1 Investigating business demand for Watershed Service Markets: Case studies from Oregon Vijay Kolinjivadi World Forest Institute International Fellow- USA / India April, November, 2010
2 Outline of Presentation Ecosystem Services Ecosystem Service Markets Case studies: Wetland Mitigation Banking; BEF s Watershed Restoration Certificate Research Objectives Methodology Results Conclusion Acknowledgements
3 Ecosystem Services Ecosystem services are defined as the conditions and processes through which ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life (Daily, 1997) Examples of ecosystem services include: -carbon sequestration -fish and wildlife habitat - soil formation and nutrient cycling - pollination of crops - medicines, fibres, fuelwood, food - recreation and eco-tourism
4 Ecosystem Services
5 Ecosystem Services provided by healthy watersheds Drinking water for urban endpoints, agriculture, industry Water filtration Flow regulation Flood control Erosion and sedimentation control Recreation Climate regulation Fisheries and riparian products The provision of habitat for biological diversity Cultural, religious, and aesthetic enjoyment Watersheds (or catchments)- The surrounding area of land that drains into a common water source.
6 Forests to Faucet: Why forests are important for watersheds and watershed services Well managed forests almost always provide higher quality water for drinking, industry, or agriculture downstream: with less sediment, and fewer pollutants than deforested areas or poorly managed forests. Not always clear- example montane forests Forests remain the first barrier in protecting drinking water supplies
7 The problem of Ecosystem Services as Public Goods -They have traditionally been provided for free. But what happens when we continue to degrade these once endless sources of services? -Without collective action to develop incentive mechanisms to conserve, manage, and restore these public services, they will not compete with other short-term land-use opportunities or more easily marketable goods.
8 Ecosystem Service Markets Turning Economic Values into new Markets Economic value of watersheds is almost always overlooked Can we turn user-derived payments into financial streams for watershed management? Watershed markets have been emerging in the United States and around the world, but not well established Regulated Voluntary
9 Ecosystem Service Markets Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Economic incentive mechanisms for ecosystem conservation. Oftentimes operated by the government EXAMPLE: In the US, the Conservation Reserve Program (CREP); Costa Rica s System of Payments to farmers Multi-credit markets for Ecosystem Services (MES) refer to a set of regulatory and voluntary efforts to develop and trade certified credits representing different ecosystem services EXAMPLE: Proposed Cap-and-Trade legislation for carbon credits; SO 2 trading; wetland banking credits; water rights trading; biodiversity offsets; Watershed Restoration Certificates (WRC)s (Aylward & Hartwell, 2009)
10 Ecosystem Service Markets Ecosystem Services: STACKED vs. BUNDLED markets $ $ $ Carbon Sequestration Biodiversity habitat Flood Control $ One credit payment that sequesters carbon; provides biodiversity habitat; helps in flood control; and purifies water $ Water purification STACKED BUNDLED
11 Ecosystem Service Markets- Regulatory vs. Voluntary INCENTIVE MECHANISMS Voluntary Regulatory Direct Deals Donations Taxes & Fees Subsidies Product certification Product certification Multi-Credit Markets Carbon Offsets Water Offsets- WRCs Renewable Energy Credits Biodiversity Offsets Self-Regulation & Stewardship Multi-Credit Markets Cap & Trade Wetland Mitigation Credits Species Conservation Credits Payment in Lieu Water rights and permits (Aylward & Hartwell, 2009)
12 Case Study of a Regulated Market: Wetland Banking WHAT IS IT?: Wetland mitigation is the restoration, creation, enhancement, or preservation of a wetland which offsets expected impacts to another wetland nearby. BACKGROUND: No net loss of wetlands (section 404 of CWA, 1990). Most mature domestic market for ecoservices OPERATED BY: US Army Corps of Engineers (Federal) & State Lands Departments MITIGATION BANKS : increasingly privately operated 1 wetland credit = approx 1 acre bank under permanent easement
13 BUT WHAT DO PERMITEES THINK? Case Study of a Regulated Market: Wetland Banking -Mitigation banks were created to provide advantages to business developers. In theory, it was thought they would save the developer: time (just write a check) the ability to price shop/negotiate the best price for a credit from a choice of multiple banks Avoiding small, piecemeal on-site wetland mitigation Allow a developer to maximize the use of their site Cost is lower than on-site mitigation Regulatory burden is shifted from the developer to the mitigation banker
14 Evergreen Wetland Mitigation Bank
15 Case Study of a Voluntary Market: BEF s Watershed Restoration Certificate (WRC) BACKGROUND: In 2009, Bonneville Environmental Foundation, launched its Water Restoration Certificates (WRC). BEF is an NGO operating in the Pacific Northwest devoted to promoting renewable energy and watershed restoration empowering individuals and companies to reduce their ecological footprints THE WRC: voluntary purchase each certificate = 1,000 gallons of in-stream water input
16 Case Study of a Voluntary Market: BEF s Watershed Restoration Certificate (WRC) HOW IT WORKS: BEF acquires credits from water trusts to carry out transactions BEF works with NFWF to develop criteria and evaluate transactions WRCs inputted into online registry, third party auditor
18 Voluntary Market: Assessing BUSINESS demand The private sector offer a great opportunity to significantly scale up financing of conservation efforts!! But little work to evaluate this has been undertaken. But they also represent a challenging player -So why have businesses actually become buyers of ecosystem services, like the WRC? Was there a clear business case?
19 Business and Ecosystems The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) on the linkage between business and ecosystems ecosystem valuation models and initiatives have been developed and evolved on a different set of goals and viewpoints than business models have So far, ecosystem valuation issues have been largely imposed from the outside rather than being a core and critical part of doing business. Bringing ecosystem valuation into the CORE of business might be done by quantifying ecosystem dependencies and impacts in monetary terms and highlighting the potential of market-like mechanisms to improve bottom lines
20 Research Objectives: Regulated markets 1. What are the experiences of developers in the regulated watershed market of wetland banking? In terms of: motivation for and cost-comparison to alternative mitigation options measure of market choices perceptions of risk ideal role of gov t agencies in driving the regulated market 2. Would do permittees think about replacing individual wetland functions through their mitigation?
21 Research Objectives: Voluntary markets 1. What comes first- demand or supply? OR? 2. What are the primary motivations for private business to become buyers? 3. The nature of the purchase: what indication is there of the internal source of funding to cover credit purchases? 4. What main obstacles exist in increasing investment? 5. What is the indication from business buyers on the demand for stacked versus bundled credits?
22 Methodology REGULATED MARKET 30 wetland bank permittees were interviewed by phone VOLUNTARY MARKET 3 Watershed Restoration Certificate (WRC) buyers were interviewed by phone Big Sky Brewery EcoTeas Laurelwood Brewery
23 Abbreviations WB Credit = wetland mitigation purchased by developer from a wetland bank (REGULATED) WRC purchaser =Business that purchased a Water Restoration Certificate (VOLUNTARY)
24 Regulated Market Objective 1: Experience of developers in wetland banking Common Trend: permittees felt the wetland bank credit purchase was an improvement over on-site mitigation in terms of TIME but some felt the costs were GREATER by purchasing WB credits than by doing mitigation on-site. Cost great enough that some felt it was like buying their property rights twice > Is our time better spent writing a check for $50,000 or is it better spent taking a year of our time to mitigate a wetland on-site with a smaller up-front cost? I don t know time is money and we cannot get the time back
25 Regulated Market Objective 1: Experience of developers in wetland banking Major motivations for choosing the WB credit for mitigation: no space to mitigate on-site; time-savings cost SOME permittees price shopped around for the cheapest credits from multiple banks. BUT IN MOST CASES, the bank chosen to purchase credits from was the only one available. In several cases, the bank chosen was as a result of the developer knowing the individual running it. It was quick, just wrote the check and sent it off, received the approval and we went on with the development We shopped around for the available banks at the right price. I felt those were fairly available at the time
26 Regulated Market Objective 1: Experience of developers in wetland banking Permittees were overwhelmingly aware that risk was not on their shoulders Informality of the transaction no verification of their expenditures in terms of where the money for the credit was going, for what precise purpose. Advocated government agencies to be more streamlined in their administration set clear targets for permittees, follow-up with feedback on verification and monitoring I handed someone a check for nearly $60,000 to buy wetland credits from some ranch bank around here- and I m guessing that this place actually exists I think it is a little too informal. We are spending a lot of money and giving it to Jo Shmo hoping he is really who he says he is
27 Regulated Market Objective 2: What do permittees think about wetland functionality mitigation? WB credit permittees were receptive that mitigation should focus on replacing wetland functions, rather than just acreage. Rationale: cost-effectiveness But nonetheless, status quo= preferable
28 If you had to rate the functionality of wetlands from 1 to 10- there s no reason we should have to pay the price that might be associated with filling in a 7 or 8 quality wetland when ours might be ranked as a 2 my concern is that would be too cumbersome to delineate and administer. We already have so much confusion as it is
29 Voluntary Market Objective 1: What comes first: supply or demand? No WRC purchaser had invested in watershed restoration in the past no mechanism to do so Each of the WRC purchasers interviewed have environmental sustainability as one of their core business foundations No, this is the first initiative we have taken related to water restoration. We have been aligned with the cause, but there was not necessarily a program that made sense for us to participate in before this (EcoTeas)
30 Voluntary Market Objective 2: Main motivations for business? It s just the right thing to do Front runner advantages = exciting prospect Water is the primary input into the product The value of the WRC was in its TANGIBILITY All planned to label their WRC purchase on their product No formal analysis of return on investment or cost-benefit analysis was undertaken Government should reward businesses that are stewards of public goods
31 There s a lot more tangibility with buying a certificate rather than donating to a water trust. We know exactly what each dollar is linked to. Because there s a metric involved, we can link the offset to the water usage of each bottle (EcoTeas) 97% of beer is water. We use a lot of it! (Big Sky) If the government could provide tax breaks associated with these initiatives, then that would obviously sweeten the pot significantly (Big Sky)
32 Voluntary Market Objective 3: Where did the funding come from? For WRC purchasers, it came from an annual budget devoted for investment in charitable purposes (in 2 of the 3 cases); in one case, it was taken from the budget of the marketing division We have a budget that we set every year that goes to charity or organizations and causes that we believe in. These funds came out of this pot (Big Sky)
33 Voluntary Market Objective 4: Obstacles to invest again in the future? Need to make sure that the purchase doesn t go unnoticed: Monitoring and public announcement of purchase Boils down to the economics, not just the cost of the WRCs, but the cost of communicating the purchase as well. Depends on current financial situation a default outlet if the situation became critically burdensome In the longer-term, a positive net benefit for the business may be more important for sustaining investment The big thing was going beyond just purchasing (the WRC), but also advertising it and showing what we re doing (Big Sky)
34 Cost is the biggest issue. We don t want to go out of business so we re not willing to spend money for things like this that do not have a direct benefit to us as a business. That s sort of the obstacle of concern for us. And this is where a cost-benefit approach would come into play-if we continued in the future with this, we would need to look at this from how this is directly improving our business (Laurelwood)
35 Voluntary Market Objective 5: Bundled versus Stacked Purchases? INDIVIDUAL STACKED PURCHASES ARE PREFERRED! More focus and flexibility Bundled credits would cause confusion and be harder to attribute causality to purchase better continuity with product or association with brand WRC purchasers generally felt that while a bundled certificate adds more value, it clouds up the causality of linkage between purchase and enhancement of the ecosystem service.
36 I think buying them (certificates) separately would be more appealing for us. Because it s more flexible. That s my gut thought. We can adjust the ratios of how we re spending more easily (EcoTeas) I can see where a bundled certificate would capture the value of more ecological benefitsbut it is more confusing to understand what expenditure is going for what (Laurelwood) A bundled certificate would have to have continuity with our product, or be an input into our operation or product. Habitat provision maybe, but carbon no. We wouldn t even be remotely interested in that. (Big Sky)
37 Conclusions from the Regulated side Developers felt wetland banking offered: greater flexibility, less government involvement, greater time savings BUT With the exceptions of those who felt justified by the ecological intentions of wetland mitigation, many developers perceived the costs of purchasing credits from a wetland bank to be many times greater than doing on-site mitigation More feedback on the credit purchase was requested
38 Conclusions from the Voluntary side WRC purchasers were awaiting an accreditation opportunity of this nature to invest in. Water directly ties in to the business product of each of the WRC purchasers Motivations were non-business but also extended to public relations and in the longerterm may be contingent on receiving returns on investment. Regulatory perks can improve the likelihood of business buy-in Stacked credits unanimously preferred over bundled credits due to tangibility factor and relation to business product Financial situation a key determinant of future support for ecosystem markets NEW QUESTION ARISES: How additional is funding?
39 A special thanks go out to Acknowledgements Todd Reeve of Bonneville Environmental Foundation Sally Duncan of the Institute of Natural Resources- OSU Jo Ann Miles of the Oregon Dept. of State Lands Sara Wu and Chandalin Bennett of WFI!
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