Cycling: the risks. Cycle traf c. Cycling accidents: facts and gures. Trauma 2004; 6: 161±168. Richard J Hamilton a and JR Rollin Stott b

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Cycling: the risks. Cycle traf c. Cycling accidents: facts and gures. Trauma 2004; 6: 161±168. Richard J Hamilton a and JR Rollin Stott b"

Transcription

1 Cycling: the risks Richard J Hamilton a and JR Rollin Stott b On average, 140 cyclists are killed each year on Britain s roads and a further injured. About a third of those injured are children. This review examines the nature and circumstances of cycling injuries and contrasts them with the risks associated with other modes of transport. It looks at the effectiveness of cycle helmet use and suggests other measures to best reduce cycling injuries. Key words: accidents; bicycles; cycle helmets; cycling; fatalities; injuries; risks Cycle traf c Cycle traf c in Britain has fallen dramatically over the past 50 years (Figure 1). In 1949 bicycles accounted for 37% of all road traf c. By 1995 ± with the major exceptions of Oxford, Cambridge and York ± this had fallen to 1% (Hillman, 1994). Particularly noticeable, too, has been the decline in the number of children cycling. In 1971 three quarters of all junior school children cycled to school. By 1990 this had fallen by a half (Policy Studies Institute, 1990). In the same period road traf c increased in the UK by 104% (Department of Transport, 1998). Although bicycle ownership actually doubled between 1975 and 1995, in the same period, the average mileage cycled per person per year fell from 51 to 37 ± a drop of more than a quarter (Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions, 2001). Two in every ve households own a bicycle, yet only 6% of the population regularly cycle, while a further 5% are occasional cyclists (Wardlaw, 2000). Commuting and leisure travel form the biggest bicycle user groups (Department for Transport, 1998a). Commuting accounts for nearly half of all the journeys made by bicycle. In 1995 it was estimated that 3% of the working population ( people) used a bicycle as their usual mode of travel to work. Most of these a University of Shef eld School of Medicine, Shef eld, UK; b Centre for Human Sciences, QinetiQ plc, Hants, UK. Address for correspondence: RJ Hamilton, Well Lane House, Lower Froyle, Alton, Hants GU34 4LP, UK. journeys are short; a quarter of them are less than a mile and another third between one and two miles, with a mean journey time of 15 minutes. In inner London and other metropolitan areas the mean journey time is 25 minutes (Department for Transport, 1998b). Leisure cycling accounts for a further 35% of all journeys made by bicycle. In the 1993 General Household Survey, cycling appeared in the top ve sporting activities and a fth of households reported recreational cycling in the past year. This was particularly true of households with children. Cycling accidents: facts and gures Each year about one in 40 of Britain s cyclists requires hospital treatment for injuries sustained in a cycling accident (Maimaris et al., 1994). Although cyclists comprise only 1% of road users, they account for 5% of all road fatalities ± and 7% of all serious injuries (Department for Transport, 2003). In absolute terms, cyclists form the fourth largest group of road accident casualties, after car occupants (48%), pedestrians (22%) and motorcycle=moped users (15%) (Department for Transport, 1998c). A more revealing index, however, is to compare the numbers in each category killed or seriously injured per 100 million vehicle kilometres travelled (Table 1). On this basis, motorcycles represent by far the most dangerous mode of transport, with 1510 casualties per billion passenger kilometres travelled. Cycling and walking are about half as dangerous, with car, taxi and bus travel roughly 30 times safer again. Per kilometre travelled, cyclists # Arnold = ta309oa

2 162 RJ Hamilton and JR Rollin Stott Figure 1 Cycle traf c in Great Britain. Source: Department for Transport, 1998d are 14 times more likely to be killed or seriously injured in road accidents than car drivers. It is interesting, too, to note that although the number of cyclists killed on the roads in Britain has declined by 43% between 1970 and 1995, cycle traf c has seen a similar (37%) fall during this period and the casualty rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres among cyclists actually increased ± by 17% (Department for Transport, 1998c). Accidents involving cars account for 44% of those cyclists killed and 73% of those seriously injured (Table 2). Accidents involving heavy goods vehicles account for the second largest proportion of casualties (25%), and a quarter of all cyclist fatalities ± most frequently as a result of left turning lorries. Ninety per cent of accidents involving cyclists, and 53% of fatalities, occur in built-up areas, in 30 mph zones, a fth of them in London (Department for Transport, 1998c). Two out of every three cycling accidents are caused by cyclist error. Three quarters of them are at road junctions. Roundabouts, too, are particularly dangerous for cyclists. Forty-four per cent of fatalities occur on nonbuilt-up roads, at traf c speeds in excess of 30 mph. About 80% of cycling accidents occur in daylight, between 8.00 and 9.00 a.m. and 3.00 and 6.00 p.m. ± when most cycling takes place ± with accidents rising to their highest during the summer when cycling s popularity peaks. Fifty-two per cent of child casualties and 37% of adult casualties are injured from May to August (Department for Transport, 1998c). Cyclist casualties are not evenly distributed by age and sex. Men account for 80% of all adult cycling casualties (Department for Transport, 1998c), largely a re ection of the fact that men do more than three times the annual cycle mileage of women (Department for Transport, 1998a). Even so, there is a small excess of male casualties per mile travelled. Nearly a third of those injured are children, the highest casualty rate for both sexes being between the ages of 12 and 15. Children in this age group have an accident rate of 22 per population, compared with the all ages rate per head of population of 7 per Injuries to both men and women decline with increasing age (Figure 2). Table 1 Passenger killed and seriously injured (KSI) rates by mode: 1994 Number KSI Billion passenger kilometres Pedal cycle Walk Motorcycle Car and taxi Bus and coach Source: Department for Transport, 1998e Rate: KSI per billion pass. kms

3 Cycling: the risks 163 Table 2 Other vehicles involved in bicycle accidents: 1994 Killed Seriously injured Number Percentage Number Percentage Total cyclist casualties No one else involved Accidents with a pedestrian Accidents with one other vehicle: Bicycle Two-wheeled motor vehicle Car Bus or coach Light goods vehicle Heavy goods vehicle Other vehicles Accidents with two or more other vehicles Source: Department for Transport, 1998e Types of accident and injury patterns Of cial statistics tend to underestimate the morbidity from cycle accidents. Of 86 children seen with bicycle related injuries in the UK, only two were recorded in police road traf c accident data and only 10 in hospital discharge records (Leonard et al., 1999). A similar disparity has been noted in a study from North Carolina (Stutts et al., 1990) in which only 10% of emergency room cases were duplicated on the state accident les. Figure 2 Pedal cyclist casualty rate per population by age and gender. Source: Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1998a

4 164 RJ Hamilton and JR Rollin Stott Mishaps from cycling occur frequently. In a questionnaire survey of US college students (Kruse and McBeath, 1980), 13% of cyclists had been involved in an accident in the previous year, a third of whom sustained an injury that required medical attention. The majority of cycle accidents do not involve another vehicle. About two thirds of cycle injuries treated in one Dutch hospital accident unit were in the category of single vehicle accidents (Kingma, 1994). Not surprisingly, injuries in this group tend to be less severe. More than 90% of fatalities to cyclists result from collision with another vehicle (Spence et al., 1993; Frank et al., 1995). Accidents involving child cyclists are often the result of the child playing, doing tricks, riding too fast or losing control. Cyclist error was considered to be the cause in 66% of accidents in children aged 8±12 years and no less than 87% of accidents in children less than eight years old (Simpson and Mineiro, 1992). The conclusion of this study was that no child under the age of eight should be allowed to cycle on a public road. For teenage and adult cyclists, accidents are more likely to involve collisions with other vehicles (Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, 2003). A study from Finland of the degree of disability resulting from cycle accidents (Olkkonen et al., 1993) examined the cases of 278 children and 264 adults seen in two Helsinki hospitals over a two-year period. Of those who required admission to hospital, some degree of disability was still present six months after the accident in 32% (11% of children, 47% of adults and 67% of elderly). Three per cent of adult inpatients suffered from permanent work disability. A study looking at deaths of cyclists in Greater London between 1985 and 1992 was able, tentatively, to group some of the 178 fatalities according to the manoeuvre being performed (Gilbert and McCarthy, 1994). In 30 cases (17%) a vehicle turned left across the cyclist s path ± in all but one of which the vehicle was a heavy goods vehicle. In a further four instances both the vehicle and the cyclist were apparently turning left together. Sixteen collisions (9%) occurred when the cyclist was on the nearside of a vehicle going straight ahead. A further 22 (12%) were hit from behind and eight were said to have swerved into a vehicle s path. Of the 35 children aged µ16, 14 (40%) were struck by a vehicle after cycling off the pavement. Four cyclists died after being hit by vehicle drivers opening their car doors and two died while cycling across zebra crossings. In addition to the 178 fatal accidents involving cyclists, ve pedestrians crossing the road and two motorcyclists died in collisions with cyclists. Another study in 1994 looked more speci cally at the injury patterns of cyclists attending the accident and emergency department at Addenbrooke s Hospital in Cambridge (Maimaris et al., 1994). Of the 1042 cases reviewed, the majority (63%) had fallen from their bicycles. Twenty-eight per cent had been in a collision with a motor vehicle, 7% in collision with another bicycle and 2% in collision with a pedestrian. Most of the attendees (70%) had soft tissue injuries only (abrasions, contusions and lacerations). Twentyeight per cent had received single fractures and=or dislocations, while 1% had multiple fractures and=or dislocations. Ten per cent had head injuries, 22% had injuries to the face or neck; 5% had injuries to their trunk; 45% received injuries to their arms and 25% to their legs. A number of studies have drawn attention to the risk of intra-abdominal injury from impact with bicycle handlebars. A retrospective study of 32 children injured by handlebars (Clarnette and Beasley, 1997) described trauma to the spleen, liver and pancreas, perforation of the bowel, urethral injury, and lacerations of the abdominal wall and inguinoscrotal region. Head injuries and cycle helmets According to the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, 70% of cyclists killed on the road have had major head injuries, and over half of cyclists injured have head injuries (Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, 2003). In America, head injuries account for 85% of cycling related deaths and two thirds of cycling related hospital admissions (Wasserman et al., 1988). Several studies show that a signi cantly higher proportion of cyclists sustain head injuries in accidents than motorcyclists (Waters, 1986; Simpson et al., 1988). Of the 1042 patients in the Addenbrooke s study, 104 (10%) had received head injuries, of whom two died ± one due to an extensive head injury associated with a chest injury, the other due to a high cervical spine injury. A greater proportion of accidents involving motor vehicles resulted in head injuries (18%) than did other accidents (7%). The Addenbrooke s study looked closely at the bene t conferred by wearing cycle helmets and found that head injury (de ned as skull fracture, brain injury, loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia) was

5 Cycling: the risks 165 sustained by 4% of helmet wearers, compared with 11% of non wearers ± a three-fold reduction that was present in all ages and for all accident types. None of the patients with skull fractures and severe brain injury, including the two deaths, had been wearing a helmet. A number of similar studies report comparable ndings. A meta-analysis of 11 studies carried out in Australia, the USA, Canada and the UK between 1987 and 1998 (Attewell et al., 2000) concluded that the summary odds ratio estimate of ef cacy was 0.40 (0.29, 0.55) for head injury, 0.42 (0.26, 0.67) for brain injury, 0.53 (0.39, 0.73) for facial injury and 0.27 (0.1, 0.71) for fatal injury. However, data from three studies that reported the incidence of neck injury suggested an unfavourable effect from helmet wearing with a summary odds ratio estimate of 1.36 (1.0, 1.86). A recent Cochrane Review of ve case controlled studies from different countries similarly concluded that cycle helmets decrease the risk of head and brain injury by between 65 and 88% and decrease the risk of facial injury by 65% (Thompson et al., 2000). A number of studies have looked at cycle helmets themselves. A study of 100 head injuries in Portsmouth found that 70% of the cyclists heads had hit the road rst. By plotting the sites of impact on the cyclists heads it was estimated that 50% would have been covered by a helmet (Worrell, 1987), though protection to the temporal area of the head is poor (McIntosh et al., 1998). Provided a helmet is designed to conform to current standards (for example EN 1078: 1997) (British Standards Institution, 1997), and is worn properly, it has been suggested that deaths due to head injuries could be reduced by as much as 90% (Dorsch et al., 1987). Butting heads Even so, helmet use remains a matter of controversy. The total number of deaths to cyclists has fallen almost continually, from 1536 in 1934 to 141 in 2002, in large part re ecting a decrease in cycle use (Department for Transport, 1998c). Equally, the proportion of cyclist casualties that involve fatal or serious injuries has also fallen, from 24% in 1974 (the rst year for which full statistics were available) to 18% in 1998 (Department for Transport, 1998c) (Figure 3). It is interesting to compare this fall with the rise in cycle helmet use. Over the decade to 1996, nationwide, cycle helmet use rose from close to zero to around 16%. In London cycle helmet use increased to around 40% Figure 3 UK cyclists killed or seriously injured ( )

6 166 RJ Hamilton and JR Rollin Stott (the highest in Britain) (Department for Transport, 1998c). Even so, cyclist casualty data for the UK shows no evidence of a `helmet effect, with accidents continuing to decline at the same rate as they had prior to helmet use becoming more popular. This nding is consistent with research in the USA (Rogers, 1988), Canada (Transport Canada, 2003), Australia (ARA- PRU, 1999) and New Zealand (Scuffham and Langley 1997), which found no evidence of any signi cant decrease in head injuries with increased helmet use in large population samples. Even in countries such as Australia and Canada, where, in some states, cycle helmet use has become mandatory, reported reductions in head injuries (Carr, 1995; Leblanc et al., 2002) have been countered by studies citing reduced cycle use following the introduction of legislation as the major cause (Wardlaw, 2002). In Australia, for example, admissions from head injury fell by 15±20% (Robinson, 1996b), but the level of cycling fell by 35% (Robinson, 1996a). Indeed, in 1988, the largest survey of cycling casualties ever undertaken in Britain concluded that increased helmet use correlated well with an increased risk of death (Rogers, 1988), leading some to argue that promoting cycle helmets confers a false sense of security to wearers and detracts from the real issues of promoting caution and good road sense and reducing traf c speeds (Franklin). Protecting cyclists Cyclists stand to gain more from road safety than any other road users. In a MORI poll, half of those surveyed said they would cycle for short journeys if roads were made safer (Naitonal Cycling Forum, 1999). While a cyclist has a 95% chance of surviving a collision with a car travelling at 20 mph, this is reduced to only 15% at 40 mph (Department of Transport, 1997). In York, for example, where 20% of all journeys are made by bicycle, a 30% reduction in casualties has been achieved by restricting vehicle speeds on 23 miles of residential roads (Hardwick Cycling Campaign, 2000). Similarly, in Denmark and the Netherlands, where 10% of all journeys are made by bicycle, despite little helmet use, cyclists form a much smaller proportion of those killed or injured on the road on account of safety programmes to reduce traf c speeds to 30 km=h and cycle lanes to separate cyclists from fast moving traf c (Department of Transport, 1997). Training for cyclists, particularly children, is also of great potential bene t. In Britain between and receive some sort of cycle training each year, although there is no national standard and quality and effectiveness may vary (Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, 2001). A study that compared the accident and casualty rates of trained and untrained children concluded that those trained are three times less likely to become a casualty than those who had not been trained (Transport Research Laboratory, 1989). Another study, however, cautioned that children who had taken a course may then be at greater risk, possibly because parents believed their children to be more competent than they were (Carlin, 1998). Discussion Many injury based studies have indicated that there is a protective effect from the wearing of a cycle helmet. It seems, at rst sight, dif cult to reconcile the conclusions of these injury based studies with population studies that have been unable to demonstrate any reduction in the incidence of death or serious injury to cyclists attributable to helmet wearing. In countries in which helmet use has been made compulsory, there is evidence of a fall in the numbers cycling. A possible reason for this is that the introduction of cycle helmets focuses public attention on the dangers of cycling, with the result that more cautious, risk averse cyclists, who are perhaps least likely to suffer an accident, are deterred from cycling. A comment, pertinent to this discussion, though made in connection with the introduction of smoke detectors and seat belt legislation, is that `unless compliance is virtually universal, the higher rates of death and injuries among high risk populations are likely to mask the effectiveness of the devices for the majority of people (McLoughlin et al., 1985). Given the high proportion of head injury related deaths and hospital admissions among cyclists, it seems eminently sensible to wear a good, well tted helmet. The British Medical Association has strongly recommended the wearing of cycle helmets by all cyclists, especially children, as part of a wider safe cycling strategy that includes cyclist training courses and cycle awareness in driver training and the Driving Test (Board of Education and Science, 1999). But the dangers of cycling need to be kept in context. Seventy per cent of British adults take exercise less than once a month (Hillsdon and Thorogood, 1996). According to

7 Cycling: the risks 167 the BMA, when considered alongside the dangers associated with inactivity, the overall health bene ts of cycling exceed the risks by a factor of 20 (Hillman, 1994). The government s White Paper A New Deal for Transport hopes to see a quadrupling of cycle use by 2012 (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1998). To achieve this, cycling needs to be considered in the round. Improved security arrangements for bikes and adequate facilities to shower and change at work, for instance, are, ultimately, just as important as traf c calming measures, cycle lanes and promoting good road sense if cycling is to achieve its full potential. Acknowledgements We thank Alastair Hamilton for his help with graphics. References ARAPRU, (Australian Road Accident Prevention Research Unit.) An economic evaluation of the mandatory helmet legislation. Nedlands: University of Western Australia. Attewell R, Glase K, McFadden M Bicycle helmets and injury prevention: a formal review. Australian Transport Safety Bureau Road Safety report CR195. Board of Education and Science Cycle helmets. London: British Medical Association. British Standards Institution Helmets for pedal cyclists and for users of skateboardsand roller skates. BS EN Carlin J School based safety education and bicycle injuries in children: a case-controlled study. Injury Prevention 4: 22. Carr D et al Analysis of the bicycle helmet wearing law in Victoria during the rst four years. Monash Accident Research Centre. Report 76. Clarnette TD, Beasley SW Handlebar injuries in children: patterns and prevention. Aust NZ J Surg 67: 338±39. Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions Focus on personal travel. London: The Stationery Of ce. stellent=groups=dft_transstats=documents=page=dft_ transstats_ pdf Department for Transport. 1998a. Cycling in Great Britain: characteristics of cyclists. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: stellent=groups=dft_transstats=documents=page= dft_transstats_ hcsp Department for Transport. 1998b. Cycling in Great Britain: cycling to work. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: transstats=documents=page=dft_transstats_ hcsp Department for Transport. 1998c. Pedal cyclists in road accidents: Great Britain. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: transstats=documents=page=dft_transstats_ hcsp Department for Transport Road accident casualties by road user type and severity, 1992±2002. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: ent=groups=dft_transstats=documents=page=dft_ transstats_ xls Department of Transport Killing speed and saving lives. Department of Transport Transport Statistics for Great Britain. Available on request from: DfT, Zone 2=17, Great Minster House, 76 Marsham St, London SW1P 4DR edition retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: transstats=documents=page=dft_transstats_ hcsp Department for Transport. 1998d. Cycling in Great Britain: cycle traf c. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: dft_transstats=documents=page=dft_transstats_ hcsp Departmentfor Transport. 1998e.Cycling in Great Britain: accidentsinvolving cyclists. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: transstats=documents=page=dft_transstats_ hcsp Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. 1998a. Pedal cyclists in road accidents: Great Britain Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: transstats=documents=page=dft_transstats_ hcsp Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. 1998b. A new deal for transport: better deal for everyone. Transport White Paper. Dorsh MM, Woodward AJ, Somers RL Do bicycle helmets reduce severity of head injuries in real crashes? Accid Anal Prev 19: 188± 90. Frank E, Frankel P, Mullins RJ, Taylor N Injuries resulting from bicycle collisions. Acad Emerg Med 2: 200±03. Franklin J. Trends in cyclist casualties in Britain with increasing cycle helmet use. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: helmets=uktrends.pdf

8 168 RJ Hamilton and JR Rollin Stott General Household Survey. 1993±1994. SN Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: ndingdata=sndescription.asp?snˆ 3170 Gilbert K, McCarthy M Deaths of cyclists in London 1985±92: the hazards of road traf c. Br Med J 308: 1534±37. Hardwick Cycling Campaign Useful facts and gures. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: hardwick-cambs.org.uk=hcc=facts.htm Hillman M Cycling towards health and safety. London: British Medical Association. Hillsdon M, Thorogood M A systematic review of exercise promotion strategies. Br J Sports Med 30: 84±9. Kingma J The aetiology of bicycle accidents. Perceptual and Motor Skills 79: 1193±94. Kruse DL, McBeath AA Bicycle accidents and injuries. A random survey of a college population. Am J Sports Med 8: 342±44. Leblanc JC, Beattie TL, Culligan C Effect of legislation on the use of bicycle helmets. Can Med Assoc J 166: 592±95. Leonard PA, Beattie TF, Gorman DR Under representation of morbidity from paediatric bicycle accidents by of cial statistics ± a need for data collection in the accidentand emergency department.injury Prevention 5: 303±4. Maimaris C, Summers CL, Browning C, Palmer CR Injury patterns in cyclists attending an accident and emergency department: a comparison of helmet wearers and non-wearers. Br Med J 308: 1537±40. McIntosh A, Dowdell B, Svensson N Pedal cycle helmet effectiveness: a eld study of pedal cycle accidents. Accid Anal Prev 30: 161±68. McLoughlin E, Marchone M, Hanger L, German P, Baker S Smoke detector legislation: its effect on owner-occupied homes. Am J Public Health 75: 858±62. National Cycling Forum Safety framework for cycling. Olkkonen S, Lahdenranta U, SlaÈ tis P, Honkanen R Bicycle accidents often cause disability ± an analysis of medical and social consequences of non-fatal bicycle accidents. Scand J Soc Med 21: 98±106. Policy Studies Institute One false move: a study of children s independent mobility. Available by request from: Robinson B. 1996a. Cycle helmet laws ± facts, gures and consequences. Proc Velo Australis Conference, Perth, Freemantle: Promaco Conventions. Robinson B. 1996b. Is there any reliable evidence that Australian helmet legislation works? Proc Velo Australis Conference, Perth, Freemantle: Promaco Conventions. Rogers GB Reducing bicycle accidents: a re-evaluation of the impact of the CPSC bicycle standard and helmet use. J Product Liability 11: 307±17. Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents The effectiveness of cyclist training. Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents Cycling accidents ± facts and gures. Scuffham PA, Langley JD Trends in cycle injury in New Zealand under voluntary helmet use. Accid Anal Prev 29: 1±9. Simpson AH, Mineiro J Prevention of bicycle accidents. Injury 23: 171±73. Simpson AHRW, Unwin PS, Nelson IW Head injuries, helmets, cycle lanes and cyclists. Br Med J 296: 1161±62. Spence LJ, Dykes EH, Bohn DJ, Wesson DE Fatal bicycle accidents in children: a plea for prevention. J Pediatr Surg 28: 214±16. Stutts JC, Williamson JE, Whitley T, Sheldon FC Bicycle accidents and injuries: a pilot study comparing hospital- and police-reported data. Accid Anal Prev 22: 67±78. ThompsonDC, Rivara FP, ThompsonR Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD Transport Canada Cyclist fatality trends in Canada. Retrieved 15th May, 2004, from: magma.ca= ¹ ocbc=fatals.html Transport Research Laboratory Pedal cycle accidents ± a hospital-based study. Research Report 220. Wardlaw MJ Three lessons for a better cycling future. Br Med J 321: 1582±85. Wardlaw M Butting heads over cycle helmets. Can Med Assoc J 166: 337±38. Wasserman RC, Waller JA, Monty MJ, Emery AB, Robinson DR Bicyclists, helmets and head injuries: a rider-based study of helmet use and effectiveness. Am J Public Health 78: 1220±21. Waters EA Should pedal cyclists wear helmets? A comparison of head injuries sustained by pedal cyclists and motorcyclists in road traf c accidents. Injury 17: 372±75. Worrell J Head injuries in pedal cyclists: how much will protection help? Injury 18: 5±6.

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR ORIGINAL ARTICLE JUMMEC 2008:11(1) ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR Moe H Department of Social

More information

Cycle safety. Monograph 17. Cycle safety: a national perspective. Cycle helmets

Cycle safety. Monograph 17. Cycle safety: a national perspective. Cycle helmets Monograph 17 Cycle safety ISSN: 1444-3503 ISBN: 1 877071 85 4 Cycle safety: a national perspective Cycling is an important form of transport and recreation for many Australians. It is accessible to a wide

More information

Reported road accidents involving young car drivers: Great Britain 2011

Reported road accidents involving young car drivers: Great Britain 2011 Reported road accidents involving young car drivers: Great Britain 211 Road Accident Statistics Factsheet No. 1 August 212 Introduction This factsheet presents summary information relating to the casualties

More information

The effectiveness of cycle helmets

The effectiveness of cycle helmets Introduction The effectiveness of cycle helmets An investigative paper by John Franklin Helmets for cyclists began to be produced towards the end of the 1970s. Few were seen in Britain, however, until

More information

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The

More information

Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013 Annual Report

Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013 Annual Report Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013 Annual Report Focus on pedal cyclists Key findings The key findings from this article include: Pedal cyclist deaths have seen a long-term fall, but have fluctuated

More information

SAFETY PROCESS. Martin Small

SAFETY PROCESS. Martin Small SAFETY PROCESS Martin Small With a broad transport policy background including extensive work in the maritime sector, Martin Small has been working in road safety for five years, in a variety of roles

More information

New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law

New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law A public health and safety disaster New Zealand is one of only three countries in the world with national all-age mandatory bicycle helmet laws, the others

More information

Improving road safety for pedestrians and cyclists in Great Britain

Improving road safety for pedestrians and cyclists in Great Britain Department for Transport Improving road safety for pedestrians and cyclists in Great Britain LONDON: The Stationery Office 14.35 Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 6 May 2009 REPORT BY THE

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

Children and road safety: a guide for parents

Children and road safety: a guide for parents Child Safety Week Report Children and road safety: a guide for parents What are the facts? The number of children aged up to 19 years who are killed or seriously injured each year on Britain's roads has

More information

Reported Road Accident Statistics

Reported Road Accident Statistics Reported Road Accident Statistics Standard Note: SN/SG/2198 Last updated: 24 October 2013 Author: Matthew Keep & Tom Rutherford Social and General Statistics Section This Note provides a range of data

More information

A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages trend analyses in Sweden

A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages trend analyses in Sweden Health Promotion International, Vol. 22 No. 3 doi:10.1093/heapro/dam020 # The Author (2007). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org

More information

CAMPAIGN ASSETS THINK CYCLIST STAKEHOLDER TOOLKIT

CAMPAIGN ASSETS THINK CYCLIST STAKEHOLDER TOOLKIT STAKEHOLDER TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION The Department for Transport s campaign provides road safety information for road users. Our aim is to encourage safer behaviour to reduce the number of people killed and

More information

CYCLISTS AND LORRIES

CYCLISTS AND LORRIES February 2006 CYCLISTS AND LORRIES INTRODUCTION This Fact Sheet is intended to support the short film, Cyclists and Lorries, which has been produced by RoSPA and CEMEX to raise awareness of the dangers

More information

Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012)

Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012) Motorcyclists CRASH FACTSHEET November 2013 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2012 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In 2012, 50 motorcyclists 1 died and a further 1,138 were injured

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

BULLETIN. Road Traffic Injuries. WA Childhood Injury Surveillance. No. 13 January 2008. Introduction Road Traffic Injuries

BULLETIN. Road Traffic Injuries. WA Childhood Injury Surveillance. No. 13 January 2008. Introduction Road Traffic Injuries WA Childhood Injury Surveillance BULLETIN Road Traffic Injuries No. 13 January 2008 Childhood Injury Presentations: October to December 2007 There were 13,607 presentations to Princess Margaret Hospital

More information

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel 6. Road Safety Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel Road safety continues to be a core priority both nationally and locally reflecting the very high human and other costs

More information

SUMMARY PRELIMINARY CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-15 ISSN 2204-7875

SUMMARY PRELIMINARY CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-15 ISSN 2204-7875 204 SUMMARY PRELIMINARY FATAL AND CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-5 ISSN 2204-7875 2 Foreword There have been encouraging signs that Western Australians may be heeding life-saving

More information

Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology

Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology A Chapman Data Analyst, Data Linkage Branch, Public Health Intelligence, Public Health Division, Department of Health,

More information

Legislative Council Panel on Transport. Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists

Legislative Council Panel on Transport. Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists LC Paper No. CB(1)1130/10-11(05) For Discussion 28 January 2011 Legislative Council Panel on Transport Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists Purpose This paper briefs members on Government

More information

Road Safety Authority Provisional Review of Road Crashes 2013

Road Safety Authority Provisional Review of Road Crashes 2013 A review of 2013 fatal collision statistics December 31 st 2013 The following report summarises the main trends that have emerged in 2013. This has been prepared by the Road Safety Authority following

More information

Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove *

Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove * Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference 2012 7-8 November 2012, Helmond, The Netherlands Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove * * European Cyclists Federation

More information

INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE

INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE Head injuries among motorcyclists are a growing concern Rapid growth in the use of motorized twowheeled vehicles in many countries has been accompanied by increases in

More information

THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS RoSPA THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLE HELMETS

THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS RoSPA THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLE HELMETS THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS RoSPA THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLE HELMETS A synopsis of selected research papers and medical articles LAST UPDATED: JUNE 2003 1. "Should pedal cyclists

More information

THE NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL

THE NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL THE NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association Evaluation of New Zealand s bicycle helmet law Colin F Clarke Abstract The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect

More information

Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1

Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1 Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1 1 RCSI Department, Children s University Hospital, Temple St, Dublin

More information

THE MOBILITY AND SAFETY OF OLDER DRIVERS IN BRITAIN. Mitchell, Christopher (Kit)

THE MOBILITY AND SAFETY OF OLDER DRIVERS IN BRITAIN. Mitchell, Christopher (Kit) THE MOBILITY AND SAFETY OF OLDER DRIVERS IN BRITAIN Mitchell, Christopher (Kit) Retired: 17 Tavistock Road, Fleet, Hampshire GU51 4EH, UK Email: kitmitch@googlemail.com Abstract Most journeys by older

More information

136 deaths in 2007 (Latest figures available) UK (129 in England) 2,458 serious injuries in 2007 in the UK source- National Office of Statistics

136 deaths in 2007 (Latest figures available) UK (129 in England) 2,458 serious injuries in 2007 in the UK source- National Office of Statistics Cycle facts to arm and protect DEATHS AND INJURIES Time: 136 deaths in 2007 (Latest figures available) UK (129 in England) 2,458 serious injuries in 2007 in the UK source- National Office of Statistics

More information

East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan

East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan Foreword Road crashes are not inevitable - the deaths and injuries which occur each year need not happen. However, in order to reduce these incidents a major effort

More information

ON YOUR BIKE 1 A PROBLEM FOR CYCLISTS. Activity A picture story is used to ask whether there should be changes in the law to make cycling safer.

ON YOUR BIKE 1 A PROBLEM FOR CYCLISTS. Activity A picture story is used to ask whether there should be changes in the law to make cycling safer. T E A C H E R S N O T E S ON YOUR BIKE UNIT SUMMARY In this unit pupils look at some of the problems faced by young people wishing to cycle on busy or dangerous roads, and decide how these might be addressed.

More information

The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953.

The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953. 1 Long-term trends The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953. Number of road traffic accidents, fatalities, and injuries Notes: 1. Source:

More information

CAMPAIGN ASSETS THINK CYCLIST STAKEHOLDER TOOLKIT

CAMPAIGN ASSETS THINK CYCLIST STAKEHOLDER TOOLKIT STAKEHOLDER TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION The Department for Transport s campaign provides road safety information for road users. Our aim is to encourage safer behaviour to reduce the number of people killed and

More information

BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models

BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models Archives of Emergency Medicine, 1985, 2, 209-213 BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models J. WORRELL Senior Registrar, Accident and Emergency Department, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth,

More information

1. The consultation seeks views on the vision, targets and measures for improving road safety in Great Britain for the period beyond 2010.

1. The consultation seeks views on the vision, targets and measures for improving road safety in Great Britain for the period beyond 2010. Executive Summary 1. The consultation seeks views on the vision, targets and measures for improving road safety in Great Britain for the period beyond 2010. 2. We have made good progress in reducing road

More information

Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation

Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation Safe Kids Canada supports bicycle helmet legislation as a proven strategy, in conjunction with sustained education and enforcement programs,

More information

REPORTED ROAD CRASHES

REPORTED ROAD CRASHES REPORTED ROAD CRASHES IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA 2012 www.ors.wa.gov.au REPORTED ROAD CRASHES IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA 2012 Road Safety Council of Western Australia Document Retrieval Information Date Pages ISSN

More information

Title. Pedal cyclist casualties, 2013

Title. Pedal cyclist casualties, 2013 Title SB 57/2014 2 July 2014 Pedal cyclist casualties, 2013 This Statistical Bulletin looks at pedal cyclist road traffic casualties in Wales. It looks both at all pedal cyclist casualties and at child

More information

The facts about road accidents and children

The facts about road accidents and children A The AA Motoring Trust The facts about road accidents and children Around 5, children under the age of 16 die or are seriously injured on Britain s roads each year Nearly two in three road accidents happen

More information

Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2012. Annual Report

Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2012. Annual Report Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2012 Annual Report DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT WELSH ASSEMBLY GOVERNMENT REPORTED ROAD CASUALTIES GREAT BRITAIN 2012 Published : September 2013

More information

! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42

! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42 ! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42 5 317 ORIGINAL ARTICLE New Zealand bicycle helmet law do the costs outweigh the? M Taylor, P Scuffham... Injury Prevention 2002;8:317 320 See end of article for authors

More information

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study Chiara Orsi Centre of Study and Research on Road Safety University of Pavia State of the art Vulnerable road

More information

Do cyclists have an exaggerated view of the risks of cycling and the efficacy of cycle helmets?

Do cyclists have an exaggerated view of the risks of cycling and the efficacy of cycle helmets? Do cyclists have an exaggerated view of the risks of cycling and the efficacy of cycle helmets? Richard Burton Transport Planner UWE Abstract This dissertation examines whether cyclists have a realistic

More information

road safety issues 2001 road toll for the WBOP/Tauranga Police area JULY 2002 Regional crash causes 1997 2001 Major road safety issues:

road safety issues 2001 road toll for the WBOP/Tauranga Police area JULY 2002 Regional crash causes 1997 2001 Major road safety issues: WESTERN BAY OF PLENTY/TAURANGA POLICE AREA road safety issues JULY 22 The Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA) has prepared this Road Safety Issues Report. It is based on reported crash data and trends

More information

CHAPTER 1 Land Transport

CHAPTER 1 Land Transport Section 1 Road Transport - PART I - Summary of the Present Situation 1 Road Traffic Accident Trends 1-1 Long-term trends fell to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953 Number of road traffic

More information

PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCIDENT DATA. Irene Isaksson-Hellman If Insurance Company P&C Ltd.

PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCIDENT DATA. Irene Isaksson-Hellman If Insurance Company P&C Ltd. PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCIDENT DATA Irene Isaksson-Hellman If Insurance Company P&C Ltd. Vulnerable road users 2 Number Number Official accident statistics 45 35 4 3 35 25 3 25 2 2 15 15 1 1 5 5 5 4 5

More information

Cycle helmets: 25 years along the road

Cycle helmets: 25 years along the road Cycle helmets: 25 years along the road John Franklin Presented to the CCN/CTC Cycle Planning Conference, Cheltenham, April 2000 Introduction Cycle helmets have been around for about a quarter of a century.

More information

Submission to the Parliament of Victoria March 2013 Road Safety Committee - Inquiry into serious injury in motor vehicle accidents

Submission to the Parliament of Victoria March 2013 Road Safety Committee - Inquiry into serious injury in motor vehicle accidents Submission to the Parliament of Victoria March 2013 Road Safety Committee - Inquiry into serious injury in motor vehicle accidents Prepared by Colin Clarke, Cycling safety researcher and author. Bicyclists

More information

of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist.

of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist. , BICYCLE ACCIDENTS INVOLVING MOTOR VEHICLES J A 10 year study of child mortality and morbidity with an analysis of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist. John Pearn Ross Clacher James Nixon Alison

More information

SSMJ Issue 2 Vol 4. Downloaded from http://www.southernsudanmedicaljournal.com

SSMJ Issue 2 Vol 4. Downloaded from http://www.southernsudanmedicaljournal.com Motorcycle-Related Trauma in South Sudan: a cross sectional observational study. Andrew Allan, University of Birmingham. AXA615@bham.ac.uk Abstract Motorcycle related trauma is a major cause of morbidity

More information

CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA

CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA FACT SHEET CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA August 2014 The following data represents police reported incidents of fatal, and minor casualties. Police data does not show the location

More information

1. University of Pavia, Centro Interdipartimentale di Studi e Ricerche sulla Sicurezza Stradale 2. University of Hannover, Accident Research Unit

1. University of Pavia, Centro Interdipartimentale di Studi e Ricerche sulla Sicurezza Stradale 2. University of Hannover, Accident Research Unit Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on German In-Depth-Accident Study Chiara Orsi 1, Dietmar Otte 2, Cristina Montomoli 1, Anna Morandi 1 1. University of Pavia, Centro Interdipartimentale

More information

CONTENTS. References 12

CONTENTS. References 12 RESPONSE TO TRANSPORT COMMITTEE INQUIRY INTO CYCLING SAFETY 1 CONTENTS Why Britain has a cycling safety problem 3 Subjective safety 5 Safety by design 6 Separation of cycling and motorised traffic 7 Sustainable

More information

A child helmet law would; 7 REASONS TO OPPOSE A CHILD HELMET LAW FOR MORE INFORMATION. See inside for further details

A child helmet law would; 7 REASONS TO OPPOSE A CHILD HELMET LAW FOR MORE INFORMATION. See inside for further details A child helmet law would; be disproportionate to the risk of head injury when cycling. reduce cycling much more than it would increase helmet use. threaten the lives and well-being of thousands of children

More information

Cycling Safety in Europe

Cycling Safety in Europe Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference 2012 7-8 November 2012, Helmond, The Netherlands Cycling Safety in Europe Claus. Pastor Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (BASt) Brüderstraße 53, D-51427

More information

ITARDA INFORMATION. No.97. Special feature

ITARDA INFORMATION. No.97. Special feature ITARDA INFORMATION No.97 Special feature Introduction P2 Casualties resulting from cycling have not fallen as much as for other accident types P2 Following cycling accidents, which parts of the body are

More information

Road Casualties in Kent. Annual review 2014. Published August 2015

Road Casualties in Kent. Annual review 2014. Published August 2015 Road Casualties in Kent Annual review 2014 Published August 2015 Introduction Foreword; 'A comparison of the five year baseline average (2004-08) with the latest 3 year average (2012-14) has been carried

More information

ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006. Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes

ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006. Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006 Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006 Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes Published by: Australian Transport Safety Bureau Postal

More information

Speeding. Probability of death at different impact speeds

Speeding. Probability of death at different impact speeds Speeding CRASH FACTSHEET 2012 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2011 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In this fact sheet speeding is defined as driving too fast for the conditions. The

More information

Injury indicators: A validation tool. Road safety indicator specifications

Injury indicators: A validation tool. Road safety indicator specifications Injury indicators: A validation tool. Road safety indicator specifications Colin Cryer CHSS, University of Kent March 2002. The following gives the specifications of the indicators used in the project:

More information

LOOSE IN THE CAR MISTAKES ADULTS MAKE CARRYING CHILDREN CRASH TESTS AT 19MPH. www.aatrust.com

LOOSE IN THE CAR MISTAKES ADULTS MAKE CARRYING CHILDREN CRASH TESTS AT 19MPH. www.aatrust.com LOOSE IN THE CAR MISTAKES ADULTS MAKE CARRYING CHILDREN CRASH TESTS AT 19MPH www.aatrust.com The AA Motoring Trust was created by the AA to champion the interests and safety of Britain s road users. At

More information

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1 Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Of all types of injury, traumatic brain injuries () are among the most likely to cause death or permanent

More information

Review of 20 mph zones in London Boroughs. by D C Webster and R E Layfield. Published Project Report PPR243

Review of 20 mph zones in London Boroughs. by D C Webster and R E Layfield. Published Project Report PPR243 Review of 20 mph zones in London Boroughs by D C Webster and R E Layfield Published Project Report PPR243 Review of 20 mph zones in London Boroughs by D C Webster and R E Layfield PUBLISHED PROJECT REPORT

More information

The Statistics. Tips for Parents

The Statistics. Tips for Parents The Statistics In 2001, the most recent statistics for Texas, 985 children, age 0-14, were injured in crashes with motor vehicles. For that same period of time and age range, 9 children died and 66 percent

More information

Motorcycle Safety & Laws. Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington

Motorcycle Safety & Laws. Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington Motorcycle Safety & Laws Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington 1 1. Safety What percentage of Riders involved in fatal Motorcycle crashes are over 40 years old? A. 25% B. 10% C. 33% D. 47% 2 2.

More information

Bicycling is a popular pastime and mode of

Bicycling is a popular pastime and mode of Impact of Mandatory Helmet Legislation on Bicycle-Related Head Injuries in Children: A Population-Based Study Alison K. Macpherson, MSc* #; Teresa M. To, PhD* #; Colin Macarthur, MBChB, PhD*#; Mary L.

More information

What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury. National Statistics

What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury. National Statistics What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury National Statistics Soon after a blacksmith by the name of Kirkpatrick MacMillan invented the bicycle, it became apparent that a bicyclist needed something to

More information

Driving as a Public Health Problem.

Driving as a Public Health Problem. Driving as a Public Health Problem. Dr Nicola Christie (UCL),Dr Philip Edwards (LSHTM), Professor Judith Green (LSHTM), Dr Sarah Jones (Cardiff University), and Professor Lindsay Prior (QUB). 1. The Issues:

More information

Casualties in Greater London during 2013 June 2014

Casualties in Greater London during 2013 June 2014 Transport for London Surface Transport z Fact sheet Surface Planning Casualties in Greater London during 2013 June 2014 This fact sheet provides a summary and initial analysis of personal injury road traffic

More information

Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee. Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Michael Fagin

Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee. Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Michael Fagin Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee Motorcycle Helmet Laws Michael Fagin The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a nonprofit research and communications organization

More information

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 The Chinese University of Hong Kong Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery Accident & Emergency Medicine Academic Unit Jockey Club School of Public

More information

Originals and Papers

Originals and Papers Originals and Papers A comprehensive study of motorcycle fatalities in South Delhi C. Behera*, (Lt. Col.) Ravi Rautji **, Sanjeev Lalwani*** & T. D. Dogra **** Abstract Ninety four of motorcycle fatalities

More information

The Relationship between Speed and Car Driver Injury Severity

The Relationship between Speed and Car Driver Injury Severity Road Safety Web Publication 9 The Relationship between Speed and Car Driver Injury Severity D. Richards and R. Cuerden Transport Research Laboratory April 2009 Department for Transport: London Although

More information

that had not.5 6None of the countries except Australia had shown a change in death rates in the years after

that had not.5 6None of the countries except Australia had shown a change in death rates in the years after Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1989, 43, 218-222 The benefit of Kingdom seat belt legislation in the United MARK McCARTHY From the Department of Community Medicine, University College, London.

More information

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Injury Prevention Plan of Alabama 3 BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES THE PROBLEM: An estimated 140,000 children are treated each year in emergency departments for head injuries sustained

More information

Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014)

Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014) Fact Sheet Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014) Summary & Background The World Health Organization estimates that over 1.2 million people die from road

More information

Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013. Annual Report. File: 69282_Junctions_6_Sheet Client: TFL. Size: 450x300 Date: 15/10/13

Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013. Annual Report. File: 69282_Junctions_6_Sheet Client: TFL. Size: 450x300 Date: 15/10/13 Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013 Annual Report File: 69282_Junctions_6_Sheet Client: TFL Op: Steve AMV Job No: Publication: 6 Sheet Size: 450x300 Date: 15/10/13 Page:1 DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT

More information

Trends and issues Lake Te Koutu walkway, Cambridge

Trends and issues Lake Te Koutu walkway, Cambridge 27 Trends and issues Lake Te Koutu walkway, Cambridge 3 Trends 3.1 Journey to work Over the past two to three decades there has been a significant increase in private vehicle ownership and usage and a

More information

NORTH EAST Regional Road Safety Resource

NORTH EAST Regional Road Safety Resource NORTH EAST Regional Road Safety Resource Project Report: 1. Regional Overview of Pedal Cycle Accidents 2005 2007. Produced May 2008. Natalie Goodman Project is supported by the Department of Transport.

More information

Bicycle riding is a great way to get into shape

Bicycle riding is a great way to get into shape Bicycle riding is a great way to get into shape and have fun. To remain safe on Illinois roads, it is important to follow the same traffic safety laws that govern vehicle drivers. No amount of bicycle

More information

ITARDAInstitute for Traffic Accident

ITARDAInstitute for Traffic Accident ITARDAInstitute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis ( 財 ) 交 通 事 故 総 合 分 析 センター ITARDA INFORMATION No. 211 91NOVEMBER 1, 2, 3, 4, Crossing 3% 4,258 Number of casualties Collisions while turning

More information

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs This issue brief provides strategies and resources for community organizations to use in developing and implementing bike

More information

Road fatalities in 2012. Road fatality: person killed in a traffic crash or deceased because of an injury within 30 days after the crash.

Road fatalities in 2012. Road fatality: person killed in a traffic crash or deceased because of an injury within 30 days after the crash. Norway Source: IRTAD, Public Roads Administration Inhabitants Vehicles/1 000 inhabitants Road fatalities in 2012 Fatalities /100 000 inhabitants in 2012 5.0 million 703 145 2.9 1. Road safety data collection

More information

Bicycle crashes in South Australia. email: paul@casr.adelaide.edu.au

Bicycle crashes in South Australia. email: paul@casr.adelaide.edu.au Bicycle crashes in South Australia Hutchinson, T. P. 1, Kloeden, C. N. 1, Long, A. D. 1 1 Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 email: paul@casr.adelaide.edu.au

More information

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System HEALTH AND COST OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CAUSED BY NOT WEARING A HELMET, FOR MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN WISCONSIN, 2011 Wayne Bigelow Center for Health

More information

CYCLING. RoSPA POLICY PAPER. May 2015

CYCLING. RoSPA POLICY PAPER. May 2015 CYCLING RoSPA POLICY PAPER May 2015 CONTENTS AND STRUCTURE Executive Summary Introduction Purpose of the Policy paper Levels of Cycling Benefits and Risks of Cycling Cyclist Casualty Numbers and Rates

More information

Young drivers where and when are they unsafe: analysis of road accidents in Great Britain 2000 2006

Young drivers where and when are they unsafe: analysis of road accidents in Great Britain 2000 2006 Young drivers where and when are they unsafe: analysis of road accidents in Great Britain 2000 2006 Original research by Email: jeanhopkin@compuserve.com August 2008 Copyright the IAM Motoring Trust Extracts

More information

STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA,

STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA, Vilnius 215 STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA, 211 214 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 9 GENERAL INFORMATION... 1 1. VEHICLE FLEET... 11 1.1. Number of vehicles, 1995 214...

More information

There were 160 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for

There were 160 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for Australia s children 2002 There were 216 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for burns and scalds. Indigenous children had a hospitalisation rate for injuries from burns

More information

Risk Compensation & Helmet Wearing

Risk Compensation & Helmet Wearing Risk Compensation & Helmet Wearing Published in 'Injury Prevention', June 2001 An exchange on risk compensation & helmet wearing between Diane C. Thompson, Robert S. Thompson, Frederick P. Rivara, and

More information

Cycling injuries in Australia: Road safety s blind spot?

Cycling injuries in Australia: Road safety s blind spot? Cycling injuries in Australia: Road safety s blind spot? by J Garrard*, S Greaves** and A Ellison** *School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Melbourne **Institute of Transport and Logistics

More information

Taxicab and Livery Crashes in New York City 2004

Taxicab and Livery Crashes in New York City 2004 Taxicab and Livery Crashes in New York City 2004 April 27, 2006 Schaller Consulting Brooklyn, NY (718) 768-3487 schaller@schallerconsult.com www.schallerconsult.com TAXI AND LIVERY CRASHES IN NEW YORK

More information

CAR OCCUPANTS ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A STATE IN MALAYSIA

CAR OCCUPANTS ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A STATE IN MALAYSIA CAR OCCUPANTS ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A STATE IN MALAYSIA Hejar ABDUL RAHMAN, Nor Afiah MOHD ZULKIFLI Senior Lecturer Lecturer Department of Community Health Department of Community

More information

MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS

MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS HSRC MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS 113 8 MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION Motorbike and bicycle riders constitute only a small portion of road accident victims. In the RAF system only 1%

More information

FATAL WORK INJURIES IN NEW SOUTH WALES

FATAL WORK INJURIES IN NEW SOUTH WALES FATAL WORK INJURIES IN NEW SOUTH WALES Tim Driscoll Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health University of Sydney, Camperdown Rebecca Mitchell Injury Prevention Policy Unit NSW Department of Health

More information

road safety issues 2001 road toll for the Bay of Plenty Police district JULY 2002 Regional crash causes 1997 2001 Major road safety issues:

road safety issues 2001 road toll for the Bay of Plenty Police district JULY 2002 Regional crash causes 1997 2001 Major road safety issues: BAY OF PLENTY POLICE DISTRICT road safety issues JULY 22 The Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA) has prepared this Road Safety Issues Report. It is based on reported crash data and trends for the 1997

More information

Level 2 Award in Safe Driving at Work

Level 2 Award in Safe Driving at Work Level 2 Award in Safe Driving at Work Student notes (sample) www.britsafe.org Membership Training Qualifications Audit and Consultancy Audit and Policy Consultancy and Opinion Policy Awards and Opinion

More information

Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use. Email: toh.pang@unsw.edu.au

Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use. Email: toh.pang@unsw.edu.au Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use T.Y. Pang 1, K.T. Thai 1, T. Rankin 2, K. Curtis 2,3, E. Schilter 1, A.S. McIntosh 1 1 School of Risk and

More information