1 Bob Ivarson, PE, D.WRE Sustainable Water Technologies Business Conference June 17, 2014
2 In the old days we use to talk about conservation. Unsustainability, often is the collision of good intentions with unintended consequences. Historical events leading to serious consideration of resource sustainability.
3 Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland Commission, 1983) Herman E. Daly, University of Maryland School of Public Policy professor and former Chief Economist for the World Bank, 1971 opus "The Entropy Law and the Economic Process") suggests the following three operational rules defining the condition of ecological (thermodynamic) sustainability: Renewable resources such as fish, soil, and groundwater must be used no faster than the rate at which they regenerate. Nonrenewable resources such as minerals and fossil fuels must be used no faster than renewable substitutes for them can be put into place. Pollution and wastes must be emitted no faster than natural systems can absorb them, recycle them, or render them harmless.
4 WRRDA 2014 Flood Protection Coastal Processes Ecological Restoration Watershed Restoration River Restoration Flood Plain Restoration Wetlands Navigation Groundwater Water Supply Infrastructure Wastewater Infrastructure Storm Water Infrastructure
5 NAVIGATION Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas and Louisiana, $748 million. Jacksonville Harbor, Mile Point, Jacksonville, Florida, $27.8 million. Savannah Harbor, Savannah, Georgia, $492 million. Freeport Harbor, Freeport, Texas, $121 million. Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida, $29.2 million. Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, $216.4 million. Lake Worth Inlet, Palm Beach County, Florida, $57.5 million. Jacksonville Harbor, Jacksonville, Florida., $362 million. HURRICANE AND STORM DAMAGE RISK REDUCTION AND ENVIRNOMENTAL RESTORATION Mississippi Coastal Improvement Program, Hannock, Harrison and Jackson counties, Mississippi, $693.3 million. ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION Mid-Chesapeake Bay Island, Maryland, $1.2 billion. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, Caloosahatchee River, Florida, $313.3 million. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, Canal Western Project, Florida, $87.2 million. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana, $1 billion. Marsh Lake, Minnesota, $6.7 million. Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetland, Florida, $98.5 million. Broward County Water Preserve Area, Florida, $448 million. Barataria Basin Barrier, Louisiana, $321.7 million. Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, $23.8 million. Lynhaven River, Virginia, $22.8 million. Willamette River Floodplain, Oregon, $27.4 million. FLOOD-RISK MANAGEMENT Topeka, Kansas, $17.3 million. Natomas Basin, California, $760.6 million. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, $73.1 million. Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, $846.7 million. Ohio River Shoreline, Paducah, Kentucky, $13.1 million. Springfield, Missouri, $13.5 million. San Joaquin River Basin, California, $23.6 million. Sutter Basin, California, $255.2 million. Truckee Meadows, Nevada, $181.6 million. HURRICANE AND STORM DAMAGE RISK REDUCTION West Onslow Beach and New River Inlet, North Carolina, $99 million. Surf City and North Topsail Beach, North Carolina, $206 million. San Clemente shoreline, California, $51 million. Walton County, Florida, $42 million. Morganza to the Gulf, Louisiana, $6.6 billion.
6 How to interpret the WRRDA of 2014 Authorization Appropriations for the Executive Branch (Departments) Executive Office of the President Department of Agriculture Department of Commerce Department of Defense Department of Education Department of Energy Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Housing and Urban Development Department of the Interior Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of State Department of Transportation Department of the Treasury Department of Veterans Affairs
7 Consists of Levees, Dams, Auxiliary Channels, and Flood Plain Restoration. Serious Federal efforts began with FCA of 1928 following the Mississippi River Flood of Further enhancements with the FCA of 1965 following Hurricane Betsy. WRDA of 2007 authorized completion of the Hurricane Betsy system, post Hurricane Katrina. This system was finally funded and the last 3 interior drainage pump stations are currently in design-build.
8 Federal, state and local flood protection facilities include: The USACE portfolio of levee systems contains more than 2,500 systems totaling more than 14,700 miles, Non-federal levees include an additional 100,000 miles approximately The US has approximately 84,000 dams. Only about 2,000 of them are used for flood control. Sustainability of these facilities is questionable.
9 The Mississippi River has historically changed course every few hundred to 1000 years. Since the levees were constructed after the 1927 flood capture of sediments has been virtually eliminated. 600 million metric tons / 92 #/cf = 100 miles by 100 miles, 0.6 deep.
12 Ecosystem Restoration Programs affect more than 35% of the US. more than 45% of the US population. Have federal mandates and policy support Over $100 billion in funding required Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 is the first water infrastructure bill since 2007 and authorizes 34 projects including dredging, flood control, hurricane recovery and environmental restoration.
13 There are major Ecosystem Restoration Programs in various states of authorization or funding: Florida Everglades Chesapeake Bay Long Island Sound Gulf of Maine Great Lakes Ohio River Upper Mississippi River NESP Lower Mississippi/Gulf Coast Upper Missouri River Columbia River Puget Sound Sacramento-Bay Delta Lower Colorado Snake River Galveston Bay Hudson/Raritan Estuary Tampa Bay Mobile Bay Platte river
15 The Clean Water Act of 1972 set the stage for Restoration efforts. The first legal protection of wetlands came in Then, in 1989 the National policy of no-net loss of wetlands was established. Non-tidal wetland acres within the U.S. have actually increased in recent years about 250,000 acres of forested wetlands were created between 1998 and Repetitive flood losses and payouts in the NFIP set the stage for flood plain restoration. When a loss exceeded 50% of the property value for a second time, the property was bought and became public flood plain. This policy has been reversed at the federal level but is still pursued in some instances at the local level.
16 Navigation project rehabilitation and new projects have substantial environmental impacts. USACE operates and maintains 12,000 miles of navigable channels, including 192 locks and dams. These projects are on average about 75 years old. Some have allowed Invasive Species. Funding requirements is estimated to be $60B.
17 About 23 percent of the freshwater used in the United States comes from groundwater sources. Most of the fresh groundwater withdrawals, 68 percent, were for irrigation, Another 19 percent was used for publicsupply purposes, mainly to supply drinking water to much of the Nation's population. Groundwater also is crucial for those people who supply their own water (domestic use), as over 98 percent of selfsupplied domestic water withdrawals came from groundwater In some areas of the country pumping from an aquifer extracts water faster than it can be recharged, the aquifer is in overdraft, which is unsustainable.
18 Water Supply It is recognized nationally and locally that water is a valuable resource. Consumers are beginning to be charged rates reflecting that value and conservation is encouraged and required by local codes. Water utilities are rehabilitating their distribution systems to minimize leakage for conservation. Here in Chicago rates are being raised $0.25/1000 gallons/year to pay for a water main replacement program of 100 miles/year to modernize the 4200 miles of main.
19 Wastewater Wastewater are being required to improve by the federal and state EPAs. Lacking the direct impact to and pressure by consumers as is the case for water many sanitary districts resist needed improvements. The big improvements are in reducing I&I which reduces SSOs in wet weather and improves dry weather plant performance. Here in Chicago the City is replacing or lining 70 miles of combined sewer a year and the MWRD is improving treatment plant processes with nutrient removal improvements and post treatment disinfection. A west suburban sanitary district (Downers Grove) has an extensive I&I reduction program eliminating SSOs and improving receiving stream water quality.
20 Storm Water Storm Water design practice has been improving since the passage of the 1972 CWA. In most urban areas local ordinances now require detention and allow release rates similar to undeveloped land for new developments and redevelopments. Storm water extended detention and treatment is now becoming common in ordinances. Here in Chicago significant progress is being made by MWRD in combined sewer areas to minimize CSOs. And in separate sewer areas to enhance storm water management with regional detention facilities and stream restoration projects.
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