insurance what every business should know

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1 insurance what every business shuld knw

2 cntents Intrductin 1 Welcme t insurance what every business shuld knw 1 Types f insurance cverage 2 Emplyer s liability insurance 2 Public liability insurance 2 Lng tail diseases and their impact n businesses 3 Asbests related cnditins 4 Mesthelima 4 Asbestsis 4 Lung cancer 4 Pleural plaques 4 Diffuse pleural thickening 4 Why shuld businesses wrry abut asbests? 5 The danger f TUPE transfers 5 Prblems 5 Slutins 6 The crprate veil 6 But be aware: 6 Lifting the veil? 7 Circumventing the crprate veil the parent cmpany duty f care 7 Be aware that: 7 Hw an insurer s inslvency affects a business 8 Pre 1 January Pst 1 January Public liability insurance 8 Obtaining insurance the pitfalls fr plicy hlders 8 Early ntificatin f claims 8 Assisting insurer s investigatins 9 Nminatin f yur wn slicitrs t defend claims 9 Tp tips fr tracing insurance cver 10 Disease and latent liability issues what we can d fr yu 10 Examples f ur wrk include: 11

3 Insurance: What every business shuld knw Intrductin Welcme t insurance what every business shuld knw Insurance has never been a particularly pressing subject fr businesses. Often it is misunderstd and neglected. Hwever, when claims arise and evidence f insurance cver cannt be fund, the direct financial impact n a business means that it can quickly cme t understand the seriusness f nt being able t trace its histric insurers r the impact if they are inslvent. Additinally, in the arena f mergers and acquisitins, businesses need t understand the liabilities which they may unwittingly inherit in rder t plan their crprate structure and prtect themselves shuld future claims arise. s lawyers are experts in advising in this area with prven track recrds in assisting businesses t understand and manage their insurable liabilities. This briefing sets ut sme f the main areas which frm ur experience are currently causing difficulties fr businesses. We hpe that yu find it a useful intrductin t these issues. Shuld yu need ur assistance r wish t discuss these matters further, please d nt hesitate t cntact us. Insurance, particularly emplyer s liability and public liability insurance, is increasingly becming a bardrm issue. The emergence f uninsured legacy disease claims can eat int prfits and threaten financial security. This card identifies sme f the mst cmmn areas f difficulty which businesses are currently facing and prvides practical advice n: Emplyer and public liability insurance are yu adequately cvered? Lng tail disease liabilities a legacy f decades ag. Hw asbests claims can financially impact n businesses. Hw Tupe transfers can adversely affect the untutred. Hw an insurer s inslvency affects a business. Plicy hlders rights and bligatins. Nminatin f yur slicitrs t handle yur claims rather than the insurer s panel firm. Tp tips fr tracing ld insurance plicies. Alan Jacbs Partner T +44(0) Chris Gugh Cnsultant T +(44)(0)

4 Insurance: What every business shuld knw Types f insurance cverage Emplyer s liability insurance This type f insurance is designed t indemnify an emplyer fr its liability t its wn emplyees fr its acts r missins and fr its vicarius liability fr thse emplyed by it in the curse f its business. Since 1 January 1972, it has been cmpulsry fr emplyers t have emplyer s liability insurance. Prblems which business can face in respect f this type f insurance include: Befre 1972, many emplyers did nt have emplyer s liability insurance and therefre have t meet liabilities fr current claims arising frm activities befre that date if they are still trading. This is a real prblem when they are facing expensive disease claims. Where liability has been acquired as a result f a Tupe transfer, this can present prblems fr the transferee cmpany, where insurance des nt exist, cannt be traced r variatins in plicy wrdings have nt been understd. Lcal authrities and natinalised industries were exempt frm the bligatin t have emplyer s liability insurance. This has the ptential t create a financial burden fr successr cmpanies wh have inherited the liabilities f thse bdies t their emplyees thrugh Tupe transfers. Variatins in plicy wrding can leave businesses inadvertently withut cver. Tday s emplyer s liability plicies are written n an injury caused/sustained r event ccurring basis which means that cver is prvided fr events ccurring during the currency f the plicy. Hwever, ccupatinal diseases invariably develp many years after the event which caused them and t which the plicy must respnd. Histrically sme emplyer s liability plicies were written n a lsses/injury ccurring basis. In a disease case that type f wrding respnds when the cnditin develps rather than when the expsure tk place. That will be decades later in asbests related claims. Where a business has a cmbinatin f plicies respnding in different ways, there is a danger, particularly with disease claims, that nne f the plicies will respnd t meet the claim, leaving a hle in the cver which the business has t fill. Public liability insurance This indemnifies a business against any liability it incurs t third parties ther than its emplyees, eg sub cntractrs and visitrs. Many claimants are cmpelled t cnsider making claims against the ccupiers f prperties where they wrked rather than their emplyers because their emplyer is inslvent r their emplyer s insurer cannt be traced r is inslvent. Occupiers can be liable because they allwed activities n their premises which generated expsure t hazards resulting in diseases r failed t adequately supervise. Unlike emplyer s liability insurance there is and never has been any statutry bligatin t have public liability insurance. A prudent business will arrange cver and many plicies cmbine emplyer liability and public liability cver. Hwever difficulties which can ccur are: 2

5 Insurance: What every business shuld knw As public liability insurance has nt been cmpulsry there are likely t be gaps in cver and it may be mre difficult t trace this type f insurance than emplyer s liability. Unlike emplyer s liability insurance there is n Financial Services Cmpensatin Scheme (FSCS) prtectin and if the public liability insurer becmes inslvent the plicy hlder must meet the claim. Prblems can arise as a cnsequence f variatins in the wrding f public liability plicies where the plicy is triggered in different ways at different times s that they d nt cver the event which has ccurred and leave the plicy hlder t bear the cst f the claim itself. There is a debate in mesthelima claims as t whether it is the plicy taken ut 10 years befre the cnditin started t develp which shuld meet the claim r that taken ut five years befre. Often the current business may bear n relatin t that which existed at the time f the expsure which can result in difficulties in persuading the public liability insurer t meet the claim. Public liability plicies ften exclude liability fr sld cmpanies making them wrthless t businesses wh may have purchased cmpanies which are later targeted with a claim requiring the public liability plicy t respnd. Since the 1980s sme plicies cntain asbests exclusin clauses bringing the liability t meet the claim back t the business itself. Lng tail diseases and their impact n businesses Lng tail diseases are cnditins which arise frm ccupatinal wrking practices which perated ften decades ag and ver prlnged perids f time. These include asbests related chest diseases such as mesthelima, deafness, vibratin white finger. These claims can be very expensive bth in terms f damages and csts. They are distinguishable frm cnditins which arise as a cnsequence f very shrt and mre recent perids f expsure such as asthma r carpal tunnel syndrme. They represent a majr cncern t businesses because ften there is n identifiable insurer t meet lder claims and the business has t pay them itself. In recent years there has been an emergence f cmpensatin claims fr lng tail diseases which are easy t feign because f the limited availability f bjective tests r where it is difficult t distinguish their cause frm ccupatinal expsure as ppsed t lifestyle. These cnditins include vibratin white finger and chrnic brnchitis. Claimant slicitr s firms have recgnised disease claims as prviding a lucrative surce f incme particularly where grup actins can be identified and are cnstantly trawling fr such claims. 3

6 Insurance: What every business shuld knw Asbests related cnditins Asbests related cnditins are typical lng tail diseases. Althugh they cannt be feigned, they are capable f severely impacting the financial welfare and viability f businesses which may nw have n link t the activities which have led t the cntractin f the disease. They include: Mesthelima A cancer f the lining f the lungs. Its latency perid can be 30, 40 r 50 years s that the expsure can have ccurred in the 1950s and 1960s when a cmpany had n insurance r details f it may have been lst ver the years. Additinally the ability t defend these claims wanes ver time. The cnventinal view is that the sle cause f this cnditin is asbests expsure. It is always fatal and the typical life expectancy frm nset f symptms t date f death is 14 mnths. The accepted pinin is that ne fibre f asbests can cause the cnditin and s it is nt dse related. It is als regarded as an indivisible cnditin which means that there is n explained link between the expsure which causes it and its develpment s that its effects need nt be divided between different expsers. Claimants slicitrs can therefre chse t pursue the easiest r mst financially sund target fr 100% f the value f each claim which generally range in value frm 100,000 upwards. Asbestsis A type f pneumcnisis resulting in lss f lung functin. It is always due t asbests expsure. Nwadays, it is ften nt fatal but the disability caused can result in a requirement fr significant care. Typically, it develps mre than 20 years after expsure. The heavier the expsure, the wrse the cnditin. It is therefre regarded as a divisible cnditin meaning that the defendants are liable nly fr the particular damage they have caused. Claims can be valued at 100,000 upwards. Lung cancer All types f lung cancer caused by smking can als be caused by asbests. Where certain criteria are met dctrs will attribute the lung cancer t asbests expsure rather than smking, resulting in a ptential liability fr damages. It is fatal in 90% f cases and regarded as an indivisible cnditin. Claims are valued at similar levels t mesthelima nes. Pleural plaques These are areas f fibrus thickening n the uter layer f the lung which are usually caused by asbests. They have a latency perid f 20 years. They present n symptms and as the result f a Huse f Lrds decisin are nt cmpensatable in England r Wales. The psitin in Sctland is different. Hwever, the English gvernment may resurrect the right t claim. Diffuse pleural thickening This is thickening f the pleura, usually the visceral layer resulting in the tw layers f the lung sticking tgether. It has many causes including asbests expsure. It has a latency perid f 20 years and is a divisible cnditin. In the absence f the ability t pursue claims fr pleural plaques, claimants slicitrs are increasingly lking fr evidence that the cnditin is pleural thickening. 4

7 Insurance: What every business shuld knw Why shuld businesses wrry abut asbests? Currently, apprximately 2,000 peple die each year as a cnsequence f mesthelima. That figure is expected t peak in 2016 but will take decades t fall. Mesthelima claims are increasingly made by relatives f thse wh came int cntact with asbests at wrk and have as a cnsequence themselves develped the cnditin. Public liability insurance plicies wuld nrmally respnd t these claims but nly if the plicy can be fund and is wrded apprpriately t cver the risk. Shuld pleural plaques becme actinable again in England and Wales, many thusands f claims can be expected. Claims harvesters will identify ptential victims using x-ray scan vans as they have dne in the past. 40,000 peple die f lung cancer each year and many claimants slicitrs see this as their next big surce f wrk. It is nt pssible t tell whether the lung cancer in smene expsed t asbests is due t that r t smking r a cmbinatin f bth. The danger f TUPE transfers Mst businesses are aware that they inherit an emplyee s emplyment rights n transfers cvered by the Transfer f Undertakings (Prtectin f Emplyment) Regulatins 2006 (TUPE). These regulatins have been in frce in sme frm since Originally cnfined t prtecting emplyees rights n the transfer f a business, r similar undertaking, their scpe was extended in 2006 t sme kinds f service prvisin changes. Hwever it is the classic transfer that is mst likely t be relevant in an insurance cntext. While it is generally understd that emplyees emplyment rights are prtected by TUPE, many d nt realise that transferees als inherit the previus emplyer s liability fr the transferred emplyees persnal injury and disease claims. Frtunately, the transferee emplyer is entitled t the benefit f the transferr s liability insurance t meet the claim but difficulties can arise resulting in the transferee cmpany having a persnal liability. This is particularly s where it is the last emplyer in a chain f successive TUPE transfers taking place ver an extended perid f time. Prblems N insurance plicy was held by the ld emplyer in the first place. This is pssible if the emplyment ccurred pre 1 January The transferee cannt trace the relevant insurance plicy taken ut. The insurer f the ld emplyer is nw inslvent, eg Chester Street, Builders Accident Insurance (BAI), and the expsure ccurred pre 1 January The transferee seeks t rely n a purchase agreement indemnity but it is limited in mnetary terms r by time perid r the transferr is inslvent. The insurance plicy prvides fr a large excess which the insurer expects the transferee t pay. The ld emplyer was a lcal authrity r natinalised industry and therefre under n bligatin t take ut insurance. 5

8 Insurance: What every business shuld knw Slutins Priritise enquiries abut the industrial histry f target cmpanies. Be aware f what is being acquired and what the ptential fr claims might be. Seek a full insurance histry and ideally btain cpies f all ld insurance plicies s the precise terms f cver can be checked. Make investigatins t fill gaps in insurance befre claims are made and whilst there is still the time. Obtain and keep ld bard meeting minutes, directrs reprts and accunts fr cmpanies acquired as these may be an invaluable surce f infrmatin. Acquirers f businesses with their rts in natinalised industry and lcal gvernment shuld cnsider what cver they have fr lng tail disease claims. Make enquiries abut the nature f previus claims particularly lng tail diseases. Cnsider what infrmatin wuld be required t successfully defend ptential future claims. Weigh up the cst f ptential claims against the cmmercial realities f the purchase f a target. The ptential fr uninsured claims may be a bargaining factr in the purchase price f a target r in the indemnities which are negtiated. Cnsider the purchase f retrspective insurance cver. The crprate veil Under English cmpany law, a limited cmpany is a separate entity in its wn right, that is respnsible fr its wn acts r missins. The cmpany is identifiable by its individual cmpany number which gives it its wn legal persnality, distinct frm that f its members. A claimant must sue the cmpany that emplyed him. If the emplying cmpany is drmant with n assets r insurance which can be traced, then, relying n the principle f separate legal persnality fr limited cmpanies, the lss will lie with the drmant cmpany. If the emplying cmpany has been disslved, it can be restred t the register, hwever there maybe little pint in ding s if it has n assets, insurance r purchase agreement indemnity t rely n. But be aware: Where a TUPE transfer has taken place, the claimant must sue the transferee. Where a drmant cmpany is due repayment f an inter-cmpany lan by anther grup cmpany, nce judgment is btained, the claimant becmes a creditr f the drmant defendant cmpany and can appint a liquidatr t wind it up and enfrce repayment f the lan. The liquidatr s csts becme payable as part f the repayment f the debt. The crprate veil remains intact but the creditr grup cmpany will be frced t make payment n behalf f the defendant frm its wn funds as repayment f the lan. Where anther cmpany has given an indemnity r guarantee t the drmant r disslved cmpany. Where the cmpany has becme a private unlimited cmpany, perhaps fr the purpses f a capital reductin r t avid the need t file accunts. Its sharehlders will have an unlimited liability if n insurance cver is lcated. 6

9 Insurance: What every business shuld knw Where an uninsured cmpany has been disslved in the face f cmpensatin claims, its directrs may becme persnally liable. Lifting the veil? But what if there is a viable and slvent parent cmpany? Might the claimant emplyed by a subsidiary that is merely an empty shell lk t that cmpany s hlding cmpany fr recmpense? In certain very circumstances the curts have been willing t disregard the principle f separate legal identity and t pierce the crprate veil, thereby passing n legal respnsibility fr a cmpany s acts t its members. S where the cmpany is part f grup that respnsibility might be passed t its parent cmpany. That said, t date the curts have been very reluctant t lift the veil simply because it is thught t be necessary in the interests f justice. Circumventing the crprate veil the parent cmpany duty f care Ntwithstanding the usual reluctance t pierce the crprate veil, businesses shuld nte that in 2012 the Curt f Appeal pened up a new rute fr a claimant emplyed by a defunct subsidiary t make its parent cmpany directly liable. That case invlved a claim by an emplyee f an empty shell subsidiary fr asbestsis caused as a result f expsure t asbests when he wrked fr the subsidiary mre than 50 years ag. The curt fund that the parent wed him a duty f care and had a respnsibility fr the emplyee s safety. Be aware that: By hlding that a parent cmpany wed a separate duty f care t the emplyee f the subsidiary, the curt effectively endrsed a result which circumvented the crprate veil principle. Applied widely, the case has the ptential t significantly undermine the prtectin affrded t parent cmpanies by the crprate veil and steps already taken t prtect crprate grups such as disslving drmant cmpanies with ptential liabilities. The curt went beynd the specific facts f the case by setting ut general principles which it cnsidered relevant t whether a duty f care shuld be impsed n a parent cmpany t its subsidiary's emplyees, which included the parent having superir knwledge n sme relevant aspect f health and safety in the particular industry. Of greatest cncern t hlding cmpanies is that the curt suggested that the duty f care might be impsed where the parent intervened in funding and prductin aspects f the subsidiary, as ppsed t merely health and safety issues. The case might be used by "frum shpping" claimants t argue that because a UK dmiciled parent tk an interest in the cmmercial affairs f an verseas subsidiary, the parent wed a duty t the claimant in respect f the subsidiary. Remember that in rder fr the case t be relied upn by a claimant,the parent cmpany will have t have wned the subsidiary cntempraneusly with the expsure. The case is unlikely t impact n venture capitalists because they will nt be treated as having the superir knwledge, as set ut in the general principles establishing the duty. Whilst the parent cmpany in the case in questin had invlvement in health issues affecting its subsidiary, this is nt a cmmn feature f mst lng tail disease claims because until cmparatively 7

10 Insurance: What every business shuld knw recently it was relatively unusual fr cmpanies t have grup medical advisers r health and safety managers. Hw an insurer s inslvency affects a business The cst f disease claims, has frced sme insurers ut f business and may have a similar affect n thers in future. The impact n their plicy hlders will generally depend upn when the expsure tk place. Pre 1 January 1972 A claimant wh can establish the existence f insurance by an inslvent insurer fr an inslvent emplyer can recver 90% f his claim frm the FSCS. But this safety net prvides n prtectin fr the slvent emplyer prir t If the emplyer cmpany is still slvent r, if drmant, has the benefit f an inter-cmpany lan, the cmpany will be persnally liable fr payment f the claim and claimants csts. The liquidatr f the inslvent insurer will meet the claims handling csts fr the defence and make a dividend cntributin twards repayment f the damages paid ut by the emplyer cmpany small cmfrt if nly pennies in the pund. Pst 1 January 1972 Because f the bligatin t have emplyer s liability insurance after this date, the FSCS will meet the claim. The exact percentage met by it will depend n whether a scheme f arrangement has been entered and its details. It must be satisfied that the insurance cmpany is truly inslvent. Hwever, the FSCS will expect a slvent cmpany initially t meet the csts f the claim itself and then make a claim fr reimbursement. As the FSCS is a fund f last resrt, if any payment is made ther than by the legal entity with the liability, the FSCS will nt reimburse. Cmpanies need t take great care that they d nt make payments in respect f claims where they have n liability. Public liability insurance Where a public liability insurer becmes inslvent its plicy hlder must meet the claim irrespective f when the expsure tk place. Obtaining insurance the pitfalls fr plicy hlders Prspective insured s have an bligatin t make full disclsure f all material circumstances it is a cntract f utmst gd faith. Failure t make full disclsure at the apprpriate time will allw the insurer t avid the plicy leaving the lss attaching persnally t the business. On renewal the duty f utmst gd faith is raised afresh. Failure t update any changes in material facts will mean that the renewed plicy becmes avidable. Early ntificatin f claims All plicies specify that failure t ntify a ptential claim may give insurers the right t refuse t deal with it. 8

11 Insurance: What every business shuld knw The right t refuse t deal with the claim can still apply even thugh the insurers have suffered n prejudice as a result f the delay. Businesses shuld err n the side f cautin and ntify all incidents which might give rise t a ptential claim. This might affect premiums but ntificatin wuld have t be made in any event n renewal in rder t cmply with the duty f utmst gd faith. Assisting insurer s investigatins All plicies generally require insured s t prvide their insurers and slicitrs with all necessary help and infrmatin including a cmplete and truthful accunt f the facts and all relevant dcumentatin and ther evidence bth favurable and unfavurable. Cver can be withdrawn if there is failure t c-perate at all r within a reasnable time. C-peratin includes: prviding access t emplyees wh are ptential witnesses; prviding facilities fr witnesses t be interviewed during wrking hurs withut lss f wages; prviding access fr inspectin purpses by yur insurer, their slicitr, the claimant and his slicitr and engineers fr either side; prviding access t yur insurers f all dcuments bth favurable and unfavurable surrunding the claim; allwing emplyee witnesses time ff t attend curt subject t payment f their reasnable expenses ie, lss f earnings. There is n right t claim the cst f lst prductin r cver by anther emplyee frm either yur insurer r the claimant. Persnal injury and disease claims, pre-actin prtcls and prcedural rules cntain strict time limits which need t be cmplied with. In certain cases, nn cmpliance may merely result in a csts penalty but in ther cases this may lead t a defendant being barred frm defending all r part f a claim. It is imprtant therefre that yu pass letters f claim t yur insurers as sn as pssible r if yu have n insurers that yu seek legal advice t prtect yur business. Nminatin f yur wn slicitrs t defend claims D yu recgnise the fllwing cncerns? That claims which yu believe shuld be resisted have been settled. That yu have n cntrl ver the utcme f litigatin despite the fact that yu will be paying fr it in the frm f excess payments n claims r increased premiums because it impacts n yur claims histry. That whilst yur premium is dependent upn yur claims histry, yur insurer s panel firm may nt have the same agenda as yu. That yur insurer s panel firms r persnnel change frequently s that yu keep having t reexplain hw yur business wrks and the apprach t yur claims is nt cnsistent. That yu have n pprtunity t develp an nging relatinship with lawyers yu can trust t handle yur claims and wh will designate a defined team t specialise in them. Insurance premiums and yur assciated claims histry nw represent a majr factr fr businesses. Whether r nt yu have a deductible yu have the pwer t instruct yur brker when placing yur 9

12 Insurance: What every business shuld knw insurance t insist that as a term f the cver, yur chice f law firm t deal with yur claims is respected. The benefits f this include: N additinal cst t yu as the insurer meets the fees f yur chsen firm. Mre cntrl ver an imprtant area f yur business, impacting n yur balance sheet. Cnsistency f apprach and cntinuity even if yur insurers change. Jined up advice where decisins in civil claims als impact n emplyment issues such as Disability Discriminatin Act and Health and Safety executive prsecutins. Mre effective claims handling as yur slicitr already has an nging relatinship with yur business. Tp tips fr tracing insurance cver The bligatin t retain recrds f their insurance cver lies with plicy hlders and nt insurers r brkers. Emplyers have traditinally been required t retain emplyer liability insurance certificates fr at least 40 years. Invariably, cmpanies have failed t d s, as they have nt appreciated that lng tail disease claims may be made against them. When that happens they have t bear the cst f investigatins t trace their insurers as well as ptentially being left with a persnal liability fr the claim. Insurers are alive t the prblems f tracing cverage fr lng tail disease claims. If prvided with prperly researched evidence they may be willing t accept that they were n risk even in circumstances where they are unable t trace any evidence themselves. The gdwill f the insurer is being sught in these cases and persistence and attentin t detail frm advisrs are required. The fllwing are suggested rutes fr tracing insurance: Retain and review archive dcumentatin relating t settlement f ther claims, whether accident r disease fr the relevant perid. Accident reprt bks, past staff claim recrds, trade unin rganisatins, lcal authrity recrds and advertising dcuments are all surces f infrmatin. Interview lng standing r retired directrs r management staff fr their recllectin f arrangements. Keep a recrd f past brkers and request them t cnsider their recrds, althugh there is n bligatin fr them t have retained them. Cntact the Assciatin f British Insurers wh will write t all existing insurance cmpanies and ask them t check their recrds. Retain and review cmpany bard meeting minutes, directrs reprts and accunts fr mentin f insurance renewal arrangements. Cnsider instructing an insurance archaelgist wh specialises in tracing insurance. Disease and latent liability issues what we can d fr yu Trace and advise n insurance cverage and negtiate with insurers fr reimbursement f yur utlay. Identify where liability fr lng tail disease claims lies. 10

13 Insurance: What every business shuld knw On a ptential acquisitin advise n: the implicatin f TUPE transfers; the histric liabilities f target cmpanies; the adequacy f the target s past insurance cver; the impact f cntractual indemnities. Identify and estimate balance sheet expsure. Wrk with experienced and effective insurance archaelgists t establish insurance cver. Prvide strategic advice in the face f ptential grup litigatin claims fr diseases. Handle all types f ptentially uninsured lng tail disease claims frm first ntificatin t reslutin. T include asbests related chest diseases such as mesthelima and lung cancer, hand arm vibratin syndrme, nise induced deafness and wrk related upper limb disrders. Examples f ur wrk include: Prviding due diligence advice n the risk f inheritance f liabilities fr lng tail disease as a cnsequence f a prpsed acquisitin f an asbests remval cmpany. The purchaser decided that the ptential financial impact f future claims was t great. Successful repudiatin f a mesthelima claim by demnstrating that the substance the claimant used was in fact Supalux and cntained n asbests. Advising crprate clients in negtiatins with the gvernment ver respnsibility fr histrical lng tail disease liabilities. Strategic advice in the grup litigatin relating t the cal miners disease claims. Advising in cnjunctin with ur emplyment law experts n the inter-relatinship between civil claims fr damages and ptential Disability Discriminatin Act claims. Advising a hlding cmpany n its liability fr the negligence and breach f statutry duty f a disslved cmpany. Numerus investigatins n behalf f uninsured businesses in respect f disease claims. Subsequent tracing f insurance and presentatin f claims fr reimbursement f utlay by insurers. 11

14 Insurance: What every business shuld knw T +44 (0) Birmingham, Cambridge, Leeds, Lndn, Manchester, Nrwich

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