Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays for Mission-Critical Applications

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1 Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays for Mission-Critical Applications

2

3 Niccolò Battezzati Luca Sterpone Massimo Violante Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays for Mission-Critical Applications 123

4 Niccolò Battezzati Dipto. Automatica e Informatica Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi Torino, Italy Luca Sterpone Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi Torino, Italy Massimo Violante Dipto. Automatica e Informatica Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi Torino, Italy ISBN e-isbn DOI / Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number: c Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (

5 Contents 1 Introduction... 1 References... 4 Part I Basic Concepts 2 Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays: Basic Concepts FPGA Architectures FPGA Configuration Technology Floating Gate Technology Antifuse Technology SRAM Technology The Logic Block Fine-Grain Logic Blocks Coarse-Grain Logic Blocks The Routing Architecture The Switching Elements The Input/Output Blocks The Configuration Memory An Overview of the Architecture of Modern FPGAs Logic Resources Interconnection Resources Memory Resources Arithmetic Resources Processing Resources Interfacing Resources References Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays: Failure Modes and Analysis The Impact of the Environment on the Device Radiation Environments v

6 vi Contents Radiation Characteristics Physical Effects From the Effect to the Fault Fault Models in FPGAs SEUs and MCUs Effects on the FPGA s Routing Resources SEUs and MCUs Effects on the FPGA s Logic Resources Topological Modifications Induced by SEUs and MCUs Analysis Techniques Life Testing Accelerated Radiation Testing Fault Injection Analytical Techniques References Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays: Hardening Solutions Overview on the Design Process for FPGA Applications FPGA Design Application Design Techniques for FPGA Manufacturer Mitigation Techniques for SEL Mitigation Techniques for TID Mitigation Techniques for Single Memory Elements Mitigation Techniques for Programming Elements Mitigation Techniques for Memories Mitigation Techniques for Logic Elements Mitigation Techniques for Input/Output Elements Overview of Techniques for FPGA User In-Chip Mitigation Techniques Off-Chip Mitigation Techniques References Part II Practical Concepts 5 Reprogrammable FPGAs for Mission-Critical Applications Introduction Radiation-Tolerant Reprogrammable FPGAs Virtex-4 QV Products Actel RT ProASIC Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable FPGAs Atmel ATF References...186

7 Contents vii 6 Putting Mitigation Techniques at Work Mitigation Techniques for SRAM-Based Devices: The Xilinx Virtex Case Study Single Event Upsets Consideration Multiple Cell Upsets Considerations Mitigation Techniques for Flash-Based Devices: The Actel ProASIC3 Case Study Single Event Transient Characterization Single Event Transient Mitigation References System-Level Considerations Introduction The Target Radioactive Environment The Impact of the Target Radioactive Environment The Impact of the Target Application System-Level Considerations References Conclusions Subject Index...217

LA-UR- Title: Author(s): Intended for: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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