Introduction to Mobile Telephone Systems

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction to Mobile Telephone Systems"

Transcription

1 Introduction to Mobile Telephone Systems Lawrence Harte 1G, 2G, 2.5G, and 3G Wireless Technologies and Services 2nd Edition 1st Generation (1G) Analog Cellular Mobile Telephone System Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Card 3rd Generation (3G) Broadband Digital Excerpted From: Wireless Systems With Updated Information ALTHOS Publishing

2 ALTHOS Publishing Copyright 2006 by the ALTHOS Publishing Inc. All rights reserved. Produced in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN: All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. We use names to assist in the explanation or description of information to the benefit of the trademark owner and ALTHOS publishing does not have intentions for the infringement of any trademark. ALTHOS electronic books (ebooks) and images are available for use in educational, promotional materials, training programs, and other uses. For more information about using ALTHOS ebooks and images, please contact us at or (919) Terms of Use This is a copyrighted work and ALTHOS Publishing Inc. (ALTHOS) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. This work may be sued for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Use of this work is subject to the Copyright Act of 1976, and in addition, this work is subject to these additional terms, except as permitted under the and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not disassemble, decompile, copy or reproduce, reverse engineer, alter or modify, develop derivative works based upon these contents, transfer, distribute, publish, sell, or sublicense this work or any part of it without ALTHOS prior consent. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. ALTHOS AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO WARRANTIES OR GUARANTEES OF THE ACCURACY, SUFFICIENCY OR COMPLETENESS OF THIS WORK NOR THE RESULTS THAT MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE USE OF MATERIALS CONTAINED WITHIN THE WORK. APDG DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ALTHOS and its licensors does warrant and guarantee that the information contained within shall be usable by the purchaser of this material and the limitation of liability shall be limited to the replacement of the media or refund of the purchase price of the work. ALTHOS and its licensors shall not be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting there from. ALTHOS and/or its licensors shall not be liable for any damages including incidental, indirect, punitive, special, consequential or similar types of damages that may result from the attempted use or operation of the work. -ii-

3 About the Authors Mr. Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider whom researches, trains, and publishes on technology and business industries. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. He has authored over 60 books on telecommunications technologies and business systems covering topics such as mobile telephone systems, data communications, voice over data networks, broadband, prepaid services, billing systems, sales, and Internet marketing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York, (1990). -iii-

4 -iv-

5 Table of Contents MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES CELLULAR FREQUENCY REUSE HANDOVER SPEECH COMPRESSION MODULATION TYPES ACCESS MULTIPLEXING Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) PACKET DATA MOBILE DEVICES SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM) PCMCIA AIR CARDS EMBEDDED RADIO MODULES MOBILE TELEPHONES EXTERNAL RADIO MODEMS MOBILE SYSTEMS BASE STATIONS RADIO ANTENNA TOWERS COMMUNICATION LINKS MOBILE SWITCHING CENTER (MSC) AUTHENTICATION, AUTHORIZATION, AND ACCOUNTING (AAA) INTERWORKING FUNCTION (IWF) MESSAGE CENTER (MC) SERVING GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE SUPPORT NODE (SGSN) 23 -v-

6 GATEWAY GPRS SUPPORT NODE (GGSN) BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC) VOICE MESSAGE SYSTEM (VMS) PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK (PSTN) PUBLIC PACKET DATA NETWORK (PPDN) NETWORK DATABASES Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Billing Center (BC) Authentication Centre (AuC) Number Portability Database (NPDB) IP BACKBONE NETWORK MOBILE SYSTEM OPERATION INITIALIZATION IDLE ACCESS CONTROL AND INITIAL ASSIGNMENT Authentication Paging CONNECTED MODE PACKET DATA SCHEDULING ALGORITHM REGISTRATION ANALOG SYSTEMS (1ST GENERATION) ADVANCED MOBILE PHONE SERVICE (AMPS) TOTAL ACCESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (TACS) NORDIC MOBILE TELEPHONE (NMT) NARROWBAND AMPS (NAMPS) JAPANESE MOBILE CELLULAR SYSTEM (MCS) CNET MATS-E vi-

7 DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEMS (2ND GENERATION) GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION (GSM) NORTH AMERICAN TDMA (IS-136 TDMA) EXTENDED TDMA (E-TDMA)TM INTEGRATED DISPATCH ENHANCED NETWORK (IDEN) CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (IS-95 CDMA) JAPANESE PERSONAL DIGITAL CELLULAR (PDC) PACKET DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEMS (GENERATION 2.5) GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE (GPRS) ENHANCED DATA RATES FOR GLOBAL EVOLUTION (EDGE) CDMA2000 1XRTT EVOLUTION DATA ONLY (1XEVDO) EVOLUTION DATA AND VOICE (1XEVDV) WIDEBAND DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEMS (3RD GENERATION) WIDEBAND CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (WCDMA) CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS 2000 (CDMA2000) TIME DIVISION SYNCHRONOUS CDMA (TD-SCDMA) FOURTH GENERATION (4G) NETWORKS MOBILE SERVICES VOICE SERVICES Circuit Switched Voice Push to Talk (PTT) MESSAGING DATA SERVICE Circuit Switched Data Packet Switched Data LOCATION BASED SERVICES (LBS) MULTICAST SERVICES vii-

8 QUALITY OF SERVICE (QOS) Conversation Class Streaming Class Interactive Class Background Class viii-

9 Introduction to Mobile Telephone Systems Mobile telephone service (MTS) is a type of service where mobile radio telephones connect people to the public switched telephone system (PSTN), to other mobile telephones or to other communication systems (such as to the Internet). Cellular, personal communication service (PCS), and third generation 3G mobile radio systems are all cellular wireless communication networks that provide for voice and data communication throughout a wide geographic area. Cellular systems divide large geographic areas into small radio areas (cells) that are interconnected with each other. Each cell coverage area has one or several transmitters and receivers that communicate with mobile telephones within its area. Figure 1.1 shows a basic cellular mobile communications system. The cellular system connects mobile radios (called mobile stations) via radio channels to base stations. Some of the radio channels (or portions of a digital radio channel) are used for control purposes (setup and disconnection of calls) and some are used to transfer voice or customer data signals. Each base station contains transmitters and receivers that convert the radio signals to electrical signals that can be sent to and from the mobile switching center (MSC). The MSC contains communication controllers that adapt signals from base stations into a form that can be connected (switched) between other base stations or to lines that connect to the public telephone network. The switching system is connected to databases that contain active customers (cus- -1-

10 tomers active in its system). The switching system in the MSC is coordinated by call processing software that receives requests for service and processes the steps to setup and maintain connections through the MSC to destination communication devices such as to other mobile telephones or to telephones that are connected to the public telephone network. Figure 1.1, Basic Cellular System Mobile Technologies The key technologies used in cellular mobile radio include cellular frequency reuse, handover, digital modulation, access technologies and packet data transmission. -2-

11 Cellular Frequency Reuse Frequency reuse is the process of using the same radio frequencies on radio transmitter sites within a geographic area that are separated by sufficient distance to cause minimal interference with each other. Frequency reuse allows for a dramatic increase in the number of customers that can be served (capacity) within a geographic area on a limited amount of radio spectrum (limited number of radio channels). In early mobile radio telephone systems, one high-power transmitter served a large geographic area with a limited number of radio channels. Because each radio channel requires a certain frequency bandwidth (radio spectrum) and there is a very limited amount of radio spectrum available, this dramatically limits the number of radio channels that keeps the low serving capacity of such systems. For example, in 1976, New York City had only 12 radio channels to support 545 customers and a two-year long waiting list of typically 3,700 [1]. To conserve the limited amount of radio spectrum (maximum number of available radio channels), the cellular system concept was developed. Cellular systems allow reuse of the same channel frequencies many times within a geographic coverage area. The technique (called frequency reuse) makes it possible for a system to provide service to more customers (called system capacity) by reusing the channels that are available in a geographic area. In large systems such as the systems operating in New York City and Los Angeles, radio channel frequencies may be reused over 300 times. As systems start to become overloaded with many users, to increase capacity, the system can expand by adding more radio channels to the base station or by adding more cell cites with smaller coverage areas. To minimize interference in this way, cellular system planners position the cell sites that use the same radio channel farthest away from each other. The distances between sites are initially planned by general RF signal propagation rules. It is difficult to account for enough propagation factors to precisely position the towers, which usually leads the cell site position and power levels to be adjusted later. -3-

12 Figure 1.2 shows that radio channels (frequencies) in a cellular communication system can be reused in towers that have enough distance between them. This example shows that radio channel signal strength decreases exponentially with distance. As a result, mobile radios that are far enough apart can use the same radio channel frequency with minimal interference. Figure 1.2, Frequency Reuse The acceptable distance between cells that use the same channels are determined by the distance to radius (D/R) ratio. The D/R ratio is the ratio of the distance (D) between cells using the same radio frequency to the radius (R) of the cells. In today s analog system, a typical D/R ratio is 4.6:1, which means a channel used in a cell with a 1-mile radius would not interfere with the same channel being reused at a cell 4.6 miles away. For some of the digital systems (such as TDMA or GSM), the reuse factor can be lower than 2.0. Another technique, called cell splitting, helps to expand capacity gradually. Cells are split by adjusting the power level and/or using reduced antenna -4-

13 height to cover a reduced area. Reducing a coverage area by changing the RF boundaries of a cell site has the same effect as placing cells farther apart, and allows new cell sites to be added. However, the boundaries of a cell site vary with the terrain and land conditions, especially with seasonal variations in foliage. Coverage areas can actually increase in fall and winter as the leaves fall from the trees. When a cellular system is first established, it can effectively serve only a limited number of callers. When that limit is exceeded, callers experience system busy signals (known as blocking) and their calls cannot be completed. More callers can be served by adding more cells with smaller coverage areas - that is, by cell splitting. The increased number of smaller cells provides more available radio channels in a given area because it allows radio channels to be reused at closer geographical distances. When linked together to cover an entire metro area, the radio coverage areas (called cells) form a cellular structure resembling that of a honeycomb. Cellular systems are designed to overlap each cell border with adjacent cell borders to enable a handover from one cell to the next. As a customer (called a subscriber) moves through a cellular system, the mobile switching center (MSC) coordinates and transfers calls from one cell to another and maintains call continuity. Handover Handover is a process where a mobile radio operating on a particular channel is reassigned to a new channel. The process is often used to allow subscribers to travel throughout the large radio system coverage area by switching the calls (handover) from cell-to-cell (and different channels) with better coverage for that particular area when poor quality conversation is detected. Handover (also called handoff) is necessary for two reasons. First, where the mobile unit moves out of range of one cell site and is within range of another cell site. Second, a handover may be required when the mobile has requested the services of a type of cellular channel that different capabili- -5-

14 ties (e.g. packet data). This might mean assignment from a digital channel to an analog channel or assignment from a wide digital channel to a packet data channel. Figure 1.3 shows the basic handoff process that occurs in a mobile telephone system. In this example, the system has determined that the radio signal strength of mobile telephone has fallen below a predefined level. When this occurs, the serving base station sends a control message to the system indicating that the signal quality of the mobile s radio signal is declining and a handover may be necessary. The system determines that an adjacent cell site is a candidate for the handoff and it sends command messages to the adjacent cell site to prepare to receive a new connection. Messages are exchanged between the base stations and the mobile device that informs it to change to a new channel and the MSC switches the audio path to the new cell site when necessary. Figure 1.3, Handover Operation -6-

15 Speech Compression Speech compression is a technique for converting or encoding audio (sound) information so that a smaller amount of information elements or reduced bandwidth is required to represent, store or transfer audio signals. Figure 1.4 shows the basic digital speech compression process. The first step is to periodically sample the analog voice signal (5-20 msec) into pulse code modulated (PCM) digital form (usually 64 kbps). This digital signal is analyzed and characterized (e.g. volume, pitch) using a speech coder. The speech compression analysis usually removes redundancy in the digital signal (such as silence periods) and attempts to ignore patterns that are not characteristic of the human voice. In this example, these speech compression processes use pre-stored codebook tables that allow the speech coder to transmit abbreviated codes that represent larger (probable) digital speech patterns. The result is a digital signal that represents the voice content, not a waveform. The end result is a compressed digital audio signal that is 8-13 kbps instead of the 64 kbps PCM digitized voice. Figure 1.4, Speech Coding -7-

16 Modulation Types Modulation is the process of changing the amplitude, frequency, or phase of a radio frequency carrier signal (a carrier) to change with the information signal (such as voice or data). Mobile systems use analog or digital modulation. Analog modulation is a process where the amplitude, frequency or phase of a carrier signal is varied directly in proportion or in direct relationship to the information signal. Digital modulation is a process where the amplitude, frequency or phase of a carrier signal is varied by the discrete states (on and off) of a digital signal. Mobile telephone systems primarily use digital modulation. To increase the efficiency of mobile telephone systems, it is desirable to send more information with less frequency bandwidth (more information transported by the carrier signal). Modulation efficiency is a measure of how much information can be transferred onto a carrier signal. In general, more efficient modulation processes require smaller changes in the characteristics of a carrier signal (amplitude, frequency, or phase) to represent the information signal. To increase the amount of information that can be transported on a carrier signal, it is possible to use (combine) multiple forms of modulation on the same carrier wave (e.g. use both amplitude and phase modulation). Figure 1.5 shows different forms of digital modulation. This diagram shows ASK modulation that turns the carrier signal on and off with the digital signal. FSK modulation shifts the frequency of the carrier signal according to the on and off levels of the digital information signal. The phase shift modulator changes the phase of the carrier signal in accordance with the digital information signal. This diagram also shows that advanced forms of modulation such as QAM can combine amplitude and phase of digital signals. -8-

17 Figure 1.5, Digital Modulation Access Multiplexing Access multiplexing is a process used by a communications system to coordinate and allow more than one user to access the communication channels within the system. There are four basic access-multiplexing technologies used in wireless systems: frequency division multiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA), code division multiple access (CDMA) and space division multiple access (SDMA). Other forms of access multiplexing (such as voice activity multiplexing) use the fundamentals of these accessmultiplexing technologies to operate. -9-

18 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Frequency division multiple access is a process of allowing mobile radios to share radio frequency allocation by dividing up that allocation into separate radio channels where each radio device can communicate on a single radio channel during communication. Figure 1.6 shows how a frequency band can be divided into several communication channels using frequency division multiplexing (FDM). When a device is communicating on a FDM system using a frequency carrier signal, its carrier channel is completely occupied by the transmission of the device. For some FDM systems, after it has stopped transmitting, other transceivers may be assigned to that carrier channel frequency. When this process of assigning channels is organized, it is called frequency division multiple access (FDMA). Transceivers in an FDM system typically have the ability to tune to several different carrier channel frequencies. Figure 1.6, Frequency Division Multiple Access -10-

19 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a process of sharing a single radio channel by dividing the channel into time slots that are shared between simultaneous users of the radio channel. When a mobile radio communicates with a TDMA system, it is assigned a specific time position on the radio channel. By allowing several users to use different time positions (time slots) on a single radio channel, TDMA systems increase their ability to serve multiple users with a limited number of radio channels. Figure 1.7 shows how a single carrier channel is time-sliced into three communication channels. Transceiver number 1 is communicating on time slot number 1 and mobile radio number 2 is communicating on time slot number 3. Each frame on this communication system has three time slots. Figure 1.7, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) -11-

20 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA) is the sharing of a radio channel by multiple users by share adding a unique code for each data signal that is being sent to and from each of the radio transceivers. These codes are used to spread the data signal to a bandwidth much wider than is necessary to transmit the data signal without the code. Figure 1.8 shows how CDMA radio channels can provide multiple communication channels through the use of multiple coded channels. This diagram shows that a code pattern mask is used to decode each communication channel. The channel mask is shifted along the radio channel until the code chips (or a majority of the code chips) match the expected code pattern. When a match occurs, this produces a single bit of information (a logical 1 or 0). This example shows that the use of multiple code patterns (multiple masks in this example) allow multiple users to share the same radio channel. Figure 1.8, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) -12-

21 Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) Spatial division multiple access (SDMA) is a system access technology that allows a single transmitter location to provide multiple communication channels by dividing the radio coverage into focused radio beams that reuse the same frequency. To allow multiple access, each mobile radio is assigned to a focused radio beam. These radio beams may dynamically change with the location of the mobile radio. SDMA technology has been successfully used in satellite communications for several years. Figure 1.9 shows an example of an SDMA system. Diagram (a) shows the conventional sectored method for communicating from a cell site to a mobile telephone. This system transmits a specific frequency to a defined (sectored) geographic area. Diagram (b) shows a top view of a cell site that uses SDMA technology that is communicating with multiple mobile telephones operating within the same geographic area on a single frequency. In the SDMA system, multiple directional antennas or a phased array antenna system directs independent radio beams to different directions. As the mobile telephone moves within the sector, the system either switches to an alternate beam (for a multi-beam system) or adjusts the beam to the new direction (in an adaptive system). Figure 1.9, Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) -13-

22 Packet Data Packet data is the sending of data through a network in small packets (typically under 1000 bytes of information per packet). A packet data system divides large quantities of data into small packets for transmission through a switching network that uses the addresses of the packets to dynamically route these packets through a switching network to their ultimate destination. When a data block is divided, the packets are given sequence numbers so that a packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) device can recombine the packets to the original data block after they have been transmitted through the network. To send packet data on mobile networks, the system is designed to coordinate the dynamic assignment and reception of radio packets. The wireless system is connected to packet switching nodes. Packet switching nodes in GSM systems are called GPRS Support Nodes (GSNs). GSNs receive and forward data packets toward their destination. To add packet radio and packet data switching to a mobile system, this system can be separated into two separate parts; a voice part and a packet data part. The voice part connects voice calls to a single location using a circuit switched connection (circuit path). The packet data part dynamically routes packets towards their destination depending on the address that is contained in the data packet. Figure 1.10 shows a simplified functional diagram of a mobile network that is capable of combining voice and packet data services. This diagram shows that the packet data network is attached to the base station in an addition to the switched voice system and the voice and packet switched data systems that share a common radio access network. The base station (BS) contains a radio transceiver (radio and transmitter) that converts the radio signal into data signals (data and digital voice) that can transfer through the network. The base station separates the radio channel data so the voice data is sent to the voice switching system (the MSC) and the data packets are sent to the packet data system (GSN). -14-

23 Figure 1.10, Packet Mobile System Mobile Devices Mobile devices (also called access terminals) are input and output devices that are used to communicate with a radio site (base stations). Mobile devices may include removable subscriber identity modules (SIMs) that hold service subscription information. The common types of available mobile devices include external radio modems, PCMCIA cards, radio modules, and dual mode mobile telephones. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) The subscriber identity module (SIM) is a small information card that contains service subscription identity and personal information. This information includes a phone number, billing identification information and a small amount of user specific data (such as feature preferences and short mes- -15-

24 sages). This information is stored in the card rather than programming this information into the phone itself. This intelligent card, either credit cardsized (ISO format), or the size of a postage-stamp (Plug-In format), can be inserted into any SIM ready wireless telephone. Figure 1.11 shows a block diagram of a SIM. This diagram shows that SIM cards have 8 electrical contacts. This allows for power to be applied to the electronic circuits inside the card and for data to be sent to and from the card. The card contains a microprocessor that is used to store and retrieve data. Identification information is stored in the cards protected memory that is not accessible by the customer. Additional memory is included to allow features or other information such as short messages to be stored on the card. Figure 1.11, Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Block Diagram -16-

25 PCMCIA Air Cards The PCMCIA card uses a standard physical and electrical interface that is used to connect memory and communication devices to computers, typically laptops. The physical card sizes are similar to the size of a credit card inches (51.46 mm) by 3.37 inches (69.2 mm) long. There are 4 different card thickness dimensions: 3.3 (type 1), 5.0 (type 2), 10.5 (type 3), and 16 mm (type 4). WCDMA PCMCIA radio cards can be added to most laptop computers to avoid the need of integrating or attaching radio devices. Embedded Radio Modules Embedded radio modules are self-contained electronic assemblies that may be inserted or attached to other electronic devices or systems. Embedded radio modules may be installed in computing devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptop computers, and other types of computing devices that can benefit from wireless data and/or voice connections. Mobile Telephones Mobile telephones are radio transceivers (combined transmitter and receive) that convert signals between users (typically people, but not always) and radio signals. Mobile telephones can vary from simple voice units to advanced multimedia personal digital assistants (PDAs). External Radio Modems External radio modems are self-contained radios with data modems that allow the customer to simply plug the radio device to their USB or Ethernet data port on their desktop or laptop computer. External modems are commonly connected to computers via standard connections such as universal serial bus (USB) or RJ-45 Ethernet connections. -17-

Global System for Mobile Communication Technology

Global System for Mobile Communication Technology Global System for Mobile Communication Technology Mobile Device Investigations Program Technical Operations Division DHS - FLETC GSM Technology Global System for Mobile Communication or Groupe Special

More information

Mobile Network Evolution Part 1. GSM and UMTS

Mobile Network Evolution Part 1. GSM and UMTS Mobile Network Evolution Part 1 GSM and UMTS GSM Cell layout Architecture Call setup Mobility management Security GPRS Architecture Protocols QoS EDGE UMTS Architecture Integrated Communication Systems

More information

Mobile Communications

Mobile Communications October 21, 2009 Agenda Topic 2: Case Study: The GSM Network 1 GSM System General Architecture 2 GSM Access network. 3 Traffic Models for the Air interface 4 Models for the BSS design. 5 UMTS and the path

More information

The GSM and GPRS network T-110.300/301

The GSM and GPRS network T-110.300/301 The GSM and GPRS network T-110.300/301 History The successful analog 1:st generation mobile telephone systems proved that there is a market for mobile telephones ARP (AutoRadioPuhelin) in Finland NMT (Nordic

More information

GSM Architecture Training Document

GSM Architecture Training Document Training Document TC Finland Nokia Networks Oy 1 (20) The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation.

More information

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Definition Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization

More information

Cellular Network Organization. Cellular Wireless Networks. Approaches to Cope with Increasing Capacity. Frequency Reuse

Cellular Network Organization. Cellular Wireless Networks. Approaches to Cope with Increasing Capacity. Frequency Reuse Cellular Network Organization Cellular Wireless Networks Use multiple low-power transmitters (100 W or less) Areas divided into cells Each served by its own antenna Served by base station consisting of

More information

Module 5. Broadcast Communication Networks. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 5. Broadcast Communication Networks. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur Module 5 Broadcast Communication Networks Lesson 9 Cellular Telephone Networks Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the student will be able to: Explain the operation of Cellular

More information

Ch 2.3.3 GSM PENN. Magda El Zarki - Tcom 510 - Spring 98

Ch 2.3.3 GSM PENN. Magda El Zarki - Tcom 510 - Spring 98 Ch 2.3.3 GSM In the early 80 s the European community decided to work together to define a cellular system that would permit full roaming in all countries and give the network providers freedom to provide

More information

Mobile Computing. Basic Call Calling terminal Network Called terminal 10/25/14. Public Switched Telephone Network - PSTN. CSE 40814/60814 Fall 2014

Mobile Computing. Basic Call Calling terminal Network Called terminal 10/25/14. Public Switched Telephone Network - PSTN. CSE 40814/60814 Fall 2014 Mobile Computing CSE 40814/60814 Fall 2014 Public Switched Telephone Network - PSTN Transit switch Transit switch Long distance network Transit switch Local switch Outgoing call Incoming call Local switch

More information

Wireless Cellular Networks: 1G and 2G

Wireless Cellular Networks: 1G and 2G Wireless Cellular Networks: 1G and 2G Raj Jain Professor of Computer Science and Engineering Washington University in Saint Louis Saint Louis, MO 63130 Audio/Video recordings of this lecture are available

More information

Mobile Wireless Overview

Mobile Wireless Overview Mobile Wireless Overview A fast-paced technological transition is occurring today in the world of internetworking. This transition is marked by the convergence of the telecommunications infrastructure

More information

GSM v. CDMA: Technical Comparison of M2M Technologies

GSM v. CDMA: Technical Comparison of M2M Technologies GSM v. CDMA: Technical Comparison of M2M Technologies Introduction Aeris provides network and data analytics services for Machine-to- Machine ( M2M ) and Internet of Things ( IoT ) applications using multiple

More information

Telecommunications and the Information Age ET108B. Cell Phone Network

Telecommunications and the Information Age ET108B. Cell Phone Network Telecommunications and the Information Age ET108B Cell Phone Network The Cellular Telephone Network Cellular Telephone Features Carrying Data Across the Cellular Network Satellite Telephone Service Cellular

More information

Wireless Mobile Telephony

Wireless Mobile Telephony Wireless Mobile Telephony The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Durresi@cis.ohio-state.edu http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~durresi/ 1 Overview Why wireless mobile telephony? First Generation, Analog

More information

Lecture overview. History of cellular systems (1G) GSM introduction. Basic architecture of GSM system. Basic radio transmission parameters of GSM

Lecture overview. History of cellular systems (1G) GSM introduction. Basic architecture of GSM system. Basic radio transmission parameters of GSM Lecture overview History of cellular systems (1G) GSM introduction Basic architecture of GSM system Basic radio transmission parameters of GSM Analogue cellular systems 70 s In the early 70 s radio frequencies

More information

2G/3G Mobile Communication Systems

2G/3G Mobile Communication Systems 2G/3G Mobile Communication Systems Winter 2012/13 Integrated Communication Systems Group Ilmenau University of Technology Outline 2G Review: GSM Services Architecture Protocols Call setup Mobility management

More information

Hello viewers, welcome to today s lecture on cellular telephone systems.

Hello viewers, welcome to today s lecture on cellular telephone systems. Data Communications Prof. A. Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture minus 31 Cellular Telephone Systems Hello viewers, welcome to today s lecture

More information

1. Introduction: The Evolution of Mobile Telephone Systems

1. Introduction: The Evolution of Mobile Telephone Systems IEC: The Global System for Mobile Communication Tutorial: Index Page 1 of 14 Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Tutorial Definition Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is a globally

More information

Mobility and cellular networks

Mobility and cellular networks Mobility and cellular s Wireless WANs Cellular radio and PCS s Wireless data s Satellite links and s Mobility, etc.- 2 Cellular s First generation: initially debuted in Japan in 1979, analog transmission

More information

Indian Journal of Advances in Computer & Information Engineering Volume.1 Number.1 January-June 2013, pp.1-5 @ Academic Research Journals.

Indian Journal of Advances in Computer & Information Engineering Volume.1 Number.1 January-June 2013, pp.1-5 @ Academic Research Journals. Cellular System Rajat Chugh, Parag Jasoria, Tushar Arora, Nitin Ginotra and Vivek Anand V Semester, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Dronacharya College of Engineering, Khentawas, Farukhnagar,

More information

Basic Network Design

Basic Network Design Frequency Reuse and Planning Cellular Technology enables mobile communication because they use of a complex two-way radio system between the mobile unit and the wireless network. It uses radio frequencies

More information

Chapters 1-21 Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems

Chapters 1-21 Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems Chapters 1-21 Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems Yimin Zhang, Ph.D. Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Villanova University http://yiminzhang.com/ece8708 Yimin Zhang, Villanova

More information

White Paper. D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. E-mail: info@dlink.com.sg; Web: http://www.dlink-intl.

White Paper. D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. E-mail: info@dlink.com.sg; Web: http://www.dlink-intl. Introduction to Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN) White Paper D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. Introduction Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN) is a technology involving the use

More information

Over the PSTN... 2 Over Wireless Networks... 2. Network Architecture... 3

Over the PSTN... 2 Over Wireless Networks... 2. Network Architecture... 3 Content Introduction... 1 History of Modems... 2 Over the PSTN... 2 Over Wireless Networks... 2 Network Architecture... 3 Circuit-Switched Cellular Data... 3 Short Message Service... 3 Packet-Switched

More information

Lecture 1. Introduction to Wireless Communications 1

Lecture 1. Introduction to Wireless Communications 1 896960 Introduction to Algorithmic Wireless Communications Lecture 1. Introduction to Wireless Communications 1 David Amzallag 2 May 25, 2008 Introduction to cellular telephone systems. How a cellular

More information

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Nguyen Thi Mai Trang LIP6/PHARE Thi-Mai-Trang.Nguyen@lip6.fr UPMC/PUF - M2 Networks - PTEL 1 Outline Principles of cellular networks GSM architecture Security

More information

Handoff in GSM/GPRS Cellular Systems. Avi Freedman Hexagon System Engineering

Handoff in GSM/GPRS Cellular Systems. Avi Freedman Hexagon System Engineering Handoff in GSM/GPRS Cellular Systems Avi Freedman Hexagon System Engineering Outline GSM and GSM referemce model GPRS basics Handoffs GSM GPRS Location and Mobility Management Re-selection and routing

More information

Application Note: Paradise Datacom connecting GSM networks via Satellite. Presented by Paradise Datacom Limited

Application Note: Paradise Datacom connecting GSM networks via Satellite. Presented by Paradise Datacom Limited Application Note: Paradise Datacom connecting GSM networks via Satellite Presented by Paradise Datacom Limited February 2008 Proprietary and Confidential Paradise Datacom provides this information in good

More information

Cellular Communications

Cellular Communications Definition Cellular Communications A cellular mobile communications system uses a large number of low-power wireless transmitters to create cells the basic geographic service area of a wireless communications

More information

IMT-2000 Network Architecture

IMT-2000 Network Architecture IMT-2000 Network Architecture vtoshio Shimoe vtakamichi Sano (Manuscript received May 31, 2002) International Mobile Telecommunication-2000 (IMT-2000) is a third-generation mobile communication system.

More information

Chapter 6 Wireless and Mobile Networks

Chapter 6 Wireless and Mobile Networks Chapter 6 Wireless and Mobile Networks A note on the use of these ppt slides: We re making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers). They re in PowerPoint form so you see the animations;

More information

ACCESS CHARGE A fee charged subscribers or other telephone companies by a local exchange carrier for the use of its local exchange networks.

ACCESS CHARGE A fee charged subscribers or other telephone companies by a local exchange carrier for the use of its local exchange networks. Glossary of Telecommunications Terms (Source: Federal Communications Commission) ACCESS CHARGE A fee charged subscribers or other telephone companies by a local exchange carrier for the use of its local

More information

Mobile Communications Chapter 4: Wireless Telecommunication Systems slides by Jochen Schiller with modifications by Emmanuel Agu

Mobile Communications Chapter 4: Wireless Telecommunication Systems slides by Jochen Schiller with modifications by Emmanuel Agu Mobile Communications Chapter 4: Wireless Telecommunication Systems slides by Jochen Schiller with modifications by Emmanuel Agu Market GSM Overview Services Sub-systems Components Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen

More information

GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications

GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications VLR BTS BSC GMSC PSTN MS HLR 1) Overview of GSM architecture 2) GSM channel structure 05-1 GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications VLR BTS BSC GMSC PSTN

More information

GSM System. Global System for Mobile Communications

GSM System. Global System for Mobile Communications GSM System Global System for Mobile Communications Introduced in 1991. Settings of standards under ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute) Services - Telephone services - Data services -

More information

Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Introduction to Wireless Communications

Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Introduction to Wireless Communications Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Introduction to Wireless Communications Wireless Communication Systems Network Radio wave wire wire LAN Network Base station transceiver LAN 2 Wireless Technologies

More information

Evolution of GSM in to 2.5G and 3G

Evolution of GSM in to 2.5G and 3G CMPE 477 Wireless and Mobile Networks Evolution of GSM in to 2.5G and 3G New Data Services for GSM CMPE 477 HSCSD GPRS 3G UMTS IMT2000 UMTS Architecture UTRAN Architecture Data services in GSM I Data transmission

More information

Introduction to Wireless Communications and Networks

Introduction to Wireless Communications and Networks Introduction to Wireless Communications and Networks Tongtong Li Dept. Electrical and Computer Engineering East Lansing, MI 48824 tongli@egr.msu.edu 1 Outline Overview of a Communication System Digital

More information

VoIP for Radio Networks

VoIP for Radio Networks White Paper VoIP for Radio Networks Revision 1.0 www.omnitronicsworld.com In the early eighties, a communications protocol was created that allowed the research community to send data anywhere in the world

More information

192620010 Mobile & Wireless Networking. Lecture 5: Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) [Schiller, Section 4.4]

192620010 Mobile & Wireless Networking. Lecture 5: Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) [Schiller, Section 4.4] 192620010 Mobile & Wireless Networking Lecture 5: Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) [Schiller, Section 4.4] Geert Heijenk Outline of Lecture 5 Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) q Evolution of cellular

More information

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 4: Medium Access Control October 5, 2004 2004 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Medium Access Control Schemes: FDMA TDMA

More information

Location management Need Frequency Location updating

Location management Need Frequency Location updating Lecture-16 Mobility Management Location management Need Frequency Location updating Fig 3.10 Location management in cellular network Mobility Management Paging messages Different paging schemes Transmission

More information

Development of Wireless Networks

Development of Wireless Networks Development of Wireless Networks Cellular Revolution In 1990 mobile phone users populate 11 million. By 2004 the figure will become 1 billion Phones are most obvious sign of the success of wireless technology.

More information

1G to 4G. Overview. Presentation By Rajeev Bansal Director(Mobile-1) Telecommunication Engineering Centre

1G to 4G. Overview. Presentation By Rajeev Bansal Director(Mobile-1) Telecommunication Engineering Centre 1G to 4G Overview Presentation By Rajeev Bansal Director(Mobile-1) Telecommunication Engineering Centre Mobile Networks differentiated from each other by the word Generation 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G milestones

More information

Computers Are Your Future. 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Computers Are Your Future. 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers Are Your Future 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers Are Your Future Chapter 3 Wired and Wireless Communication 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 2 What You Will Learn... ü The definition of bandwidth

More information

Introduction Ericsson Handheld Telephone 1341-B

Introduction Ericsson Handheld Telephone 1341-B Ericsson Handheld Telephone 1341-B 2 Contents General 5 The Mobile Telephone Network 6 Base Station and Cell 7 Radio Channels 7 Radio Coverage 8 Transmission Control and Communication 9 Quality Control

More information

Cellular Network Organization

Cellular Network Organization Cellular Networks Cellular Network Organization Use multiple low-power transmitters (100 W or less) Areas divided into cells o Each served by its own antenna o Served by base station consisting of transmitter,

More information

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Definition Time division multiple access (TDMA) is digital transmission technology that allows a number of users to access a single radio-frequency (RF) channel without

More information

Mobile Networking Concepts and Protocols CNT 5517

Mobile Networking Concepts and Protocols CNT 5517 Mobile Networking Concepts and Protocols CNT 5517 Some slides are adapted from Dr. Dave Johnson Notes Dr. Sumi Helal, Ph.D. Professor Computer & Information Science & Engineering Department University

More information

EE 4105 Communication Engg-II Dr. Mostafa Zaman Chowdhury Slide # 1

EE 4105 Communication Engg-II Dr. Mostafa Zaman Chowdhury Slide # 1 EE 4105 Communication Engg-II Dr. Mostafa Zaman Chowdhury Slide # 1 1 Circuit-Switched Systems In a circuit-switched system, each traffic channel is dedicated to a user until its cell is terminated. Circuit

More information

Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information

Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information Introduction Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information No master/slave relationship between the computers in the network Data Communications.

More information

!!! "# $ % & & # ' (! ) * +, -!!. / " 0! 1 (!!! ' &! & & & ' ( 2 3 0-4 ' 3 ' Giuseppe Bianchi

!!! # $ % & & # ' (! ) * +, -!!. /  0! 1 (!!! ' &! & & & ' ( 2 3 0-4 ' 3 ' Giuseppe Bianchi !!! "# $ % & & # ' (! ) * +, -!!. / " 0! 1 (!!! ' &! & & & ' ( 2 3 0-4 ' 3 ' "#$!!% "&'! #&'!%! () *+,, 3 & 5 &,! #-!*! ' & '.! #%!* //!! & (0)/!&/, 6 5 /, "! First system: NMT-450 (Nordic Mobile Telephone)

More information

GSM GPRS. Course requirements: Understanding Telecommunications book by Ericsson (Part D PLMN) + supporting material (= these slides)

GSM GPRS. Course requirements: Understanding Telecommunications book by Ericsson (Part D PLMN) + supporting material (= these slides) GSM Example of a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) At present most successful cellular mobile system (over 200 million subscribers worldwide) Digital (2 nd Generation) cellular mobile system operating

More information

Review of Cell Phone Technology

Review of Cell Phone Technology Review of Cell Phone Technology Types of Cell Technology - CDMA - GSM - iden - TDMA CDMA Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) CDMA Code Division Multiple Access. In reality it is cdmaone (2G) or CDMA2000

More information

White Paper ON Dual Mode Phone (GSM & Wi-Fi)

White Paper ON Dual Mode Phone (GSM & Wi-Fi) White Paper ON Dual Mode Phone (GSM & Wi-Fi) Author: N Group 1.0 Abstract Dual Mode Handset is in demand for converged Network, Access, Billing, and Operation environment. Dual mode handsets provide cost

More information

Survivability Analysis for Mobile Cellular Networks

Survivability Analysis for Mobile Cellular Networks Survivability Analysis for Mobile Cellular Networks David W. Tipper *, Chalermpol Charnsripinyo *, Hyundoo Shin * Teresa A. Dahlberg ** * Department of Information Science and Telecommunications, University

More information

CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Wireless Networks Background 1.1.1 Evolution of Wireless Networks Figure 1.1 shows a general view of the evolution of wireless networks. It is well known that the first successful

More information

EPL 657 Wireless Networks

EPL 657 Wireless Networks EPL 657 Wireless Networks Some fundamentals: Multiplexing / Multiple Access / Duplex Infrastructure vs Infrastructureless Panayiotis Kolios Recall: The big picture... Modulations: some basics 2 Multiplexing

More information

Chapter 3 Cellular Networks. Wireless Network and Mobile Computing Professor: Dr. Patrick D. Cerna

Chapter 3 Cellular Networks. Wireless Network and Mobile Computing Professor: Dr. Patrick D. Cerna Chapter 3 Cellular Networks Wireless Network and Mobile Computing Professor: Dr. Patrick D. Cerna Objectives! Understand Cellular Phone Technology! Know the evolution of evolution network! Distinguish

More information

What is telecommunication? electronic communications? What is telephony?

What is telecommunication? electronic communications? What is telephony? What is telecommunication? Telecommunication: Any transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic

More information

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Wireless Networks Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, PDAs, Internet-enabled phone promise anytime untethered Internet

More information

Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems

Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems Isha Batra, Divya Raheja Information Technology, Dronacharya College of Engineering Farrukh Nagar, Gurgaon, India ABSTRACT- This Paper Outlines a research multiplexing

More information

GSM Channels. Physical & Logical Channels. Traffic and Control Mutltiframing. Frame Structure

GSM Channels. Physical & Logical Channels. Traffic and Control Mutltiframing. Frame Structure GSM Channels Physical & Logical Channels Traffic and Control Mutltiframing Frame Structure Engr. Mian Shahzad Iqbal Lecturer Department of Telecommunication Engineering Radio Interface The radio interface

More information

Guide to Wireless Communications. Digital Cellular Telephony. Learning Objectives. Digital Cellular Telephony. Chapter 8

Guide to Wireless Communications. Digital Cellular Telephony. Learning Objectives. Digital Cellular Telephony. Chapter 8 Guide to Wireless Communications Digital Cellular Telephony Chapter 2 Learning Objectives Digital Cellular Telephony 3 Describe the applications that can be used on a digital cellular telephone Explain

More information

NXU RoIP Link to Eliminate Voice-Grade Leased Line

NXU RoIP Link to Eliminate Voice-Grade Leased Line NXU RoIP Link to Eliminate Voice-Grade Leased Line Purpose This Application Note will describe a method at which Network Extension Units (NXUs) can be utilized on an existing digital network to eliminate

More information

What is telecommunication? electronic communications. service?

What is telecommunication? electronic communications. service? What is telecommunication? Telecommunication: Any transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic

More information

Verizon Wireless White Paper. Verizon Wireless Broadband Network Connectivity and Data Transport Solutions

Verizon Wireless White Paper. Verizon Wireless Broadband Network Connectivity and Data Transport Solutions Verizon Wireless White Paper Verizon Wireless Broadband Network Connectivity and Data Transport Solutions Verizon Wireless White Paper Verizon Wireless Broadband Network Connectivity and Data Transport

More information

Telecommunications, Networks, and Wireless Computing

Telecommunications, Networks, and Wireless Computing Objectives Telecommunications, Networks, and Wireless Computing 1. What are the features of a contemporary corporate telecommunications system? On what major technology developments are they based? 2.

More information

ADSL part 2, Cable Internet, Cellular

ADSL part 2, Cable Internet, Cellular ADSL part 2, Cable Internet, Cellular 20 June 2016 Lecture 12 20 June 2016 SE 428: Advanced Computer Networks 1 Topics for Today ADSL Cable Internet Cellular Radio Networks 20 June 2016 SE 428: Advanced

More information

Pradipta Biswas Roll No. 04IT6007 M. Tech. (IT) School of Information Technology Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Pradipta Biswas Roll No. 04IT6007 M. Tech. (IT) School of Information Technology Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Pradipta Biswas Roll No. 04IT6007 M. Tech. (IT) School of Information Technology Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur ABSTRACT W-CDMA (Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access), an ITU standard derived

More information

GSM and Similar Architectures Lesson 07 GSM Radio Interface, Data bursts and Interleaving

GSM and Similar Architectures Lesson 07 GSM Radio Interface, Data bursts and Interleaving GSM and Similar Architectures Lesson 07 GSM Radio Interface, Data bursts and Interleaving 1 Space Division Multiple Access of the signals from the MSs A BTS with n directed antennae covers mobile stations

More information

The Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks. David W. Paranchych IEEE CVT Luncheon January 21, 2003

The Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks. David W. Paranchych IEEE CVT Luncheon January 21, 2003 The Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks David W. Paranchych IEEE CVT Luncheon January 21, 2003 Outline Past: cdma2000 1xRTT Present: 1xEV-DO What is it? How does it work? How well does it work? What

More information

WIRELESS GLOSSARY OF TERMS. Air Interface: The operating system of a wireless network. Technologies include AMPS, TDMA, CDMA, GSM and iden.

WIRELESS GLOSSARY OF TERMS. Air Interface: The operating system of a wireless network. Technologies include AMPS, TDMA, CDMA, GSM and iden. WIRELESS GLOSSARY OF TERMS Air Interface: The operating system of a wireless network. Technologies include AMPS, TDMA, CDMA, GSM and iden. AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) is the original analog

More information

Wireless and Mobile Communication

Wireless and Mobile Communication Wireless and Mobile Communication Prof. RambabuMakkena,Prof. Sudhir P. Sitanagre Asm`s IBMR Chinchwad, Pune-19, India Email Id:rambabum@asmedu.org ABSTRACT The success of mobile communications lies in

More information

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA COMM.ENG INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA 9/6/2014 LECTURES 1 Objectives To give a background on Communication system components and channels (media) A distinction between analogue

More information

Wireless Access of GSM

Wireless Access of GSM Wireless Access of GSM Project Report FALL, 1999 Wireless Access of GSM Abstract: Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) started to be developed by Europeans when the removal of many European trade

More information

2 System introduction

2 System introduction 2 System introduction Objectives After this chapter the student will: be able to describe the different nodes in a GSM network. be able to describe geographical subdivision of a GSM network. be able to

More information

Multiple Access Techniques

Multiple Access Techniques Chapter 8 Multiple Access Techniques Multiple access techniques are used to allow a large number of mobile users to share the allocated spectrum in the most efficient manner. As the spectrum is limited,

More information

Nokia and Nokia Connecting People are registered trademarks of Nokia Corporation

Nokia and Nokia Connecting People are registered trademarks of Nokia Corporation Nokia and Nokia Connecting People are registered trademarks of Nokia Corporation Nokia E70 Configuring connection settings Nokia E70 Configuring connection settings Legal Notice Copyright Nokia 2006. All

More information

Chapter 3: WLAN-GPRS Integration for Next-Generation Mobile Data Networks

Chapter 3: WLAN-GPRS Integration for Next-Generation Mobile Data Networks Chapter 3: WLAN-GPRS Integration for Next-Generation Mobile Data Networks IEEE Wireless Communication, Oct. 2002 Prof. Yuh-Shyan Chen Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National

More information

Configuring connection settings

Configuring connection settings Configuring connection settings Nokia E90 Communicator Configuring connection settings Nokia E90 Communicator Configuring connection settings Legal Notice Nokia, Nokia Connecting People, Eseries and E90

More information

Wireless Telephone System Product Comparison

Wireless Telephone System Product Comparison TM Wireless Telephone System Product Comparison SpectraLink PCS 150E SpectraLink PCS 150E x 4 SpectraLink PCS 3000 Publication Information Toshiba America Information Systems, Inc., Telecommunication Systems

More information

FPGAs in Next Generation Wireless Networks

FPGAs in Next Generation Wireless Networks FPGAs in Next Generation Wireless Networks March 2010 Lattice Semiconductor 5555 Northeast Moore Ct. Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 USA Telephone: (503) 268-8000 www.latticesemi.com 1 FPGAs in Next Generation

More information

Wireless Broadband Access

Wireless Broadband Access Wireless Broadband Access (Brought to you by RMRoberts.com) Mobile wireless broadband is a term used to describe wireless connections based on mobile phone technology. Broadband is an electronics term

More information

DATA SECURITY 1/12. Copyright Nokia Corporation 2002. All rights reserved. Ver. 1.0

DATA SECURITY 1/12. Copyright Nokia Corporation 2002. All rights reserved. Ver. 1.0 DATA SECURITY 1/12 Copyright Nokia Corporation 2002. All rights reserved. Ver. 1.0 Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. REMOTE ACCESS ARCHITECTURES... 3 2.1 DIAL-UP MODEM ACCESS... 3 2.2 SECURE INTERNET ACCESS

More information

CS 8803 - Cellular and Mobile Network Security: GSM - In Detail

CS 8803 - Cellular and Mobile Network Security: GSM - In Detail CS 8803 - Cellular and Mobile Network Security: GSM - In Detail Professor Patrick Traynor 9/27/12 Cellular Telecommunications Architecture Background Air Interfaces Network Protocols Application: Messaging

More information

Network Neutrality Statement

Network Neutrality Statement Network Neutrality Statement CTC continues to comply with all applicable FCC requirements while providing the best possible customer experience for its Internet users. As such, CTC commits to the open

More information

Computer Networks. Wireless and Mobile Networks. László Böszörményi Computer Networks Mobile - 1

Computer Networks. Wireless and Mobile Networks. László Böszörményi Computer Networks Mobile - 1 Computer Networks Wireless and Mobile Networks László Böszörményi Computer Networks Mobile - 1 Background Number of wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds number of wired phone subscribers! Computer

More information

Wireless LANs vs. Wireless WANs

Wireless LANs vs. Wireless WANs White Paper Wireless LANs vs. Wireless WANs White Paper 2130273 Revision 1.0 Date 2002 November 18 Subject Supported Products Comparing Wireless LANs and Wireless WANs Wireless data cards and modules,

More information

Glossary of Telco Terms

Glossary of Telco Terms Glossary of Telco Terms Access Generally refers to the connection between your business and the public phone network, or between your business and another dedicated location. A large portion of your business

More information

EECC694 - Shaaban. Transmission Channel

EECC694 - Shaaban. Transmission Channel The Physical Layer: Data Transmission Basics Encode data as energy at the data (information) source and transmit the encoded energy using transmitter hardware: Possible Energy Forms: Electrical, light,

More information

STAR-GATE TM. Annex: Intercepting Packet Data Compliance with CALEA and ETSI Delivery and Administration Standards.

STAR-GATE TM. Annex: Intercepting Packet Data Compliance with CALEA and ETSI Delivery and Administration Standards. STAR-GATE TM Annex: Intercepting Packet Data Compliance with CALEA and ETSI Delivery and Administration Standards. In this document USA Tel: +1-703-818-2130 Fax: +1-703-818-2131 E-mail: marketing.citi@cominfosys.com

More information

CS 8803 - Cellular and Mobile Network Security: CDMA/UMTS Air Interface

CS 8803 - Cellular and Mobile Network Security: CDMA/UMTS Air Interface CS 8803 - Cellular and Mobile Network Security: CDMA/UMTS Air Interface Hank Carter Professor Patrick Traynor 10/4/2012 UMTS and CDMA 3G technology - major change from GSM (TDMA) Based on techniques originally

More information

CDMA TECHNOLOGY. Brief Working of CDMA

CDMA TECHNOLOGY. Brief Working of CDMA CDMA TECHNOLOGY History of CDMA The Cellular Challenge The world's first cellular networks were introduced in the early 1980s, using analog radio transmission technologies such as AMPS (Advanced Mobile

More information

LEASED-LINE REPLACEMENT

LEASED-LINE REPLACEMENT WHITE PAPER LEASED-LINE REPLACEMENT 10 Things to Consider Before Choosing Your IP Gateway WWW.OMNITRONICSWORLD.COM Outline Leased-lines are still being used in many parts of the world to carry voice communications

More information

ENGN4536 Mobile Communications

ENGN4536 Mobile Communications ENGN4536 Mobile Communications Dr Thushara Abhayapala Department of Engineering Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology Australian National University thushara@faceng.anu.edu.au http://www.webct.anu.edu.au

More information

Cellular Technology Sections 6.4 & 6.7

Cellular Technology Sections 6.4 & 6.7 Overview Cellular Technology Sections 6. & 6.7 CSC 9 December, 0 Cellular architecture evolution Cellular telephony and internet terminology Mobility for cellular mobiles 6- Components of cellular architecture

More information

4. H.323 Components. VOIP, Version 1.6e T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 1 of 19

4. H.323 Components. VOIP, Version 1.6e T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 1 of 19 4. H.323 Components VOIP, Version 1.6e T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 1 of 19 4.1 H.323 Terminals (1/2)...3 4.1 H.323 Terminals (2/2)...4 4.1.1 The software IP phone (1/2)...5 4.1.1 The software

More information

2G Cellular Data Networks

2G Cellular Data Networks 1 2 General Mobility Issues 2G Cellular Data Networks Registration and Authentication User Locate local service provider access point Obtain network access Service provider Locate mobile user within network

More information