Culminating Ideas for Adult Literacy 1. The fundamental building block of organisms is cells. a. Cells combine to form tissues, which

More information

Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Questionnaire

Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Questionnaire Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Questionnaire Please answer the following questions and return to our office. If you need more space for an answer, write it on a separate sheet of paper and indicate the question

More information

University of Pittsburgh Safety Manual Subject: GUIDELINES FOR RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION (RF) EH&S Guideline Number: Effective Date 08/25/2015

University of Pittsburgh Safety Manual Subject: GUIDELINES FOR RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION (RF) EH&S Guideline Number: Effective Date 08/25/2015 Page 1 of 6 The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are concerned about potential health hazards to workers exposed

More information

Is Stress Affecting Your Health? Heart Rate Variability Can Identify Stress Related Symptoms

Is Stress Affecting Your Health? Heart Rate Variability Can Identify Stress Related Symptoms www.taylormdformulations.com Is Stress Affecting Your Health? Heart Rate Variability Can Identify Stress Related Symptoms Table of Contents Stress Can Cause a lot of Symptoms...3 Stress is not always mental...3

More information

Depression & Multiple Sclerosis

Depression & Multiple Sclerosis Depression & Multiple Sclerosis Managing specific issues Aaron, diagnosed in 1995. The words depressed and depression are used so casually in everyday conversation that their meaning has become murky.

More information

VNS Therapy for Epilepsy

VNS Therapy for Epilepsy VNS Therapy for Epilepsy This pamphlet provides general information for the public. It is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, interactions or adverse effects involving any

More information

Norepinephrine Effects On the System

Norepinephrine Effects On the System Norepinephrine Effects On the System NE Conversion to Epinephrine in the Circulation Under stress, the increased norepinephrine produced is transmitted throughout the system. This increased level represents

More information

Consultation Response Medical profiling and online medicine: the ethics of 'personalised' healthcare in a consumer age Nuffield Council on Bioethics

Consultation Response Medical profiling and online medicine: the ethics of 'personalised' healthcare in a consumer age Nuffield Council on Bioethics Consultation Response Medical profiling and online medicine: the ethics of 'personalised' healthcare in a consumer age Nuffield Council on Bioethics Response by the Genetic Interest Group Question 1: Health

More information

Cancer Treatment Moringa Oleifera for Cancer Prevention or Treatment

Cancer Treatment Moringa Oleifera for Cancer Prevention or Treatment Cancer Treatment Moringa Oleifera for Cancer Prevention or Treatment As we learn more about cancer, we are empowered to use more of the tools which nature has created for us to help battle this terrible

More information

What is Cancer? Section 2 - What Is Cancer? - 1 -

What is Cancer? Section 2 - What Is Cancer? - 1 - What is Cancer? Normal Growth The human body is made up of many millions of tiny building blocks called cells. Each organ of the body (eg. brain, liver, muscle) contains its own special types of cells,

More information

Addiction is a Brain Disease

Addiction is a Brain Disease Addiction is a Brain Disease By ALAN I. LESHNER, MD A core concept evolving with scientific advances over the past decade is that drug addiction is a brain disease that develops over time as a result of

More information

What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body. Vitamin A

What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body. Vitamin A What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body Vitamin A Prevents skin disorders, such as acne, wrinkling and age spots. Enhances the immune system protects against colds, flu, and infections to kidney,

More information

Cocaine. Like heroin, cocaine is a drug that is illegal in some areas of the world. Cocaine is a commonly abused drug.

Cocaine. Like heroin, cocaine is a drug that is illegal in some areas of the world. Cocaine is a commonly abused drug. Cocaine Introduction Cocaine is a powerful drug that stimulates the brain. People who use it can form a strong addiction. Addiction is when a drug user can t stop taking a drug, even when he or she wants

More information

Seniors and. Depression. What You Need to Know. Behavioral Healthcare Options, Inc.

Seniors and. Depression. What You Need to Know. Behavioral Healthcare Options, Inc. Seniors and Depression What You Need to Know Behavioral Healthcare Options, Inc. Depression More Than Just The Blues ou may not know exactly what is wrong with you, but you do know that you just don t

More information

Pregnancy and Substance Abuse

Pregnancy and Substance Abuse Pregnancy and Substance Abuse Introduction When you are pregnant, you are not just "eating for two." You also breathe and drink for two, so it is important to carefully consider what you put into your

More information

Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator. ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator. ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland WHO EMF Project Scientific Evidence Risk Assessment Standards and Policies Risk

More information

Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance. Lecture 16

Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance. Lecture 16 Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance Lecture 16 Review of Concepts So Far An increase in energy demand requires an increase in cellular respiration The oxidation of glucose results in an increase

More information

Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine

Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine mouths or noses of people who are nearby. Less often, a person might also get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching

More information

Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis. A guide for people with MS and their families

Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis. A guide for people with MS and their families Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis A guide for people with MS and their families Introduction You have been given this booklet because you have been diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and

More information

What you should know about treating your pain with opioids. Important information on the safe use of opioid pain medicine.

What you should know about treating your pain with opioids. Important information on the safe use of opioid pain medicine. What you should know about treating your pain with opioids Important information on the safe use of opioid pain medicine. If your healthcare provider has determined that opioid therapy is right for you,

More information

Childhood - Onset Bipolar Disorder: A Guide for Families

Childhood - Onset Bipolar Disorder: A Guide for Families Bay-Arenac Behavioral Health Childhood - Onset Bipolar Disorder: A Guide for Families For best results, the parents of a child diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder need to play an active role in their child

More information

How does mental illness interfere with school performance?

How does mental illness interfere with school performance? How does mental illness interfere with school performance? Mental illnesses may interfere with functioning in different ways. Often, the person themselves or the professionals working with them can describe

More information