EFOX FILESHARING WITH WEB SERVICES

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1 EFOX FILESHARING WITH WEB SERVICES Jens Bruhn, Stefan Luckner, Markus Müller, Dominik Räder, Christof Squarr, Marc Wewers, Guido Wirtz Distributed and Mobile Systems Group, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg Feldkirchenstr. 21, Bamberg, Germany ABSTRACT Web Services and Peer-to-Peer are two concepts for distributed computing which gained much attention within the academic community. The former one was developed with the intention to provide interoperability within heterogeneous environments. The latter one offers a paradigm where resources are shared among participants of a network and the need for central components is minimized. This paper presents the results of a project bringing these two concepts together by means of a filesharing system. In this context different Web Service standards are analyzed with respect to their usability for Peer-to-Peer computing. KEY WORDS Internet puting, Applications, Peer-to-Peer, Web Services, Filesharing 1 Introduction Web Services and Peer-to-Peer represent two emerging concepts for distributed computing. One of the main intentions for the development of the first concept was the establishment of standards to overcome platform barriers and support the interaction of entities residing within different environments[5]. In combination with the standardization of Web Services, architecture models like the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)[11] were proposed within which Web Services are intended to be used. Peer-to-Peer represents an architectural paradigm for distributed systems. In contrast to the well-known client/server paradigm a system based on pure Peer-to-Peer is designed without any need for central entities to avoid the existence of bottlenecks or single-points-of-failure. Additionally, all participating entities share their local, unused resources with other entities of the system and conversely make use of remote resources from other s. The most popular application of Peer-to-Peer is the establishment of decentralized filesharing systems. This paper presents the results of a project that combines the two concepts by developing a Peer-to-Peer system based on Web Service standards. This was done with the intention to make use of the advantages of both worlds and to analyze in how far the concepts fit together and which potential problems have to be solved. As sample application a filesharing system, called efox (electronic filesharing over XML), was developed which provides the basic functionality well-known from existing implementations. The paper focuses on architectural aspects. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: Section 2 gives a short overview over the two concepts Peer-to-Peer and Web Services and points out the aspects of interest for the developed system. In this context the applied Web Service standards are presented and it is argued why others were left out. Additionally the platform, used as foundation for the filesharing system, is presented shortly. The following section 3 represents a top-down view of the filesharing system. First the requirements for the development of the system are discussed. Then the global architecture of the system with respect to the types of entities, their roles, and their relationships will be presented. This also includes a short discussion of the conformance of the developed system with the Peer-to-Peer paradigm. Finally the micro-architecture of a is analyzed. The different areas of concerns are identified with respect to their functionality and are discussed separately. Section 4 discusses the presented system and the results of bringing together Peer-to-Peer and Web Services. The paper concludes with a presentation of future work. 2 Peer-to-Peer and Web Services This section is divided into three parts. First, the two applied concepts Peer-to-Peer and Web Services are discussed on a conceptual layer. After that Web Service standards are analyzed with respect to their support for the Peer-to-Peer paradigm. A presentation of the environment used for the development and execution of the filesharing system rounds up this section. 2.1 Conceptual Basics Peer-to-Peer represents a paradigm which is intended to overcome problems of distributed systems relying on central entities and to make resources of system s available within a network. The first goal is reached via omitting central entities and distributing duties among the participants of the system. On one side, this should lead to a better scalability of the whole system because the overall workload is distributed over the net. Otherwise, within a system

2 with one or few entities providing e.g. a lookup facility, the quality-of-service-level might decrease with an increasing number of participants making heavy use of the centralized service facility. On the other side, if dedicated entities provide special services, the system is more vulnerable to failures or attacks. The second characteristic of a Peer-to-Peer network is the sharing of resources. Each of a system acts as a consumer of resources as well as a provider. This leads to the classification of a network as servent, derived from the combination of the words server and client[9]. Consequently, within an idealized Peer-to-Peer system, there exist no single-points-of-failure and workload is distributed over the network s. Shirky[10] adds to the above stated characteristics the aspect of the dynamic nature of a Peer-to-Peer network with constantly arriving and disappearing s being the normal case. While this might not be a boundary criteria for Peer-to-Peer to distinguish it from the client/server paradigm, it applies for the situation within a filesharing network as presented here. The concept of Web Services is closely related to the Service Oriented Architecture. Within a Web Service system three roles as well as corresponding interaction schemes can be identified[7]. A Web Service is a modular entity providing a service facility to client s within a network. The Web Service is described by a service description which contains abstract as well as concrete descriptions. The abstract description defines data types and the service interface while the concrete description includes the binding to concrete standards for serialization and transfer of messages as well as references to access points. The interna of the service implementation are hidden from the consumers. This allows the establishment of a system of modular, loosely coupled services where the implementation specifica are hidden from other entities. A Service Registry delivers a lookup facility. The standards and implementations range from simple links to service descriptions up to yellow pages with complex query interfaces. There are centralized as well as decentralized solutions available with respect to the architecture of registry providers. Moreover there exist client/server models where the registry facility is represented by a Web Service itself and models where the information is presented in form of linked XML documents; no service instance above the document transfer mechanism is needed for the latter. The registry facility provides a bootstrap mechanism for entities within a network to enable them to find each other. As the last role, Clients make use of the Web Services. Within different situations it is possible that entities take over different roles. It is possible that a service makes use of another service to fulfill its duties and consequently acts as a client. Three different interaction schemes can be identified within an environment consisting of instances of the above mentioned roles. The first scheme publish/unpublish includes the interaction among Web Services respectively their providers and Service Registries. This includes the insertion of service information into the concrete registry environment as well as the removal in case the Web Service should not be available anymore. If a client wants to make use of a service it addresses the registry to find the desired service information. 1 The bind/use interaction scheme includes all steps from locating the desired Web Service via the information gained from the registry to the interaction between service and client. 2.2 Applied Web Service standards There exist different standards for the concept of Web Services and many other specifications are within the process of standardization. To keep the goal of interoperability, most of the specifications which reside above the transport layer, are based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). This paper only discusses standards which are relevant for the interaction schemes described in section 2.1 as well as for the underlying transport layer. Message transport: Theoretically all transport protocols are applicable for the transfer of messages between servents because no binding is recommended for the concept of Web Services. For the framework presented in this paper the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) was chosen because it is supported by most of the existing Web Service platforms and is often presented as reference protocol in the context of Web Services. Moreover, standards for higher layers refer to HTTP for transportation and define special bindings for it. Message serialization: The most accepted standard for the serialization of messages in the context of Web Services is SOAP[8]. Additionally to the basic schemata for XML-serialization of documents and remote procedure calls (RPC) there exist several enhancements, e.g. to include binary data, which is important for the filesharing system presented here. Again nearly every available Web Service environment supports the usage of SOAP. Description: The abstract and concrete description of a Web Service can be specified via the Web Service Description Language (WSDL)[4] which is also based on XML. Because the interfaces provided by participants within a filesharing system are being known in advance, only the access points of servents are of interest at runtime. Therefore the whole service description is only needed for development both to conform to the servent specification as well as to make use of other servents in a correct way. Discovery: For the development of the filesharing system two different approaches for the establishment of the discovery facility were evaluated for application. The first candidate was the Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI)[1]. This standard specifies a data structure for representing Web Services within a service registry as well as Application Program Interfaces (API) for publication and inquiry. The registry facility itself is intended to be implemented as a Web Service. For 1 There are other possibilities conceivable how a client can get service information. For further discussion on registries see [3].

3 the usage within a filesharing system there are two drawbacks because of which the standard was not applied. First, the services which are published within the registry are assumed to be available over a long period of time which does not hold for servents within a filesharing system. Moreover, the registry is not intended to audit the availability of the registered services and services are published and unpublished explicitly. This is problematic in a dynamic system where appearing and disappearing servents are the normal case and it cannot be assured that they unregister properly. Second, the standard seems to be too complex. It is intended for business use and therefore includes information, e.g., about the organization providing the registered service or a classification of the service according to business schemes. This information is more or less overhead or even undesired because of privacy and anonymity considerations in the context of a filesharing system. There exist implementations of UDDI registries which can be deployed as Web Services. The adjustment of such an implementation would have been a time consuming task and lead to a registry service having not much in common with the intended usage of UDDI. The second candidate considered was the Web Services Inspection Language (WSIL)[2]. In contrast to UDDI this standard only defines the document structure for registry information on the basis of XML. Such a document consists of references to WSDL documents and UDDI registry entries as well as links to other WSIL documents. A distributed lookup facility can be established via linked WSIL documents in combination with endpoint references within WSDL documents. For such a registry again the auditing of the availability of servents must be implemented separately. Because only indirect references to services being inside WSIL documents, there would be an overhead of transferred messages. To gain a reference to a servent, first a registry document has to be accessed to receive a reference to a service description. From this description the access point can be obtained. Moreover only the endpoint information is needed and the amount of transferred data for the service description causes additional overhead. Because of the frequent registry requests assumed for the filesharing system the two aspects in combination could lead to significant performance drawbacks. Therefore WSIL was also rejected for the implementation of the registry facility. For the system presented here a solution was implemented where the collection and exchange of registry information was included within the service part of the servents. This means that the registry information is implicitly collected during interaction with other s and explicitly exchanged if needed. In summary the servent interface was described applying WSDL but not used during runtime because it is supposed to be known in advance. Messages between network participants are serialized according to the SOAP standard and transferred over HTTP. A light-weight registry facility fulfilling the needs of a dynamic system with high performance demands consisting of servents with known interfaces has been developed as integrated part of the servents. 2.3 Development Environment As development and execution environment the Java Web Services Developer Pack (Java WSDP)[12] from Sun Microsystems Inc. 2 was chosen. This freely available platform delivers several APIs for the development of Web Services. The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) and Java API for XML-Based RPC (JAX-RPC) were the most relevant ones in the context of servent implementation. From the multiple execution environments within which Web Services developed with the Java WSDP can be deployed, the Tomcat server[6] from The Apache Software Foundation 3 was chosen. 3 The efox system Within this section the developed system will be presented top-down. First, the requirements stated for the system will be presented to give an overview over the objectives of the system. Second, the global infrastructure will be discussed and analyzed with respect to the characteristics of the Peerto-Peer paradigm stated in section 2.1. Third, the microarchitecture of a single servent is presented. 3.1 Requirements The efox system was developed with the intention to provide the functionality well-known from other filesharing applications: 1. First of all, a bootstrap facility which allows the creation of a new system by a single servent is needed. For each participant it also has to be possible to connect to an already established system. The merging of fragmented systems must be supported to allow a dynamic combination of subsystems. 2. In order to find the desired files, a search facility has to be provided. That allows the specification of a filename or parts of it which are used to identify interesting files. Alternatively or in combination it should be possible to search files according to meta-information like special topics or types of information. Note that this search facility is different from the registry facility because here resources (files) are of interest and not the servents that provide them. 3. The download of identified files is essential. For performance reasons it is desirable to provide the partial download of files from multiple sources if possible. 4. Each servent needs functionality to specify which files should be accessible by other s for download

4 Moreover, downloaded files should be added to the list of accessible files. In combination with the previous aspect it is desirable to allow the download of file fragments of files which are not completely available at the providing entity yet. 5. Because of the dynamic nature of a filesharing system and to make use of the advantages of a Peer-to-Peer system, the design must include aspects of fault tolerance. This means that the system must not depend on single s and the shutdown or crash of s should not affect the whole system. 3.2 Infrastructure Within the infrastructure of the developed filesharing system there exist two types of s. The so called s represent the servents of the filesharing system. They cover all facilities stated in section 3.1. With the start s a second, optional type might be included into a system based on the framework. Instances of this type represent a fallback registry facility which can be used as entry points by servents that join a filesharing network for the first time or do not know other s within the system. Different to the s the start s are assumed to be active over a long period of time, are able to handle long lists of known s and start s, and are capable of handling requests from a great number of other s. Start s are not accessed during the search for files and cannot be used to initiate file searches. They only store references and keep track of the validity of the collected information. There exists no limitation concerning the number of start s within a system. Moreover it is theoretically possible to leave them out completely. An overview of the relationships among the different types is shown in figure 1. References to start s are start start start Figure 1. Sample efox infrastructure shown as continuous lines in the figure while links to s are represented by dashed lines. Registry: The registry facility is implemented as follows: A servent internally manages two separate, possibly empty lists of known s, one for other s and one for start s. After it is started up and a request for a file is placed, the servent tries to reach the known s to forward the query. If it cannot reach one or many s, these are removed from the list of known servents. If, because of unreachable s, the length of the list falls below a certain level, the affected first tries to contact still available servents to obtain additional references. In case this is not possible or the requesting does not get enough references this way, it addresses the start s and requests references to s. The lists of known s are also updated during interaction with other s e.g. while processing search requests. If a servent is not able to contact other s at all, the user is requested to deliver at least one address, either or start, as entry point to the system. The start s fulfill two tasks if included: Fallback solution: A system with well-known running start s delivers comfortable entry points for servents which are not online all the time. Because of the dynamic nature assumed for a filesharing system, lists of known s might become out of date within a short period of time. Start s enhance continuity in the network which allows a more comfortable usage. Otherwise the user might be requested to deliver references to access points of servents at regular intervals. Counteract fragmentation: A system without start s might tend to fragmentation. Because the start s are well-known and nearly constantly available, these s are accessed by many servents to obtain references to other s. During this proceeding the requestors are published at the particular start themselves and their availability is observed via the exchange of periodical messages. Start s if known among each other exchange references to other start s. This leads to a situation where references to access points of servents, with which the particular start has interacted recently, are stored at the start s. If the start s are used by many s, the network should be interconnected in a high degree by lists of known s. This also depends on the length of the lists. The longer they are the higher the degree of interconnection should be. The other way round, if the start s are left out, it might occur that subnets are established that are not interconnected among each other. Although the procedure discussed above can be seen as only a reference implementation and the registry facility with the optional start s is easily exchangeable, this aspect is of special interest for the classification in the context of the Peer-to-Peer paradigm as discussed in section 2.1. According to the presented characteristics the framework can be classified as pure Peer-to-Peer in case the start s are excluded. If a network is established including start s, a hybrid system is given. 3.3 Peer-Architecture The internal architecture of the servents is discussed within this section. Start s are not discussed here, because they are an optional part of the framework. To provide a

5 framework with a high degree of adaptability and to allow the exchange of different parts, the servent architecture was designed modular. Namely there were six aspects identified as shown in figure 2 (divided by dashed lines). Data Node <Node IF> Log <IF> Config <Config IF> <Log RemoteIF> Loc/Rem < RemoteIF> Shared Files <Shared Files IF> <Log LocalIF> < LocalIF> GUI <AppClientIF> AppClient <AppIF> App Log Figure 2. Servent architecture App App Between these parts interfaces were specified to allow an easy exchange of parts of the architecture if desired. Consequently it would be possible to apply different strategies, e.g. for the search of files, and to analyze the behavior of a system under different circumstances. Data Management (Data): The data management encapsulates all aspects of information access and processing. Especially the internal representation of the data is hidden from the other parts of the micro-architecture. For the current implementation XML was used extensively. Within the data management there is a further separation made according to the type of information handled. The configuration management is responsible for all kinds of information used for configuration purpose. This includes the persistency management of properties and the provision of an access interface for other parts of the servent. The length of the list of known start respectively s can be, e.g., specified via properties. By using the properties the behaviour of a single can be controlled in a fine grained way. Within the management the lists of known s are encapsulated. The shared files management administrates the intrinsic resources of a filesharing system, the files which are made available for other servents and the files which are downloaded. This does not only cover the provision of storage but also the management of meta-data. The fragmentation and re-composition of files which are transferred between servents is performed within this part of the data management. The shared files management is also responsible for the assignment of unique identifiers for new files. Identifiers are used during the download of files to obtain it from different s even if they have different meta-information assigned or are renamed. munication logic (Log): This part of the architecture covers the core functionality of a single servent. This means that the communication logic is responsible to react to requests from users as well as from other servents. All interaction with the servent is handled by this part. To fulfill its duties the communication logic makes use of other parts. munication management (): The communication management encapsulates the specifica of the underlying communication layers of the filesharing system. For the current implementation Web Service standards were applied, but it would also be possible to easily exchange them with e.g. an implementation solely based on pure socket communication. An isolated analysis of the impact of different communication infrastructures on the system is possible if the other parts of the architecture remain unchanged. Internally the communication management is divided into two separate parts. The access point the servent provides for other s is represented by the Rem. The second Web Service endpoint, Loc, is used for the interaction between the user interface and the application logic of the servent. Because of the execution environment of a servent being a web server, the user interface has to be executed in a separate virtual machine (VM). Therefore a direct communication between these two parts is not possible. For security reason the access to the Loc is limited to requests coming from the same host. A Web Service client () is responsible for the serialization and transfer of outgoing messages related to the interaction among s. Application communication (App): Because of the user interface part of a servent being executed in a separate VM, a Web Service client is needed for the interaction with the logic of the correspondent that interacts with the Loc. This is implemented within the App. Updates, like the progress of a download or the results of a file search, are obtained via a pull approach. This means that the App in regular intervals sends requests for new updates to the Loc. This is only necessary because of the separated runtime environments. If this is omitted within another implementation, a direct communication with the Log might be possible and a push approach is conceivable. Application (App): This part of the architecture is responsible for the control of the user interface. Graphical user interface (GUI): The GUI of a servent de-

6 livers information about e.g. the progress of downloads. The micro-architecture of the servents was developed with the intention to provide a high degree of adaptability and exchangeability. The modular design isolates parts of the architecture and allows the exchange of them without the need to adjust other areas as long as the new implementation still conforms to the interfaces provided by the particular aspect of the servent. 4 Evaluation The Peer-to-Peer paradigm and the concept of Web Services can be combined to make use of the advantages of both worlds. This was shown via the implementation of a filesharing system with a Peer-to-Peer infrastructure and Web Service standards as foundation for interaction. For the given application area the evaluated Web Service standards for service description (WSDL) and communication (SOPA/HTTP) were usable without any problems. For the registry facility the considered standards UDDI and WSIL were not applicable, because the assumed environment for these standards did not match with the environment of a filesharing system. Although the presented system is a special case of Peer-to-Peer networking, it can give a good impression of how the two concepts can be brought together. A system, bringing together both concepts, has to solve the ostensible problem that on one side the Peer-to- Peer paradigm demands equal entities within the network while for the Web Service concept on the other side different roles are envisioned. This can be achieved if the servents of a network fulfill all roles. Consequently, each entity of the system has to provide a uniform registry facility, make own resources available, and make use of resources of other entities via unified interfaces which are provided by all s. 5 Future work The next step for the development of efox will be the exchange of the execution environment. With the Tomcat server the installation and execution of a servent is relatively resource intensive which might be an obstacle for the application of efox. In section 3.2 efox was classified as a hybrid Peer-to-Peer system in case start s are included. The impact of leaving out these s will be the target of further investigations to analyze the advantages and drawbacks of a pure Peer-to-Peer system. During the development of efox parameterization was included to a high extend. This will be used to detect the influence of, e.g., the length of the lists of known s or the magnitude of transferred file fragments on the behavior of the system as a whole. The modular micro-architecture of the servents allows the exchange of different aspects. This will be utilized for implementation and analysis of different algorithms. One area of interest is an optimized management of the list of known s which takes additional information like search results into account to enhance the quality of references. References [1] Bob Atkinson, Tom Bellwood, Maud Cahuzac, Luc Clement, John Colgrave et al. UDDI Version v3.htm, [2] Keith Ballinger, Peter Brittenham, Ashok Malhotra, William A. Nagy, and Stefan Pharies. Web Services Inspection Language (WS-Inspection) webservices/library/ws-wsilspec.html, [3] David Booth, Hugo Haas, Francis McCabe, Eric Newcomer, Michael Champion et al. Web Services Architecture. wsa.pdf, Working Group Note. [4] Erik Christensen, Francisco Curbera, Greg Meredith, and Sanjiva Weerawarana. Web Services Description Language (WSDL) [5] F. Curbera, W. Nagy, and S. Weerawarana. Web Services: Why and How. In OOPSLA 2001 Workshop on Object-Oriented Web Services. ACM, , [6] The Apache Software Foundation. Apache Jakarta Tomcat [7] Heather Kreger. Web Services Conceptual Architecture (WSCA 1.0). solutions/webservices/pdf/wsca.pdf, [8] Nilo Mitra. Soap version 1.2 part 0: Primer W3C Recommendation. [9] Rüdiger Schollmeier. A definition of -to- networking towards a delimitation against classical client-server concepts. Proceedings of the 7th EU- NICE Open European Summer School (EUNICE 01) and the IFIP Workshop on IP and ATM Traffic Management (WATM 01), [10] Clay Shirky. What is p2p... and what isn t? shirky1-whatisp2p.html, [11] Michael Stevens. Java Web Services Architecture, chapter 2: Service-Oriented Architecture, pages Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, [12] Inc. Sun Microsystems. Java Web Services Developer Pack (Java WSDP). jwsdp/index.jsp, 2004.

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