NO. AP-75,634 IN THE COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN. ADRIAN ESTRADA, Appellant, VS. THE STATE OF TEXAS, Appellee.

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1 NO. AP-75,634 IN THE COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN ADRIAN ESTRADA, Appellant, VS. THE STATE OF TEXAS, Appellee. Trial Court Cause No. 2006CR2079 Appeal from the 226th Judicial District Bexar County, Texas The Honorable SID HARLE, Judge, presiding BRIEF FOR APPELLANT CYNTHIA ORR Bar No Goldstein, Goldstein & Hilley 310 S. St. Mary s Street 29th Fl. Tower Life Bldg. San Antonio, TX Voice: (210) Facsimile: (210) BRIAN W. STULL Practicing Pro Hac Vice ACLU Capital Punishment Project 201 W. Main Street, Suite 402 Durham, NC Voice: (919) Facsimile: (919) ORAL ARGUMENT REQUESTED ATTORNEYS FOR APPELLANT

2 Identity of Parties and Counsel Pursuant to TEX. R. APP. P. 38.1(a) (2005), the parties to this suit are as follows: (1) ADRIAN ESTRADA, TDCJ # , TDCJ Polunsky Unit, 3872 FM 30 South, Livingston, Texas 77351, is the appellant and was the defendant in the trial court. 2)The STATE OF TEXAS, by and through the Bexar County District Attorney s Office, 300 Dolorosa Street, San Antonio, TX 78205, is the appelle and prosecuted this case in the trial court. The trial attorneys were as follows: (1) ADRIAN ESTRADA was represented by SUZANNE KRAMER, 101 Strumberg, San Antonio, TX and CELESTE RAMIREZ, 115 E Travis; Ste 431 San Antonio, TX, (2) The State of Texas was represented by SUSAN REED, District Attorney, and SCOTT SIMPSON and KRISTA MELTON, Assistant District Attorneys, 300 Dolorosa Street, San Antonio, TX The appellate attorneys are as follows: (1) ADRIAN ESTRADA is represented by BRIAN W. STULL of the American Civil Liberties Union Capital Punishment Project, 201 W. Main Street, Suite 402, Durham, NC 27707, and CYNTHIA ORR of Goldstein, Goldstein, and Goldstein, Goldstein, & Hilley, 310 S. St. Mary s St., 29th Fl. Tower Life Bldg., San Antonio, TX (2) The State of Texas was represented by SUSAN REED, District Attorney, and CRYSTAL CHANDLER, Assistant District Attorney, 300 Dolorosa Street, San Antonio, TX ii

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS INDEX OF AUTHORITIES...viiii STATEMENT CONCERNING ORAL ARGUMENT... xxxvii INTRODUCTION... 1 STATEMENT OF FACTS... 2 POINTS OF ERROR: ADRIAN ESTRADA POSES NO THREAT OF FUTURE DANGER Remorseful, Peaceful, Non-violent, And A Model Prisoner Subject to Lifetime Incarceration if Not Executed, Adrian Estrada Poses Absolutely No Threat of Future Danger and the State s Showing of Future Dangerousness Was Legally Insufficient By Presenting False and Highly Misleading Testimony on a Crucial Issue at the Penalty Phase of His Trial, The State Violated Mr. Estrada s Constitutional Rights Under The Fifth, Sixth, Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments Trial Counsel Failed to Provide Constitutionally-Required Effective Assistance of Counsel When She Failed to Correct the Record by Introducing the Current TDCJ Classification Policy The trial court committed reversible error by failing to instruct the jury that the mere fact that a capital offense is committed is insufficient in itself to warrant a finding of future dangerousness The Death Sentence for Appellant, Remorseful, Peaceful, and Respectful, Lacks Support by Factually Sufficient Evidence The Texas Future Dangerousness Scheme Results in the Arbitrary and Disproportionate Imposition of the Death Penalty, Violating the Eighth Amendment The Texas Future Dangerousness Scheme Violates Texas s Constitutional Proscription Against Cruel or Unusual Punishment UNLAWFULLY OBTAINED STATEMENTS The Police failed to scrupulously honor Adrian Estrada's invocation of the right to remain silent during custodial interrogation The Detectives misleading statements about Adrian Estrada s right to counsel rendered his waiver unknowing, involuntary and unintelligent iii

4 10. The Police Violated Adrian Estrada s Fifth Amendment and due process rights by coercing a confession The trial court committed reversible error by admitting Appellant s oral statements in violation of Texas Code of Criminal Procedure and The trial court committed reversible error by admitting Appellant s oral statements in violation of Texas Code of Criminal Procedure The Trial Court Denied Mr. Estrada a Fair Trial By Failing to Instruct the Jury on the Voluntariness of His Statements and on the Attendant Miranda Issue OTHER ERRORS OCCURRING DURING GUILT PHASE The State s Unnecessary Introduction of an Inflammatory and Repetitive 911 Recording Denied Appellant a Fair Trial The State s Unnecessary Introduction of Gruesome Fetal Autopsy Photographs Denied Appellant a Fair Trial The State s Failure to Honor its Promise to Redact from Appellant s Recorded Interrogation References to the Age of Denied Appellant a Fair Trial The Prosecution Deprived Appellant of a Fair Trial Through Repeated Misconduct in Opening and Closing Statements at the Guilt-Innocence Phase The Court Denied Adrian Estrada a Fair Trial By Failing to Include in the Jury Charge the Statutory Definition of Death of an Unborn Child Without Evidence that Appellant Knowingly or Intentionally Killed the Fetus, the Conviction Lacks Support by Legally and Factually Sufficient Evidence and Violates Due Process By Purposefully Intruding Into Mr. Estrada s Attorney-Client ERRORS OCCURRING DURING SENTENCING PHASE The Trial Court Violated Appellant s Right to Present Mitigation Evidence The Court Committed Reversible Error by Permitting Well More than a Quick Glimpse of Victim Impact Evidence The prosecution violated Adrian Estrada s constitutional rights through repeated instances of misconduct during its sentencing phase summation iv

5 INSTRUCTIONAL ERRORS AT SENTENCING The jury instructions in Mr. Estrada s case violated his federal and state constitutional rights by impermissibly interfering with the jurors ability to consider and give effect to mitigating evidence and by coercing the jury into reaching a verdict Applying an Unconstitutional Statute, the Trial Court Committed Reversible Error by Charging the Jurors that They Had Discretion to Decide Whether a Circumstance was Mitigating Applying an Unconstitutional Statute, the Trial Court Committed Reversible Error by Charging the Jury on Special Issue One (i.e., future dangerousness) Applying an Unconstitutional Statute, the Trial Court s Instruction Presuming a Death Sentence Constituted Reversible Error Applying an Unconstitutional Statute, the Trial Court Committed Reversible Error by Instructing the Jury to Consider Mitigating Evidence in its Future Danger Decision The trial court committed reversible error by refusing to charge on residual doubt as mitigating evidence The Court Committed Reversible Error by Instructing the Jury that it Could Consider Mr. Estrada s Prior Bad Acts in Determining the Answer to the Mitigation Special Issue The Trial Court Committed Reversible Error By Instructing the Jury it Could not Rely on Sympathy to Reach a Life Sentence The Trial Court Committed Reversible Error by Denying the Appellant s Written and Oral Objections to the Court s Charge and Verdict Form on the Ground that the Indictment did not Allege Special Issue One CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES TO FETAL HOMICIDE STATUTE Texas Penal Code 1.07(a)(26) Violates the Due Process and Supremacy Clauses by Defining Fertilized Eggs, Embryos, and Fetuses as Persons Texas Penal Code 1.07(a)(26) Violates the Establishment Clause by Defining Life as Beginning at Fertilization Texas Penal Code 1.07(a)(26) is an Arbitrary Classification and Violates the Equal Protection Clause v

6 36. Texas Penal Code 1.07(a)(26) permits the arbitrary imposition of the death penalty and is unconstitutional under the Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause of the United States Constitution Appellant=s Conviction Violates the Equal Protection Clauses of the United States Constitution Because ' Discriminates on the Basis of Gender Appellant=s Conviction Violates the Texas Equal Rights Amendment Texas Penal Code 1.07(a)(26) is unconstitutionally void for vagueness under the 14 th and 8 th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL ERROR Appellant Was Denied the Effective Assistance of Counsel This Court should reverse due to the cumulative harm of the errors Adrian Estrada s Death Sentence is Clearly an Arbitrary, Freakish, and Disproportionate Outlier, Entirely Unsupported by the Evidence; Furthermore, to the Extent that TEX. CRIM. PROC. art Precludes Review of this Claim, It Violates the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, Both on Its Face and as Applied in this Case An Arbitrary, Freakish, Disproportionate Outlier, Entirely Unsupported by the Evidence, this Death Sentence Violates the Texas Constitution Prosecutors unfettered, standardless and unreviewable discretion under article violates Equal Protection, Due Process and the Eighth Amendment Conclusion and Prayer Certificate of Service vi

7 INDEX OF AUTHORITIES FEDERAL CASES Abdul-Kabir v. Quarterman, 550 U.S. 233, 127 S. Ct (2007) Allen v. United States, 164 U.S. 492 (1896) Apprendi v. New Jersey, 530 U.S. 466 (2000)...106, 125, 134, 137 Arnold v. Board of Educ. of Escambia County Ala., 880 F.2d 305 (11th Cir. 1989) Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)...60, 165, 167, 174 BMW of North America, Inc. v. Gore, 517 U.S. 559 (1996) Baze v. Rees, U.S., 128 S. Ct (2008)...61, 115, 129 Berger v. United States, 295 U.S. 78 (1935)...26, 41 Blakely v. Washington, 542 U.S. 296 (2004) Blackmon v. Scott, 22 F.3d 560 (5th Cir. 1994)...28 Booth v. Maryland, 482 U.S. 496 (1987) Bouie v. City of Columbia, 378 U.S. 347 (1964) Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963)...30 Briscoe v. LaHue, 460 U.S. 325 (1983)...36 Brown v. Sanders, 546 U.S. 212 (2006) Buchanan v. Angelone, 522 U.S. 269 (1998) Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000) Cage v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 39 (1990) Caban v. Mohammed, 441 U.S. 380 (1979) Caldwell v. Mississippi, 472 U.S. 320 (1985)...36, 133 vii

8 California v. Brown, 479 U.S. 538 (1987)...133, 168 Chapman v. California, 386 U.S. 18 (1967)... passim Carriger v. Stewart, 132 F.3d 463 (9th Cir. 1997)...32 Carpenter v. Vaughn, 296 F.3d 138 (3rd Cir. 2002)...42 Charles v. Smith, 894 F.2d 718 (5th Cir. 1990)...75 Clemons v. Mississippi, 494 U.S. 738 (1990)...48 Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur, 414 U.S. 632 (1974) Culombe v. Connecticut, 367 U.S. 568 (1961)...84, 85 Curran v. Delaware, 259 F.2d 707 (3d Cir. 1958)...35 Dawson v. Delaware, 503 U.S. 159 (1992)...97 DeGarmo v. Texas, 474 U.S. 973 (1985) Dred Scott v. Sanford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857)...64 Dupart v. United States, 541 F.2d 1148 (5th Cir. 1976)...28 Eddings v. Oklahoma, 455 U.S. 104 (1982) Enmund v. Florida, 458 U.S. 782 (1982)...60 Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 U.S. 478 (1964)...78 Estelle v. McGuire, 502 U.S. 62 (1991)...121, 125 Flores v. Johnson, 210 F.3d 456 (5 th Cir. 2000)...57 Francis v. Franklin, 471 U.S. 307 (1985) Franklin v. Lynaugh, 487 U.S. 164 (1988)...115, 129 Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972)... passim Gardner v. Florida, 430 U.S. 349 (1977)...36, 56 Geduldig v. Aiello, 417 U.S. 484 (1974)...147, 148 viii

9 Giglio v. United States, 405 U.S. 150 (1972)...28 Godfrey v. Georgia, 446 U.S. 420 (1980) Gonzales v. Carhart, 555 U.S.124 (2007) Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976)... passim Green v. Georgia, 442 U.S. 95 (1979) Griffin v. California, 380 U.S. 609 (1965)...99 Guerra v. Collins, 916 F. Supp. 620 (S.D.Tex. 1995), aff'd, 90 F.3d 1075 (5th Cir. 1996)...58 Harmelin v. Michigan, 501 U.S. 957 (1991)...47 Harris v. Texas, 467 U.S (1984)...59 Harris v. Phelps, 550 F. Supp. 2d 551 (D. Del. 2008) Hopkins v. Cockrell, 325 F.3d 579 (5th Cir. 2003) Jackson v. Virginia, 443 U.S. 307 (1979)...104, 105 Jacobs v. Horn, 395 F.3d 92 (3rd Cir. 2005)...40 Jenkins v. United States, 380 U.S. 445 (1965)...123, 159 Jones v. United States, 527 U.S. 373 (1999) Jurek v. Estelle, 623 F.2d 929 (5th Cir. 1980)...36, 151, 167 Jurek v. Texas, 428 U.S. 262 (1976)...36 Kansas v. Marsh, 548 U.S. 163, Kennedy v. Louisiana, U.S., 128 S. Ct (2008)... passim Kohler v. Englade, 470 F.3d 1104 (5th Cir. 2006) Kolender v. Lawson, 461 U.S. 352 (1983) Kyles v. Whitley, 514 U.S. 419 (1995)...30, 32 Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971) ix

10 Levin v. Katzenbach, 363 F.2d 287 (D.C. Cir. 1966)...35 Lockett v. Ohio, 438 U.S. 586 (1978)... passim Lowenfield v. Phelps, 484 U.S. 231 (1988) Love v. Johnson, 57 F.3d 1305 (4th Cir. 1995)...32 Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967) Luchenburg v. Smith, 79 F.3d 388 (4th Cir. 1996) Matthews v. Eldridge, 424 U.S. 319 (1976) Maynard v. Cartwright, 486 U.S. 356 (1988)...151, 152 McCambridge v. Hall, 303 F.3d 24 (1st Cir. 2002)...32 McCleskey v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279 (1987)...59, 64, 109 McCormick v. United States, 500 U.S. 257 (1991) McGraw v. Holland, 257 F.3d 513 (6th Cir. 2001)...76 McKoy v. North Carolina, 494 U.S. 433 (1990)... passim McMillan v. Pennsylvania, 477 U.S. 79 (1986) Michigan v. Jackson, 475 U.S. 625 (1986)...73 Michigan v. Mosley, 423 U.S. 96 (1975)...76 Miller-El v. Dretke, 545 U.S. 231 (2005)...59 Mills v. Maryland, 486 U.S. 367 (1988)...36 Miranda v. Arizona, 484 U.S. 386 (1966)...72, 84 Missouri v. Seibert, 542 U.S. 600 (2004)...82, 83 Mullaney v. Wilbur, 421 U.S. 684 (1975)...137, 140 Napue v. Illinois, 360 U.S. 264 (1959)... passim Neil v. Biggers, 409 U.S. 188 (1972) x

11 Nelson v. Quarterman, 472 F.3d 287 (5th Cir. 2006), cert. denied, 127 S. Ct (2007)...110, 125, 132 Nev. Human Res. v. Hibbs, 538 U.S. 721, 733 (2003) Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. v. E.E.O.C., 462 U.S. 669, 684 (1983) Nguyen v. I.N.S., 533 U.S. 53 (2001) Oregon v. Guzek, 546 U.S. 517 (2006) Oyler v. Boles, 368 U.S. 448 (1962) Parker v. Dugger, 498 U.S. 308 (1991) Payne v. Tennessee, 501 U.S. 808 (1991)...110, 162 Pennsylvania v. Ritchie, 480 U.S. 39 (1987)...32 Penry v. Lynaugh, 492 U.S. 302 (1989) Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)...64 Powell v. Alexander, 391 F.3d 1 (1st Cir. 2004)...97 Pulley v. Harris, 465 U.S. 37 (1984)...168, 169, 170 Ramonez v. Berghuis, 490 F.3d 482 (6th Cir. 2007)...42 Richey v. Bradshaw, 498 F.3d 344 (6th Cir. 2007)...41 Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. 584 (2002)...126, 134 Roe v. Casey, 464 F. Supp. 483 (E.D.Pa. 1978) Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973)... passim Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005)...60, 129, 165 Rompilla v. Beard, 545 U.S. 374 (2005)...37, 39 Saldano v. Roach, 363 F.3d 545 (5th Cir. 2004)...58 Sattazahn v. Pennsylvania, 537 U.S. 101 (2003) xi

12 Shillinger v. Haworth, 70 F.3d 1132 (10th Cir. 1995) Simmons v. United States, 390 U.S. 377 (1968) Skipper v. South Carolina, 476 U.S. 1 (1986)...118, 125, 129 Smalls v. Batista, 191 F.3d 272 (2d Cir. 1999) Smith v. Black, 904 F.2d 950 (5th Cir. 1990), vacated on other grounds, 503 U.S. 930 (1992) Smith v. Texas, 543 U.S. 37 (2004) Spano v. New York, 360 U.S. 315 (1959)...85 Speiser v. Randall, 357 U.S. 513 (1958) Sprosty v. Buchler, 79 F.3d 635 (7th Cir. 1996)...80 Stansbury v. California, 511 U.S. 318 (1994)...77 Street v. New York, 394 U.S. 576 (1969)...97 Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668 (1984)... passim Sullivan v. Louisiana, 508 U.S. 275 (1993)...127, 128 Tennard v. Dretke, 542 U.S. 274 (2004)...109, 124 Thompson v. Oklahoma, 487 U.S. 815 (1988) Thompson v. Wainwright, 601 F.2d 768 (5th Cir. 1979)...84 Townsend v. Burke, 334 U.S. 736 (1948)...36 Turner v. Murray, 476 U.S. 28 (1986)...58 United States v. Agurs, 427 U.S. 97 (1976)...28 United States v. Antone, 603 F.2d 566 (5th Cir. 1979)...31 United States v. Axsom, 289 F.3d 496 (8th Cir. 2002)...65 United States v. Allen, 406 F.3d 940 (8th Cir. 2005) xii

13 United States v. Bautista, 145 F.3d 1140 (10th Cir. 1998)...80 United States v. Collins, 972 F.2d 1385, 1406 (5th Cir. 1992)...81 United States. v. Colonna, 511 F.3d 431 (4th Cir. 2007)...81 United States v. Cook, 592 F.2d 877 (5th Cir. 1979) United States v. Danielson, 325 F.3d 1054 (9th Cir. 2003) United States v. Davis, 132 F. Supp. 2d 455 (E.D. La. 2001) United States v. Dorr, 636 F.2d 117 (5th Cir. Tex.1981) United States v. Gaudin, 515 U.S. 506 (1995) United States v. Hernandez, 574 F.2d 1362 (5th Cir. 1978)...76 United States v. Honken, 378 F. Supp. 2d 1040 (N.D. Iowa 2004) United States v. Jacobs, 431 F.3d 99 (3d Cir. 2005)...79, 82 United States v. Lanier, 520 U.S. 259 (1997) United States v. Levy, 577 F.2d 200 (3d Cir. 1978) United States v. Morris, 568 F.2d 396 (5th Cir. 1978)...96 United States v. Morrison, 449 U.S. 361 (1981) United States v. Rambo, 365 F.3d 906 (10th Cir. 2004)...76 United States v. Resendiz-Ponce, 425 F.3d 729 (9th Cir. 2005), rev'd on other grounds, 549 U.S. 102 (2007) United States v. Rivera Pedin, 861 F.2d 1522 (11th Cir. 1988)...28, 29 United States v. Sadosky, 732 F.2d 1388 (8th Cir. 1984)...81 United States v. Sampson, 275 F. Supp. 2d 49 (D. Mass. 2003)...165, 169 United States v. Szymaniak, 934 F.2d 434 (2d Cir. 1991)...77 United States v. Wade, 388 U.S. 218 (1967) United States v. Wauneka, 770 F.2d 1434 (9th Cir.1985)...78 xiii

14 United States v. White, 890 F.2d 1413 (8th Cir. 1989)...79 Village of Hoffman Estates v. Flipside, Hoffman Estates, Inc., 455 U.S. 489 (1982) Walker v. Georgia, U.S., 129 S. Ct. 453 (U.S. Oct. 20, 2008) Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38 (1985) Walton v. Arizona, 497 U.S. 639 (1990) Weatherford v. Bursey, 429 U.S. 545 (1977) Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, 492 U.S. 490 (1989)...143, 144 Wiggins v. Smith, 539 U.S. 510 (2003)...39, 109 Williams v. Taylor, 529 U.S. 362 (2000)...39 Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280 (1976)... passim Yarborough v. Alvarado, 541 U.S. 652 (2004)...83 Zant v. Stephens, 462 U.S. 862 (1983)...97, 115, 145 STATE CASES Abdnor v. State, 871 S.W.2d 726 (Tex. Crim. App. 1994)...102, 122, 131, 133 Ex parte Adams, 768 S.W.2d 281 (Tex. Crim. App. 1989)...28, 30, 31 Almanza v. State, 686 S.W.2d 157 (Tex. Crim. App.1985)...88 Alberto v. State, 100 S.W.3d 528 (Tex. App. Texarkana 2003, no pet.)...47 Ancira v. State, 516 S.W.2d 924 (Tex.Crim.App 1974)...77 Ex parte Anderer, 61 S.W.3d 398 (Tex. Crim. App. 2001)...47 Anderson v. State, 932 S.W.2d 502 (Tex. Crim. App. 1996)...63 Anderson v. State, 15 S.W.3d 177 (Tex. App. Texarkana 2000, no pet.)...92 Anderson v. State, 182 S.W.3d 914 (Tex. Crim. App. 2006) xiv

15 Anderson v. State, 724 So. 2d 475 (Miss. Ct. App.1998) Andrews v. State, 159 S.W.3d 98 (Tex.Crim.App. 2005)...37, 39 Amos v. State, 819 S.W.2d 156 (Tex.Crim.App. 1991)...18 Armstrong v. State, 233 S.W.3d 627 (Ark. 2006) Arline v. State, 721 S.W.2d 348 (Tex.Crim.App. 1986)...101, 102 Bawcom v. State, 78 S.W.3d 360 (Tex. Crim. App. 2002)...46 Barnes v. State, 496 S.E.2d 674 (Ga. 1998) Barney v. State, 698 S.W.2d 114 (Tex. Crim. App. 1985)...16 Berry v. State, 2005 WL (Tex. Crim. App. 2005) Berry v. State, 233 S.W.3d 847 (Tex.Crim.App. 2007)... passim Bigby v. State, 892 S.W.2d 864 (Tex. Crim. App. 1994)...48, 167 Blue v. State, 125 S.W.3d 491 (Tex. Crim. App. 2003) Blakeney v. State, 911 S.W.2d 508 (Tex. App.-Austin 1995, no pet.)...92 Bluitt v. State, 137 S.W.3d 51 (Tex.Crim.App. 2004) Bone v. State, 77 S.W.3d 828 (Tex.Crim.App. 2002)...37, 156 Borjan v. State, 787 S.W.2d 53 (Tex. Crim. App. 1990)...98 Bradfield v. State, 42 S.W.3d 350 (Tex. App. Eastland 2001, pet. ref'd)...47 Brasfield v. State, 600 S.W.2d 288 (Tex. Crim. App. 1980), overruled on other grounds, Janecka v. State, 739 S.W.2d 813 (Tex.Crim.App. 1987)...16, 22 Brewer v. State, 704 So. 2d 70 (Miss. 1997) Ex parte Briggs, 187 S.W.3d 458 (Tex.Crim.App. 2005)...39 Brooks v. State, 990 S.W.2d 278 (Tex. Crim. App. 1999) , 93 Buck v. State, 956 A.2d 884 (Md. Ct. Spec. App. 2008)...79, 81, 82 xv

16 Bunton v. Commonwealth, No , 2000 WL (Va. Ct. App. Oct. 10, 2000)...81 Ex parte Castellano, 863 S.W.2d 476 (Tex. Crim. App. 1993)...28, 31 Chamberlain v. State, 998 S.W.2d 230 (Tex. Crim. App. 1999) Chambers v. State, 784 S.W.2d 29 (Tex. Crim. App. 1989)...59 Chambers v. State, 866 S.W.2d 9 (Tex. Crim. App. 1993)...17, 18 Claims of Racial Disparity v. Comm. of Corr., No. CV S, 2008 WL (Conn. Super. Ct. Feb. 27, 2008)...64 Clewis v. State, 922 S.W.2d 126 (Tex. Crim. App. 1996)...49 Collins v. State, 548 S.W.2d 106 (Ark. 1977) Comm. v. Booth, 766 A.2d 843 (Pa. 2001) Comm. v. Morris, 142 S.W.2d 564 (Ky. 2004)...138, 139 Creager v. State, 952 S.W.2d 852 (Tex. Crim. App. 1997)...85 Crutcher v. State, 481 S.W.2d 113 (Tex. Crim. App. 1972)...34 In re D.K., 497 A.2d 1298 (N.J. Ch. Div. 1985) Daggett v. State, 187 S.W.3d 444 (Tex. Crim. App. 2005)...96 Dallas v. State, 983 S.W.2d 276 (Tex. Crim. App. 1998)...47 Davis v. State, 340 S.E.2d 869 (Ga. 1986)...114, 132 Dewberry v. State, 776 S.W.2d 589 (Tex. Crim. App. 1989)...59 Dietrich v. Inhabitants of Northampton, 138 Mass. 14 (1884)...103, 138 Dinkins v. State, 894 S.W.2d 330 (Tex. Crim. App. 1995)...21, 43, 45 Dowthitt v. State, 931 S.W.2d 244 (Tex. Crim. App. 1996)...77, 78, 162 Ex parte Drinkert, 821 S.W.2d 953 (Tex. Crim. App. 1991) Duggan v. State, 778 S.W.2d 465 (Tex. Crim. App. 1989)...28 xvi

17 Eads v. State, 598 S.W.2d 304 (Tex. Crim. App. 1980) Ellason v. State, 815 S.W.2d 656 (Tex.Crim.App. 1991)...18 Emerson v. State, 851 S.W.2d 269 (Tex. Crim. App. 1993)...59 Erazo v. State, 144 S.W.3d 487 (Tex. Crim. App. 2004)...92, 94, 95 Esteves v. State, 849 S.W.2d 822 (Tex. Crim. App. 1993)...59 Evans v. People, 49 N.Y. 86 (N.Y. 1872)...101, 153 Ex parte Fierro, 934 S.W.2d 370 (Tex.Crim.App. 1996)...31 In re Fetus Brown, 689 N.E.2d 397 (Ill. App.1st Dist. 1997) Flannery v. State, 676 S.W.2d 369 (Tex.Crim.App. 1984) Flores v. State, 245 S.W.3d 432 (Tex.Crim.App. 2008) Ford v. State, 919 S.W.2d 107 (Tex. Crim. App. 1996) Foster v. State, 614 So. 2d 455 (Fla. 1992)...64 Francis v. State, 877 S.W.2d 441 (Tex. App. - Austin 1994, pet. ref'd) Fuller v. State, 253 S.W.3d 220 (Tex.Crim.App. 2008)...43 Fuller v. State, 829 S.W.2d 191 (Tex. Crim. App. 1992)...94 Gallagher v. State, 690 S.W.2d 587 (Tex. Crim. App.1985)...62 Gallo v. State, 239 S.W.3d 757 (Tex. Crim. App. 2007), cert. denied, 128 S. Ct (2008)...96 Garcia v. State, 57 S.W.3d 436 (Tex. Crim. App. 2001)...58 Garcia v. State, 919 S.W.2d 370 (Tex.Crim.App 1994)...86 Garcia v. State, 626 S.W.2d 46 (Tex. Crim. App. 1981)...22 Garrett v. State, 851 S.W.2d 853 (Tex. Crim. App. 1993)...18 Gentry v. State, 770 S.W.2d 780 (Tex. Crim. App. 1988) xvii

18 Geuder v. State, 115 S.W.3d 11 (Tex.Crim.App. 2003) Gibbs v. State, 819 S.W.2d 821 (Tex. Crim. App. 1991)...99 Gongora v. Quarterman, Slip Opinion, No , 2008 WL (5th Cir. Oct. 22, 2008)...33 Grant v. State, 505 S.W.2d 279 (Tex.Crim.App.1974) Grissam v. State, S.W.3d, 2008 WL (Sept. 10, 2008) Grotti v. State, S.W.3d, 2008 WL (Tex. Crim. App. June 25, 2008) 45, 51, 52, 103, 170 In re J.D.S., 864 So. 2d 534 (Fla.App.5th Dist. 2004) Halprin v. State, 170 S.W.3d 111 (Tex. Crim. App. 2005) Hearne v. State, 534 S.W.2d 703 (Tex.Crim.App. 1976)...74 Hernandez v. State, 726 S.W.2d 53 (Tex.Crim.App. 1986)... Hicks v. State, 15 S.W.3d 626 (Tex. App. - Houston [14th Dist.] 2000, pet. ref'd)...48 Hill v. State, 827 S.W.2d 860 (Tex. Crim. App. 1992)...59 Holberg v. State, 38 S.W.3d 137 (Tex. Crim. App. 2000)...54, 136 Holmes v. State, No CR, 2008 WL (Tex. App. - Houston, April 10, 008, pet ref'd) Hooper v. State, 214 S.W.3d 9 (Tex. Crim. App. 2007)...18 Howard v. State, 611 S.E.2d 3 (Ga. 2005) Howard v. State, 617 S.W.2d 191 (Tex.Crim.App.1979) Howard v. State, 941 S.W.2d 102 (Tex. Crim. App. 1996) Houston v. State, 185 S.W.3d 917 (Tex. App. Austin )...80 Huffman v. State, 746 S.W.2d 212 (Tex. Crim. App. 1988)...17, 18, 22 Hughes v. State, 868 P.2d 730 (Okla.Crim.App.1994) xviii

19 Hughes v. State, 897 S.W.2d 285 (Tex. Crim. App. 1994)...168, 172 Hulit v. State, 982 S.W.2d 431 (Tex.Crim.App. 1998) Jackson v. State, 528 S.E.2d 232 (Ga. 2000)...79 Jackson v. State, 992 S.W.2d 469 (Tex.Crim.App.1999) Jimenez v. State, 32 S.W.3d 233 (Tex.Crim.App. 2000)...118, 124, 131, 132 Johnson v. State, 61 P.3d 1234 (Wyo. 2003)...63 Jones v. State, 119 S.W.3d 766 (Tex.Crim.App. 2003)...79, 163 Jordan v. State, 646 S.W.2d 946 (Tex.Crim.App. 1983)...110, 115 Keeler v. Superior Court, 470 P.2d 617 (1970)...138, 139 Keeton v. State, 724 S.W.2d 58 (Tex.Crim.App. 1987)...16 Kimbrough v. State, 352 So. 2d 512 (Ala. 1977) Kucel v. State, 907 S.W.2d 890 (Tex. App. - Houston 1995, pet. ref'd)...42 K-Mart Corp. v. Honeycutt, 24 S.W.3d 357 (Tex. 2000) Lane v. State, 933 S.W.2d 504 (Tex.Crim.App. 1996)...18 Lanier v. State, 684 So. 2d 93 (Miss. 1996) Lawrence v. State, 240 S.W.3d 912 (Tex.Crim.App. 2007)... passim Lawton v. State, 913 S.W.2d 542 (Tex. Crim. App. 1995)...120, 121 Laws v. State, 549 S.W.2d 738 (Tex. Crim. App. 1977)...156, 157, Livingston v. State, 739 S.W.2d 311 (Tex. Crim. App. 1987)...99 Long v. State, 823 S.W.2d 259 (Tex. Crim. App. 1991)...90 Losada v. State, 721 S.W.2d 305 (Tex. Crim. App. 1986)...34 Loserth v. State, 963 S.W.2d 770 (Tex.Crim.App. 1998) Malik v. State, 953 S.W.2d 234 (Tex. Crim. App. 1997) xix

20 Mann v. State, 964 S.W.2d 639 (Tex.Crim.App. 1998)...45 Mansfield v. State, 758 So. 2d 636 (Fla. 2000)...79 Marras v. State, 741 S.W.2d 395 (Tex.Crim.App. 1987), overruled on other grounds, Garrett v. State, 851 S.W.2d 853 (Tex. Crim. App. 1993)...17, 18, 22 Marshall v. State, 210 S.W.3d 618 (Tex. Crim. App. 2006), cert. denied 128 S. Ct. 87 (2007)...34, 104, 105 Martinez v. State, 924 S.W.2d 693 (Tex. Crim. App. 1996)...16 Martinez v. State, 17 S.W.3d 677 (Tex. Crim. App. 2000) Martinez v. State, 131 S.W.3d 22 (Tex. App.-San Anton. 2003, reh'g overruled)...123, 159 Martinez v. State, 186 S.W.3d 59 (Tex. App. - Houston 2005, pet. ref'd) Ex parte Martinez, 195 S.W.3d 713 (Tex.Crim.App. 2006)...51 Masterson v. State, 155 S.W.3d 167 (Tex.Crim.App. 2005), cert. denied, 546 U.S (2006)...17 Matamoros v. State, 901 S.W.2d 470 (Tex. Crim. App. 1995) Matchett v. State, 941 S.W.2d 922 (Tex.Crim.App. 1996) McCarthy v. State, 65 S.W.3d 47 (Tex.Crim.App. 2001)...73 McGee v. State, 105 S.W.3d 609 (Tex.Crim.App. 2003) McGinn v. State, 961 S.W.2d 161 (1998)... passim McIlroy v. State, 188 S.W.3d 789 (Tex. App.-Fort Worth 2006, no pet.) In re McLean, 725 S.W.2d 696 (Tex. 1987)...148, 150 Means v. State, 429 S.W.2d 490 (Tex.Crim.App. 1968)...34 Mendez v. State, 138 S.W.3d 334 (Tex.Crim.App.2004)... Mendoza v. State, 88 S.W.3d 236 (Tex. Crim. App. 2002)...88 xx

21 Millam v. State, 745 N.W.2d 719 (Iowa 2008)...41 Miller-El v. State, 782 S.W.2d 892 (Tex. Crim. App. 1990)...99, 159 Moff v. State, 154 S.W.3d 599 (Tex. Crim. App. 2004) Montgomery v. State, 810 S.W.2d 372 (Tex. Crim. App. 1991)...90 Morris v. State, 940 S.W.2d 610 (Tex. Crim. App. 1996) Munoz v. State, 932 S.W.2d 242 (Tex. App.-Texarkana 1996, no pet.)...92 Murphy v. State, 112 S.W.3d 592 (Tex. Crim. App. 2003) Ex parte Nailor, 149 S.W.3d 125 (Tex.Crim.App. 2004) Newberry v. State, 552 S.W.2d 457 (Tex.Crim.App 1977)...77 Oakley v. State, 830 S.W.2d 107 (Tex.Crim.App. 1992)...118, 124 Orona v. State, 791 S.W.2d 125 (Tex. Crim. App. 1990) Oursbourn v. State, 259 S.W.3d 159 (Tex. Crim. App. 2008)...65, 85, 88 Penry v. State, 903 S.W.2d 715 (Tex. Crim. App. 1995)...84 People v. Anderson, 493 P.2d 880 (Cal. 1972)...61 People v. Bullock, 485 N.W.2d 866 (Mich. 1992)...63 People v. Frierson, 599 P.2d 587 (Cal. 1979) People v. Guthrie, 293 N.W.2d 775 (Mich. App. 1980) People v. Harris, 118 P.3d 545 (Cal. 2005) People v. Hooper, 665 N.E.2d 1190 (Ill. 1996)...48 People v. Horn, 790 P.2d 816 (Colo. 1990)...81 People v. Lorentzen, 194 N.W.2d 827 (Mich. 1972)...63 People v. Robertson, 655 P.2d 279 (Cal. 1982)...62 People v. Thompson, 611 P.2d 883 (Cal. 1980) xxi

22 People v. Thompson, 853 N.E.2d 378 (Ill. 2006) Petruccelli v. State, 174 S.W.3d 761 (Tex. App.-Waco 2005, pet. ref'd)...94 Prible v. State, 175 S.W.3d 724 (Tex. Crim. App. 2005)...94 Rabb v. State, 730 S.W.2d 751 (Tex.Crim.App. 1987)...54, 118, 124, 136 Ramos v. State, 245 S.W.3d 410 (Tex.Crim.App. 2008)...73, 74, 81 Ramirez v. State, 96 S.W.3d 386 (Tex. App.-Austin 2002, pet. ref d)...29 Rayford v. State, 125 S.W.3d 521 (Tex. Crim. App. 2003) Ripkowski v. State, 61 S.W.3d 378 (Tex.Crim.App. 2001) Reese v. State, 33 S.W.3d 238 (Tex. Crim. App. 2000)...94 Reimer v. State, 657 S.W.2d 894 (Tex. App.-Corpus Christi 1983, no pet.) Roberts v. State, No CR,2007 WL (Tex. App.- Texarkana June , pet. granted) Robinson v. State, 851 S.W.2d 216 (Tex. Crim. App. 1991)...59 Rodriguez v. State, 758 S.W.2d 787 (Tex.Crim.App. 1988)...118, 124 Rodriquez v. State, 520 S.W.2d 778 (Tex. Crim. App. 1975)...98 Rogers v. State, Nos , , 2006 WL (Tex. App. - Dallas March 1, 2006, no pet.) Rogers v. State, 991 S.W.2d 263 (Tex. Crim. App. 1999)...90 Rogers v. State, 105 S.W.3d 630 (Tex.Crim.App. 2003)...44 Roney v. State, 872 N.E.2d 192 (Ind. Ct. App. 2007)...48 Roney v. State, 632 S.W.2d 598 (Tex. Crim. App. 1982)...18 Rose v. State, 752 S.W.2d 529 (Tex.Crim.App.1987)...118, 124 Russeau v. State, 171 S.W.3d 871 (Tex.Crim.App. 2005), cert. denied, 548 U.S. 926 (2006)...40, 134, 168, 171 Ruth v. State, 645 S.W.2d 432 (Tex.Crim.App 1979)...77, 78 xxii

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