Chicago Southland EPA Brownfields Weatherization Job Training Program STUDENT WORKBOOK

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1 Chicago Southland EPA Brownfields Weatherization Job Training Program STUDENT WORKBOOK This program was funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

2 2 WORKBOOK NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS OVERVIEW This weatherization technical training workbook was designed as the student manual to teach skilled individuals about home weatherization basics and to prepare for future certifications. This training is designed to equip individuals to deliver weatherization services to homeowners. It covers the knowledge, skills, tools and techniques required to measure and improve energy use in different types of homes. The training also equips participants to work with different mechanicals systems and acquaints them with necessary safety procedures and practices. The instruction includes practical, hands-on experience, including in-class exercises and field experience with critical weatherization processes. Guest speakers will provide information about relevant standards and certifications and career opportunities in weatherization and related trades. By the end of the training, trainees will have the knowledge base needed to take the next step toward a certification such as a BPI (Building Performance Institute) certification. PROGRAM PURPOSE The purpose of this course is provide a complete and thorough training, incorporating both the classroom and actual job-site training that will enable individuals with a basic understanding of construction and renovation theory to perform weatherization improvement renovations in single-family residential units. PROGRAM GOAL Over the course of this six-day training, trainees will learn about the most commonly found energy consumption culprits in a home, tips for identifying these problem areas, and strategies for addressing them. By utilizing both the classroom environment and supervised training on an actual weatherization project site, trainees will develop a complete understanding of the positive and tangible benefit weatherization improvements can have on a home. This will enable them to help homeowners improve their homes energy efficiency, reduce utility costs, and improve the overall comfort and safety within the home. This workbook is accompanied by 10 power-point presentations and a suggested class schedule. This curriculum was prepared to be given as a 14 day course, with six days of weatherization training, five days of Worker Safety training, one day of Lead RRP training and one day of job readiness. This curriculum is NOT intended to be a stand-alone training, but rather incorporated into a robust green job training that will provide the trainee with the best opportunity to be safe and successful in the work place. WORKER SAFETY This weatherization technician training course is designed as a 48-hour modularized curriculum to be delivered in conjunction with (at minimum) the following worker health & safety courses: Lead Renovation, Repair and Painting (40 CFR Part 745 ); and 40 hr. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER);(29 CFR ); or 30-hour Occupational Safety and Health training course in Construction Safety and Health (29 CFR 1926). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS OAI, inc. and the Delta Institute wish to thank the following for their significant contributions to this project: Corbett Lunsford of the Green Dream Group and Jim Cavallo of Kouba-Cavallo Associates, for curriculum development; The U.S. Dept. of Energy for their development of the Weatherization Assistance Program Standardized Training Curriculum, which is referenced in this curriculum; Don Ehrhart, Pat Giovane, and South Suburban College for their partnership in the delivery of the training. Peer reviewers for dedicating their time and insights to this workbook including Victoria Cooper, PhD of Wilbur Wright College; John Porterfield of ezing; and Jim Gill, PE, LEED AP, RESNET HERS Rater. IMAGES AND GRAPHICS All images and graphics are owned or rights have been obtained by lead workbook author, Corbett Lunsford of the Green Dream Group.

3 3 Table of Contents 1 Course Outline Course Schedule... 6 QUIZ #1: Introduction Basics of Weatherization... 9 Weatherization Assistance Programs (WAPs)... 9 Conducting Private Work for Homeowners Opportunities for Improvement in Homes QUIZ #2: What is Weatherization Home Energy Basics Stack Effect Wind Effect HVAC Motivated Pressures Group Exercise QUIZ #3.1: Home Energy Basics The Envelope Characteristics of Homes Knee Walls Crawlspaces QUIZ #3.2: The Envelope Accurate Measurements Simple Geometry for Home Performance Contracting Common Home Calculations Conversions Quiz #4: Accurate Measurements Air Sealing and Insulation Air Sealing Platform vs. Balloon Framing Corners Side Attic Spaces Air Sealing Materials: Proper Ventilation Air Sealing Procedure Insulation Vermiculite Insulation Dense Packed Insulation Technique QUIZ #5: Air Sealing and Insulation... 32

4 4 7 Diagnostics Blower Door Testing Depressurization Testing Pressurization Testing CFM at 50 Pa vs. CFM at Natural Zonal Pressure Testing QUIZ #6.1: Diagnostics Ventilation Calculations QUIZ #6.2: Ventilation Mechanical Systems Carbon Monoxide (CO) Dangers with Atmospheric Draft QUIZ #7: Mechanical Systems Distribution Systems Duct Systems Duct Leakage Testing Pressure Pan Method Pipe Insulation QUIZ #8: Distribution Systems Safe Work Practices Reference Guide Glossary Appendix A Appendix B- Blower Door Quick Guide APPENDIX C COMMONLY FOUND PROBLEM AREAS Weather Stripping, Air Sealing, and Insulation APPENDIX D- READING LIST AND WEB RESOURCES APPENDIX E - SAMPLE AUDITS APPENDIX F - WORK ORDERS... 79

5 1 Course Outline COURSE DATES: INSTRUCTOR(S): DAILY START TIME: DAILY END TIME: LOCATIONS:

6 6 2 Course Schedule DAY ONE: INTRODUCTIONS WHAT IS WEATHERIZATION INDUSTRY STANDARDS (BPI, RESNET, AIR SEALING) LUNCH ENERGY BASICS HOUSE AS A SYSTEM INTRO TO CONSTRUCTION MATH REVIEW / HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #1 DAY TWO: REVIEW HOMEWORK HOUSE PLANS BUILDING ENVELOPE: THERMAL & AIR BARRIERS LAB 1: AIR SEALING LUNCH INSULATION IN THE HOME LAB 2: INSULATION TECHNIQUES REVIEW / HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #2 DAY THREE: REVIEW HOMEWORK READING AND INTERPRETING WORK ORDERS AIR SEALING ON SITE LUNCH MECHANICAL SYSTEMS BLOWER DOOR TESTING (TEST IN) REVIEW / HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #3 DAY FOUR: ATTIC AIR SEALING AND INSULATION LUNCH BUILDING TIGHTNESS LIMITS AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS REVIEW / HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #4 DAY FIVE: REVIEW HOMEWORK COMPLETE REMAINING WORK AT SITE (IF ANY) BLOWER DOOR TEST OUT LUNCH REVIEW / POST TEST RESULTS / Q&A This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

7 7 DAY SIX: BUILDING SCIENCE HTM, MANUAL J CALCULATIONS LUNCH BCR CALCULATIONS AND DISCUSSION FINAL REVIEW / EXAM THIS COURSE COVERS: Worker and Occupant Safety Applied Math Review Building Science Home Performance Testing Air Sealing and Insulation Installation HVAC Basics National Standards and Certifications YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO PERFORM THE FOLLOWING THROUGH SPECIFIC HANDS ON SKILLS INSTRUCTION: Accurate Measurements Ventilation Calculations Reading Work Orders Air Sealing Open Areas Batt and Rigid Insulation Installation and Cellulose Dense Packing Blower Door Testing Zonal Pressure Testing Smoke Testing SKILLS ACQUISITION AND KNOWLEDGE GAINS WILL BE ASSESSED BY: Observation of daily hands-on practice Daily Quizzes Daily Homework Final Exam (hands-on and oral) Top scoring students will be given the opportunity to get the BPI Certified at a discounted rate STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO ARRIVE ON TIME FOR EACH DAY OF THIS COURSE. Presented By:

8 8 QUIZ #1: Introduction 1. Why is this course important to you? 2. Name 2 things you re interested to learn about in this course. 3. On what page does the Glossary begin in your handbook? This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

9 9 3 Basics of Weatherization Verify Safe Combustion Insulate Attic Inject Insulation Air Seal Insulate Walls DEFINITION OF WEATHERIZATION: The practice of protecting a building and its interior from the elements, and of modifying a building to reduce energy consumption while ensuring occupant health and safety. Activities involved in weatherization include: Following directions from an Auditor or Crew Chief Air sealing open areas Insulating the building envelope (attics, walls) Repairing or replacing mechanical systems Sealing and insulating ducts and domestic hot water pipes Verifying that improvements are both cost-effective and improve comfort Ensuring safety before and after work is complete There are two main sources of funding within the weatherization industry. They are: Public funding through large scale programs (Weatherization Assistance Programs, or WAPs); and Private funding through individual homeowners or commercial building owners. NOTE: ABOUT THE COMMERCIAL SECTOR Units designated as multi-family and/or commercial are subject to weatherization improvements; however, they require a whole building approach instead of an individual unit approach, therefore they will not be covered in this material. For more information on multi-family and commercial units, see reference materials located in the appendix. Weatherization Assistance Programs (WAPs) MISSION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM: to reduce energy costs for low-income families, particularly for the elderly, people with disabilities, and children, while ensuring their health and safety. Presented By:

10 10 ORGANIZATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM: The program is funded by the federal government (U.S. Department of the Environment - DOE) which also provides technical support. In Illinois, it is administered by state government (Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity - DCEO) which also sets goals, provides training opportunities, and assures quality. IWAP is implemented by Community Action Agencies (for example, Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, CEDA, currently Illinois biggest agency of this type) that determines and defines the needs of individual homes and pays contractors to do the defined work. The improvements benefit low income homeowners, who then save money on energy bills and improve comfort. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF CONTRACTORS IN A WAP: Receive work order from the local agency Schedule the site visit Identify potential problems or limitations of the work order Conduct work to WAP Standards of Practice Finish on-time Conduct verification and safety tests Leave home as in acceptable cleanliness The accepted standard for the WAP in Illinois is the Illinois Home Weatherization Assistance Program (IHWAP). In Illinois, IHWAP predetermines and regulates the amount of energy-related weatherization renovations per home, by capping at improvements at a specified spending limit. To ensure the areas of greatest need are addressed, work orders should indicate renovations based on highest to lowest priority. In Illinois, IHWAP weatherization spending typically for each home cannot exceed $5,000. Target energy reductions in IHWAP are 30% per home for architectural and mechanical measures. Conducting Private Work for Homeowners Working with individual homeowners in the private sector will likely be part of your work. These jobs may be specified by an estimator or business owner, and are based on labor and materials. Every job is different... The most significant quality standard imperative for this type of work is t homeowner satisfaction. Aligning your installation practice with an accredited professional building standards organization such as, Building Performance Institute (BPI) technical standards will help you to achieve that goal. Cost effectiveness is important in all lines of weatherization work. The benefit in savings, comfort, and aesthetics, or a combination of these, should strive to outweigh the investment. In WAPs, this often means dollars saved on energy based on a savings to investment ratio in the Weather Works software provided by the Department of Energy for use in determining the most cost effective measures in a home. In the private sector, this can mean comfort, air quality, durability, lower maintenance and replacement costs AND dollars saved on energy. Opportunities for Improvement in Homes Cost effective measures vary by building. Common cost effective measures include: 1. Air Sealing 2. Insulation 3. Mechanical System Improvement or Replacement (heating, water heating, cooling) This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

11 11 Air sealing is often the first measure considered, as other measures effectiveness in both comfort and energy savings are often dependent on its effectiveness. Air sealing is best defined as sealing building penetrations between the inside (conditioned) space and the outside (unconditioned) space to minimize air and heat loss or gain, depending on the season. This measure directly reduces heat loss in the winter by reducing warm air from leaving the home to the outside, and reduces heat gain the summer by reducing warm air from moving into the home from the outside. It is desirable, though not always possible, to have a clear area to air seal. Many techniques allow air sealing to be performed on areas that are not immediately accessible. It is important for technicians to understand air flow in a building to understand how best to reduce air infiltration. I. Air sealing is normally time intensive when done correctly, but is a highly effective step in the weatherization process. Insulation is ideally completed after air sealing. Correct installation of insulation in a home can vastly improve comfort and efficiency; however, incorrect use of insulation can cause moisture problems, be ineffective, or reduced in effectiveness. Insulation is generally inexpensive and a highly effective energy conservation measure. Mechanical Systems provide conditioned air movement in a building, contributing to comfort and indoor air quality improvements when installed and operated correctly. For homes and businesses, properly maintaining and installing mechanical systems are an important step in improving efficiency and comfort in a home. These systems provide all the heating, cooling, and water heating necessary to make a home comfortable. Readily available technology exists to improve the efficiency of a system beyond that required by local building code depending on the type of system installed, can contribute significantly to lowering energy bills. If a homeowner takes the 3 steps described above, they can typically expect energy efficiency gains of up to 30%. Specific problems solved through weatherization can include: Unsafe combustion in furnace, boiler, or water heater; Inefficient combustion in heating system, leading to wasted energy; Drafty home; and Insufficient insulation in attic, walls, or rim joist. Problems that will not be resolved by weatherization, but are important considerations, include: Substantial roof structural failure due to water damage; Foundation integrity or drainage issues; Plumbing issues unrelated to the safety or efficiency of mechanical systems; and Old electrical wiring (Knob & Tube wiring should be identified and addressed according to local code requirements.) Developing Your Skills This training is a great starting point and will provide you with a solid foundation for entry into the field of weatherization work. Weatherization work may require a different approach on each home, and exposure to many different building types is desirable to become an expert technician. Contractors generally have crews that work on homes in teams- learning from co-workers can provide you with useful knowledge and tricks of the trade. Ongoing studying is important to keep up with latest weatherization techniques. Every home is unique- learning in the field provides you with real-life experience. Presented By:

12 12 QUIZ #2: What is Weatherization 1. Name 4 activities involved in Weatherization. 2. What s the difference between the WAP and private work? 3. What s the standard for existing home weatherization work in WAP? In private homes? 4. Name the top three most cost effective weatherization improvements, in order of priority. 5. Why does air sealing generally have first priority in the work scope? This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

13 13 4 Home Energy Basics ENERGY: Energy is the capacity to do work. Efficiency is the ratio of useful energy delivered to a system to the energy supplied to it. For example, an automobile engine s purpose is to move the car forward; only 35% of the energy released by burning the gasoline is delivered to the motion of the car; the remainder is lost as unusable heat or light. Other examples of efficiency include: An incandescent light bulb converts 10% of the usable electricity to light. The rest is given off as heat. A more efficient compact fluorescent light-bulb (CFL) or light emitting diode (LED) light-bulb can deliver the same light output for ¼ of the electricity use, as more electricity is converted to light as opposed to heat. A condensing furnace captures the waste heat from the flue of the furnace and re-circulates it through a heat exchanger, adding an additional 12 to 18% efficiency. CONTROL IS THE GOAL Work performed on a weatherization job strives to maintain the comfort conditions of the home regardless of the outside temperature. This is done by controlling the gain or loss of heat in the home. Ask yourself - How much heat are do you waste in your own home? How much conditioned air do you waste? First, it is important to understand that heat flows from HIGH to LOW. For example: Gravity: a ball rolls down a hill, not up it. Pressure: when a rubber balloon is inflated, the air inside the balloon is in a high pressure state as the stretched rubber tries to return to its original size. When the open end is released, the high pressure gas quickly escapes to the low pressure state outside the balloon. Heat: heat from your breath flows into your hands. Blowing hot air into your hands makes a much bigger difference when they're cold- try it and see. Moisture: the theory of rain cloud cycles teaches us that evaporation is caused when water in a high concentration (Lake Michigan) is exposed to air. The rising liquid molecules vaporize, rising up through the air eventually forming low moisture concentrations (rain clouds). HEAT FLOWS FROM HIGH TO LOW TEMPERATURE Cold is the absence of heat. The main driving force for heat flow is the temperature difference between two objects. This is called the Delta T (or T). A higher Delta T indicates a higher pressure and temperature difference, and therefore a quicker heat loss. For example: a duct that's 130º will lose its heat very quickly to a 20º attic a room that's 70º will lose heat very slowly to the outside on a 65º day the reverse is true in the summer; a room that is 65º will gain heat very slowly from the outside on a 70º day You can slow heat loss or gain with properly installed insulation. The capacity of insulation to impede heat flow is called its R value. A higher R value indicates a material that is better at impeding heat flow under optimum conditions. R value differs by material, and is often related to the thickness of the material. Presented By:

14 14 Insulation is beneficial in the winter because it slows heat loss through the attic and walls, and it is beneficial in the summer because it slows heat gain from the hot sun beating down on the dark roof. AIR FLOWS FROM HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE Where there's a pressure difference (or Delta P), there will be airflow, and vice-versa. Airflow into the home from outside is called infiltration, while airflow leaving the home is called exfiltration. Airflow is measured in cubic feet per minute, also written as ft3/min, or CFM. 1 CFM OUT = 1 CFM IN. When air leaves the home to the outside, because of the pressure change, air comes in to replace it from outside, often at a different location from where it leaves. Airflow takes the path of least resistance. Stack Effect When air is warmed up inside a home, it naturally rises, causing a pressure difference between the top of the home and the bottom of the home. This is called the 'Stack Effect'. When warm air in a home rises, it moves toward the top of the home, increasing the temperature and pressure at the top of the home. This is called positive pressure. Because of the movement of air to the top of the home, the bottom of the home is now at a lower pressure, and negatively pressurized with respect to the outside. The middle of the home has no pressure difference to the outside, called neutral pressure; pressure with respect to the outside increases steadily toward the top of the home, and decreases steadily toward the bottom of the home. The science of stack effect is a constant battle in the cold season and is only neutralized when a home reaches its equilibrium temperature. The equilibrium temperature is the balancing point between the temperatures inside the building, with respect to the temperature outside the building. When the two temperatures meet/even out, equilibrium occurs, ceasing the rise of warm air (winter) or the descent of cool air (summer). This pressure differential causes air to be pushed out (exfiltration) in areas of positive pressure, like the top of the home, and sucked in (infiltration) in areas of negative pressure. Air sealing is a weatherization technique that reduces the stack effect by blocking air from entering or leaving the home through building penetrations to the outside. Common penetrations include: Recessed lighting connected directly to the attic or through ceiling and wall cavities Plumbing and Electrical penetrations through the ceiling or wall headers Wall fixtures and electrical plates Exhaust fan housings Top plates of interior and exterior walls that are connected to the attic Molding at the bottom of interior drywall or plaster This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

15 15 Around attic hatches Around plumbing or ventilation penetrations, such as dryer vents or exterior faucet connections The stack effect can occur whenever there is a difference in temperature between the inside of the house and the outside of the house, and is more severe with a greater temperature difference (Delta T). The science of stack effect is a constant battle in the cold season and is only neutralized when a home reaches its equilibrium temperature. The equilibrium temperature is the balancing point between the temperature inside the building, with respect to the temperature outside the building. When the temperature both inside and outside the home meet, the temperature difference evens itself out, thus equilibrium occurs. Once this equilibrium state occurs, the rise of warm air will cease in the winter; conversely the descent of conditioned (cool air) will cease in the summer. Therefore, if warm air can be stopped from escaping through the top of the home, cold air will be reduced from coming in at the bottom. Air sealing work in a climate with severely cold winters is usually best performed first at the top of the home, but the bottom of the home should not be neglected, nor should penetrations on the neutral pressure plane, such as doors, windows, and molding. Next to the attic, basement and crawl space air leaks are typically the most important areas to air seal in a home. Similar to the attic with stack effect, leaky homes typically experience large amounts of air pressure pushing air in and out of the home through cracks and openings found in the basement and crawl space. Due to the regional climate of the Midwest, most leaky homes will experience cold air leakage in the basement most of the year. This basement air infiltration can pose both comfort issues (heat loss in the winter) as well as, safety issues. Basements and crawlspaces are the homes closest contact with dangerous subsoil conditions such as radon gases, mold spores, vapors and other elements (pesticides, etc), that can cause health issues once they become airborne. Air infiltration in the basement usually occurs at the following problem areas: Basement walls Utility service penetrations Sills and band joists Bulkhead basement doors Wind Effect Wind creates a positive pressure on the windward side of the building, which in turn creates a suction effect on the other three sides of the home. Wind is secondary to the Stack Effect because it's temporary. WIND DIRECTION positive pressure negative pressure Presented By:

16 16 HVAC Motivated Pressures When a forced air furnace system is turned on in either, the duct system may either pressurize or depressurize certain zones in the home. Furthermore, the flue of a standard efficiency furnace forces indoor air, used for combustion, out of the house through the chimney, causing a negative pressure difference. When this happens, it may increase the infiltration and exfiltration regardless of the stack effect and wind conditions.. The duct system may also have leakage into and outside the home, which is an issue addressed in the 'Distribution Systems' chapter. Combustion appliances (furnaces, water heaters, boilers, fireplaces) as well as clothes dryers, exhaust fans, and house fans can contribute in creating these pressure differences. Moisture Challenges in Weatherization When weatherizing a home, one of the most important considerations is whether the weatherization activity will solve or exacerbate an existing moisture problem in a home. Moisture can come from both interior (cooking, showers, water leaks) and exterior (poor drainage, leaky roof) sources, and can infiltrate building cavities by two methods: diffusion, and direct leakage. Direct Leakage: Leaks from burst plumbing, poor roof integrity, or bad drainage due to poor grading or clogged gutters must be fixed prior to performing weatherization work. Performing weatherization without properly fixing a leak can reduce the flow of air to the area of water intrusion and cause mold growth and possible rotting of building members. Once a leak has been fixed, the area should be dried with a dehumidifier sized for the area. Diffusion: Much like heat, water moves from wet areas to dry areas, and may do so as part of warm air (as warm air can hold more water vapor). As all building materials are permeable to a certain extent (except those made of metal and certain plastics), considerations about the proper construction of the house are dependent on the materials used. Furthermore, metal and stone, as good conductors of heat, may be cooler than surrounding materials. Water vapor in the air may condense on these materials, and they may create localized pools of water or rust and degrade framing braces. As moisture normally moves through a permeable material, if it meets an impermeable material, it could become trapped (as it cannot move back through to a more moist material), and condense as well. Weatherization Considerations with Water Proper air sealing reduces moisture intrusion to the attic from warm, moist air from the house, but can cause problems. HVAC equipment that is utilizing a humidifier, excess house plants, or poor or non-existent kitchen or bathroom ventilation can cause moisture from inside the house. These problems should be alleviated before air sealing, or as a consideration depending on the leakiness of the house as measured by a blower door. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

17 17 Vapor barriers or retarders, such as the kraft paper face of batt insulation, should be installed toward the inside of the building (toward the conditioned space) in a climate with cold winters, and toward the exterior of the house in a climate with hot dry summers. Efflorescence on masonry is an indication of moisture movement, and may point to a larger problem. Where masonry does not have a proper air gap between other building materials, moisture problems can develop, as moisture moves from the saturated masonry to wood framing. Insulation should never be installed in conditions that will remain humid or wet, however, insulation can improve condensation issues in homes because it reduces the temperature extreme between building materials. Internal humidity over 50% as measured by a humidistat is usually an indication of a moisture problem. Visible mold is an indication of a moisture problem. Mold should be remediated before weatherization commences. Group Exercise Make a list of everything in a home that: is Hot: is Cold: moves Air: The question arises: Where does the heat/cold/air come from, and where does it go? If you can follow the sequence of events, you can determine whether these components of the home are controlled or not. The important thing to remember: Control is the Goal. Every home is a system of interacting parts. Understanding this basic fact will place you at an advantage when working in this field. QUIZ #3.1: Home Energy Basics 1. What is the main factor that drives heat flow? Provide an example of heat flow in a home. 2. What is the rule about how air flows? What are the 3 main driving forces for airflow in a home? 3. Where should air sealing work always begin in our climate? 4. Describe how HVAC Systems affect pressure and air flow in a home. Presented By:

18 18 The Envelope In addition to increasing energy efficiency, a high priority of weatherization contractors is health and safety. When considering interactions within a home system, it is critical to first consider the effect of the system on worker and resident health and safety. The border of any home is called the Envelope, or the Shell. It is the dividing line between conditioned space and unconditioned space. It's made of 2 things: Thermal Barrier (controls heat flow) Air Barrier (controls air flow) These two barriers must always be aligned (in the same place) and must always be continuous (devoid of holes or gaps). Characteristics of Homes The following are some specific characteristics that will affect weatherization work on a home: Attached garages impact air quality (think about what is kept in garages), as negative pressure in a home can bring air in from the garage Rim/band joist air leakage is common on older homes, as the joist Access to overhead or side attic spaces Multiple windows, typically a contributing around 20% of the wall space of the building s envelope Shared walls in multifamily buildings RANCH-STYLE HOME Often have a gabled ceiling and little attic space besides above the collar beam. May have old double hung windows with un-insulated cavities, even if windows were replaced. TWO-STORY FARM HOUSE Homes built in the 19th century usually have balloon framing. Typically walls are wide open from basement to attic. Air can move easily through the walls creating drafts and pulling heated air out of the home. If basements are present, foundations are often brick or stone and not insulated. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

19 19 TWO-STORY W/ ATTACHED GARAGE The rooms above the garage in this home may be hard make comfortable due to inadequate air sealing and insulation, which can allow cold or hot air into the area Multiple design features coming together often create gaps in the building envelope that need to be addressed Airflow from the garage into the home must always be avoided Air quality in the garage is compromised due to car exhaust, gas fumes, solvents, paints, etc. BUNGALOW OR TRADITIONAL CAPE COD Walls are often lathe and plaster on a brick veneer with a ¾ cavity, and don t permit much wall insulation. Foam can be used in these instances, but care should be taken due to structural and moisture considerations Most bungalows have rooms built in attics and have knee walls that are hard to insulate well or tighten adequately (see "Knee Walls", below) There are often no headers atop the outside wall cavities behind the knee walls, creating a large infiltration issue Heating units, because of space constraints, are often difficult to service or replace Multiple aluminum clad windows can create infiltration issues Because of space constraints, areas not considered living areas, such as three-season porches, may be used as such and must be addressed. SPLIT-LEVEL HOME Split-level homes have two-level attics where warm air can move within the walls separating the two sides of the home and rise to the attic. Air sealing at this adjoining wall is important, as is any cantilevered floors. TOWNHOUSE, INTERIOR UNIT Interior townhouses have two walls which are common with other homes Less heat loss due to minimal Delta T at common walls; homes may or may not benefit from weatherization. Presented By:

20 20 Knee Walls Some homes have walls that separate the living space from side attic spaces. These walls are called "knee walls" due to their short height, and they may require extensive air sealing and insulation. As shown in the picture to the right, the thermal barrier (insulation) is completely aligned with the air barrier (interior drywall and the floor joist block) and both the air and thermal barrier are continuous, going across the side attic floor and up the knee wall. Knee Wall Rafter When this type of assembly exists, it is necessary to install an air block in the floor joist, often under floor boards. Rigid paneling like wood, drywall, or rigid foam Floor Joist Air insulation, can be used or it can be 'bagged' by stuffing Block an unfaced batt of fiberglass insulation into a plastic bag and air sealing the seams where the bag meets the joist and drywall. Foam is usually best sprayed around all of these materials to make sure the air barrier is continuous and effective. Crawlspaces There are 2 types of crawlspaces: unventilated and ventilated and which is either inside or outside the envelope. Since it is not always easy to identify the type of crawlspace, it is important to receive guidance from the crew chief or energy auditor. If the crawlspace is UNVENTILATED, it is part of the envelope, will require: Installation of a continuous vapor barrier over the soil floor- open and structural damage due to mold. Air sealing and insulating the exterior walls of the crawlspace If the crawlspace is VENTILATED, it is not part of the envelope, and it is necessary to: Air seal and insulate the frame floor over the crawl and any walls connected to the conditioned space Ensure the vents in the exterior walls of the crawl are open In either case, all ductwork and hot water pipes in the crawlspace should be sealed and insulated. For additional information on air sealing reference the Appendix C: Weather Stripping, Air Sealing, and Insulation - Commonly Found Problem Areas. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

21 21 QUIZ #3.2: The Envelope 1. What is the envelope, and what 2 things is it always made of? 2. Name 3 opportunities for improvement through weatherization in a own home. 3. Why would the envelope in multifamily housing always be more efficient than in single family homes? 4. When can an attached garage be considered inside the home's envelope? Why? 5. How you would effectively make a crawlspace a part of the envelope? How would you make it completely outside the envelope? Presented By:

22 22 5 Accurate Measurements Simple Geometry for Home Performance Contracting S Most homeowners typically do not know exactly how big their home is. For this reason, accurate measurement is critical to calculate ventilation requirements, work scope, and pricing. There are many techniques for measuring a home. Measuring a home may entail taking a perimeter measurement from outside the house, then measuring the perimeter of areas with the home envelope that are outside of conditioned space (such as unheated porches or patios) and subtracting these areas. The perimeter measurement can be used to find the area of the home (square footage), and the ceiling height may be measured and multiplied by the square footage to get the volume of the home. For homes with different ceiling heights, each floor must be measured. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

23 23 Areas of walls, windows, and ceilings use the same principles. These measurements are used to estimate materials needed to complete a job. Insulation materials provide measurement guidelines, which technicians should become familiar with, to achieve the desired R-Value per square foot. For loose fill cellulose and fiberglass, the R-Value may be different depending on the cavity depth or use, such as loose fill or dense packed, and the insulation blower used. For more review, see Appendix A (BPI Formula Reference Sheet). Common Home Calculations BUILDING FOOTPRINT Length x Width FLOOR AREA OF CONDITIONED SPACE Length x Width x number of floors PERIMETER Sum of the lengths of all sides GROSS WALL AREA Perimeter x Height VOLUME Length x Width x Height Conversions CONVERT INCHES TO FEET 12 inches = 1 foot CONVERT SQUARE INCHES TO SQUARE FEET 144 sq. inches = 1 sq. foot PERCENTAGES 12.5% = = 12.5% 50% = ROUNDING Round number to no more than 2 decimal places (1-4) round down, (5-9) round up Examples: rounds to rounds to rounds to rounds to 6 Presented By:

24 24 CONVERT INCHES TO DECIMALS Quiz #4: Accurate Measurements 1. Why is accurate measurement important? 2. A home is 25 feet wide and 50 feet long. It has 2 floors total. What is the floor area? 3. What is the total wall area for the home in Question #2 if the ceilings are 8 feet tall? 4. What is the area of a ceiling that's 12'8" wide and 6'3" long? 5. If it costs $2.50 per square foot to insulate a ceiling, how much would it cost to insulate the ceiling in Question #4? This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

25 25 6 Air Sealing and Insulation REVIEW: The envelope of a home separates the conditioned space from the unconditioned space an envelope is also known as the building shell. Usually the building shell is the exterior and foundation walls, the basement floor, and the top floor ceiling. Penetrations are defined as any discontinuity found at the air barrier, which creates an undesired air leakage problem. The more corners a home has, the more complicated the envelope is. A complicated envelope is more challenging to air seal and insulate properly. SIMPLE ENVELOPE Attic Living Space Unconditioned Basement Presented By:

26 26 COMPLEX ENVELOPE Bonus Room Finished Attic Attic Garage Living Space Sun-porch Crawl Space The Air and Thermal Barriers must be together in the SAME PLACE. They must also be CONTINUOUS. Problems usually arise when the thermal boundary of a home is not lined up with the air boundary. If warm air goes through the insulation in the home but is stopped by an air barrier beyond the thermal boundary, moist air will turn to water (condense) and foster mold, mildew and rot. Air Leakage is the first priority, because it's generally the biggest source of energy waste in a home. When warm air escapes from a home, cold air is sucked in to replace it Heating fuel must be burned to raise the temperature of the cold air that is sucked in. Drafty, leaky homes use more energy than tight homes. Leakage occurs through the envelope of a home. Air Sealing Due to the stack effect, air sealing is a priority, as it reduces this effect. Air Leakage Sites Corners anywhere in building Plumbing vent stack openings in attics Missing or unsealed top plates of walls Utility openings Around chimneys o Chimneys that are still in use, even if only by a lined furnace flue, require special materials consideration due to the heat caused by the furnace or fireplace combustion This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

27 27 Rough openings of windows and doors Door thresholds Under knee walls Cantilevered overhangs Ducting through attics or exterior walls Electrical outlets Unsealed duct boots Tips for Finding Air Leaks during Blower Door Testing Use a smoke bottle or smoke pencil to identify leakage points (never cigarettes or matches) Look for fluttering cobwebs; cobwebs indicate air leakage Dirty insulation indicates air leakage Open doors slightly and feel for a breeze Close a door and feel at the air flow at the threshold Presented By:

28 28 Platform vs. Balloon Framing Balloon framing is an older style of construction: the wall studs extend through the floors, and floor joists connect to the studs. See the diagram on the left. Balloon framing permits more air to pass between floors because there are no bottom (sole) plates at the floors. This is both an energy and a fire issue. Air sealing at the perimeter of the floor cavities, called the Rim or Band Joist, is critical. The modern framing style is called Platform Framing, at right. There is an effective air and fire block built into these assemblies. If you're insulating the walls of a balloon framed home, first you must create an effective air and fire block at the band joist. Corners Corners in the home are often points of air infiltration and are not always well insulated. Side Attic Spaces Floor joists under knee walls are often open and allow cold air to move under the floor of rooms built in attics. Don't forget to install an air block in the joist space at the bottom of the knee wall. Air Sealing Materials: Expanding Spray Foam Rigid Foam Board Metal Flashing Caulk Backer Rod (in combination with caulk) Weather-stripping Drywall Fireplace Plug CAULK Seals cracks up to ¼ Can be used with Backer Rod for gaps up to 1.5" Applies quickly Can be messy This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

29 29 HIGH TEMP FIRE BLOCK CAULK Only approved material for use in contact with high temperature surfaces (chimneys, flues, etc) 1-PART EXPANDING SPRAY FOAM (low density, open cell) Seals gaps and openings ¼ to 1¼ Applies quickly Can be messy Only low pressure, low expansion spray foam should be used around windows or doors Moisture based curing (hardening) 2-PART EXPANDING SPRAY FOAM (high density, closed cell) Seals gaps and openings ¼ to 1¼ Applies quickly Can be messy Expands and cures very quickly Chemical based curing (hardening)- can be used in dry attics WEATHER-STRIPPING Seals around openings for doors, windows, and attic hatches Must measure carefully to cover the full length of the edge of the opening Best products are mechanically attached vinyl RIGID FOAM BOARD OR DRYWALL Good for closing large openings Can be roughly cut when expanding spray foam is used to seal around edges Will support insulation blown on top of it METAL FLASHING Must be used when near a high temperature surface, such as a chimney Also should be used when moisture is an issue and insulation or foam could be damaged DRYWALL Air barrier and fire barrier You may be asked to use or add drywall (also called gypsum board) when codes require it for fire protection Proper Installation is Crucial! None of these products work unless they re installed correctly! Proper Ventilation Homes should be tight enough for energy efficiency but not too tight. Homes that are too tight can have poor indoor air quality. Always test with a blower door to determine the level of tightness. See Chapter 6 for Ventilation Calculations. Presented By:

30 30 Air Sealing Procedure Seal the big openings first First feel how leaky the opening is Make a mental note about how leaky the opening is Using spray foam or caulk, seal the opening After sealing, feel if the opening is fully sealed VERIFY YOUR WORK After sealing an area, return to the blower door to see whether your actions have lowered the reading Continue air sealing process at least until the target is reached If the target is reached but there is more on the list of air sealing sites on the work order, continue air sealing, but not below the BTL/BAS unless there are moisture or air quality issues If the blower door result does go below the BTL, install whole house mechanical ventilation BEFORE LEAVING THE HOME Make sure that you have documented your success in reaching your goal Remember: you will be judged by the weatherization agency largely by whether you meet the goals in the work order Return the home to pre-test conditions Turn on the furnace and water heater Relight all pilots Turn off any fans that you turned on TIPS ON ATTIC AIR SEALING Attics are usually outside of the conditioned space Try turning the blower door around and pressurizing the home; then go into the attic and feel where air is blowing in from the home below Air seal all locations when air is moving from the pressurized home into the attic Seal any duct joints where air is blowing through Insulation Insulation controls the flow of heat through the building s floor, walls, and roof. The main ingredient in insulation is AIR! To be effective, insulation must not be squeezed or compressed, and must be in contact with surface that it is insulating, AND WITH THE AIR BARRIER. R-VALUE R-Value is a measure of a material s resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the better the insulating qualities of the material. INSULATION MATERIAL Fibrous (fiberglass, cellulose, cotton, rock wool, etc) Spray Foam Rigid Foam R-VALUE PER INCH R-3.5 R-3.5 (low density) or R-7 (high density) R-4 (styrofoam), R-5 (XPS), or R-7 (poly-iso) This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

31 31 For faced Batt Insulation, facing ALWAYS goes on the WARM SIDE to avoid moisture problems. Vermiculite Insulation Whenever you see small, pebble-like material on the attic floor, use caution and assume asbestos is present. You will NOT perform blower door depressurization testing if vermiculite is present, though you may perform pressurization testing with the blower door instead. Dense Packed Insulation Technique Dense packing can be done with cellulose (or blown fiberglass), and effectively performs both insulation and air sealing when done correctly. The density of cellulose must be 3.5 pounds per cubic foot. Because this process is highly pressurized, it requires a closed, six-sided cavity. Applying insulation is a dusty process, and workers must be protected from insulation and other building dust, and mold spores when working in enclosed or water damaged spaces. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health recommends using a NIOSH Approved N-95 rated dust mask for working with insulation. Protective eye-wear and coveralls are also recommended, especially when working in attics. SUMMARY All insulations can be good Insulation must be installed properly Eliminate air space in building sections No voids, gaps or compression Make sure insulation is in contact with surface being insulated Eliminate air movement through insulation Presented By:

32 32 QUIZ #5: Air Sealing and Insulation 1. Name 4 effective air sealing materials. 2. Why is dense packing insulation a valuable technique? What is the density requirement? 3. Give 3 examples of ways insulation can be installed INCORRECTLY. 4. How many inches of cellulose insulation does it take to get R-40? 5. Name 6 common air leakage locations in an attic floor. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

33 33 7 Diagnostics Blower Door Testing Leaky homes waste energy-- as warm air escapes from the top of a home, cold air is sucked in to replace it. This discomfort caused by drafts, money is spent unnecessarily to heat the cold air that is sucked into the home. However, homes can also be too tight. If homes are too tight, degradation of indoor air quality can occur this includes excess moisture, and the accumulation of indoor air pollutants, and trapped odors, since fresh air from outside cannot flush out stale air. Blower Door Testing is the method used to diagnose how tight or leaky a home is. The blower door test is a measure of: Pressure and Flow COMPONENTS OF THE BLOWER DOOR Metal frame Nylon cloth (shroud) Fan Controller Pressure gauge (manometer) Hoses The blower door test measures how many cubic feet of air is pulled into the home when a 50 Pascal pressure difference. A Pascal (Pa) is the International System of Units (SI) measure for force per unit of area, or pressure. 248 Pascals equal one inch of water column, approximately the weight of one Post-it note. It is created between the home and the outdoors. A leaky home will have a substantial amount of air leakage during the test (5000 CFM cubic feet per minute), whereas a tight home have around 500 CFM leakage. As the cubic feet per minute of air able to rush out of a home at a constant pressure is dependent on the volume of the home, a larger home may be considered tighter with a higher blower door number than the same number on a smaller home. MEASURING PRESSURE DIFFERENCE Home pressures are measured in Pascals (metric standard) 1 Pascal = pressure exerted by one Post-It note MEASURING AIR FLOW Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) Rate of air flow CFM at 50 Pascals (standard for blower door) - also written as CFM 50 Presented By:

34 34 Depressurization Testing Blower doors are normally run in depressurization mode on homes, meaning air is blown out through the fan while showing where air comes into the home to replace it. TEST PREPARATIONS Attic floors must be checked for vermiculite insulation- if found, the blower door must not be depressurized All windows must be closed and locked All exterior doors must be shut All hatches to unconditioned space must be closed and latched if possible Storm windows should be lowered All interior doors should be opened All exhaust fans should be turned off The furnace must be turned off to avoid safety hazards The water heater must be turned to pilot to avoid safety hazards Any fires in wood stoves or fireplaces must be extinguished and allowed to cool Remove ashes from fireplaces or cover with wet newspaper Chimney damper should be closed PLACEMENT OF THE BLOWER DOOR The blower door should be placed in an exterior door If possible, the door should be central to the home (not in a laundry or mud room, for example) The door must be rectangular (i.e. no arched doors) There should be no blockages that could obstruct the air around the fan In two flat buildings, each unit must be tested separately. A whole home measure may be taken at the front door if the doors to the individual units are opened PLACEMENT OF HOSES One hose extends outdoors, as far as possible from the fan s path. This is the "reference hose" The end of the reference hose must not be blown on by the fan The reference hose from outside (usually green) connects to Channel A's reference tap on the manometer Channel A's input tap on the manometer should be left open A second hose (usually red) should extend from the tap on the fan itself to Channel B's input tap on the manometer Channel A's reference tap on the manometer should be left open BASELINING Before beginning the test, the baseline pressure difference between the home and outdoors must be measured (this is caused by wind and stack effect) Change the 'Mode' to This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

35 35 Press 'Baseline', 'Start', and after a sample of the pressure (20 seconds) has been taken, press 'Enter' INITIATING THE TEST Remove the fan cover Turn blower door on and slowly increase speed to achieve a pressure difference between the home WRT outside of 50 Pascals (Channel A) Read whole-home infiltration rate on Channel B Pressurization Testing If one of the following conditions is present in the home, a pressurization test should be conducted: Wood or coal fired-heating system in operation Animal/bird feces are found in the attic Wet crawlspace under the home Open sewer line in home Harmful pollutants present on the envelope (vermiculite insulation or asbestos laden materials) Pressurization testing is exactly the same as depressurization, but with the fan installed backwards. CFM at 50 Pa vs. CFM at Natural The blower door test is the accepted standard for determining a home's air tightness. When the blower door is operated and an air flow at 50 Pascals is established, it is possible to determine what the air flow would be under normal conditions, which is called "at natural". CFM 50 = Air leakage at 50 Pa (fan time) CFM natural = Air leakage at Natural (real time) The key to translating between fan time and real time is the Height Corrected N Factor (N height ) CFM 50 / N height = CFM natural CFM natural x N height = CFM 50 N factor depends on climate, building height, and shielding from wind. The table below shows how the Height Corrected N factor is determined (taking into account climate, the height of the home, and the shielding from wind): # of Stories Well-Shielded Normal Exposed Example: A home that is 1 story high, with homes beside it, and the blower door test indicates 4257 CFM at 50 Pascals CFM 50 / 18.5 = 230 CFM natural This calculation from blower door test has now provided what the air leakage through the home is at natural conditions. Presented By:

36 36 Zonal Pressure Testing During blower door operation, there is a unique opportunity to find out not only how much air leakage is occurring in the home, but where that leakage is located. One of the most powerful tests to determine this is called the zonal pressure test. TO ZONE During blower door operation there is a unique opportunity to find out not only how much air leakage is occurring in the home, but where that leakage is located. One of the most powerful tests to determine this is called the zonal pressure test. While the blower door is creating a 50 Pascal difference between the home and outdoors, use of the manometer can test the pressure of any zone in the home. Any area that can be closed off from the rest of the home is considered a ZONE. Pressure is tested inside the zone in reference to the rest of the home, as seen at left. If the pressure reads 0 Pa, that zone is completely connected to the home. If the pressure reads 50 Pa, the zone is completely connected to the outdoors. If the pressure in the zone is 25 Pa, the zone is equally connected to the home and to the outdoors. A zone that shows 10 Pa would take minimal air sealing work to bring it all the way inside the envelope, but would take a lot of work to push it completely outside the envelope. As an example, a zone that shows 40 Pa would be much easier to push outside than to bring inside. This test enables easier prioritization of work and verification of results. QUIZ #6.1: Diagnostics 1. What does the blower door test measure? Why is this test important? 2. How is a home prepared for the blower door test? 3. When would a pressurization test instead of a depressurization test be run? 4. A zonal pressure test on a ventilated attic shows 32 Pa. What does this mean? 5. What are the measurement units for pressure and air flow This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

37 37 Ventilation Calculations IHWAP TARGETS FOR AIR SEALING Building tightness limits are given in CFM50. BPI's Building Airflow Standard differs from IHWAP. It is important to air seal for durability, comfort, or moisture concerns, even if the blower door is reading 1250 CFM50. The table below is given in CFM natural. BPI'S TARGETS (ASHRAE 62.2 VENTILATION STANDARD, THE CURRENT REGULATION AS OF 2007): Building Airflow Standard tightness limits are given in CFM natural. VENTILATE Attic AIR SEAL Presented By:

38 38 BUILDING TIGHTNESS LIMIT AND BUILDING AIR FLOW STANDARD Most buildings slated for weatherization are too leaky, however some are too tight which can impact air quality. Buildings that are too tight do not look different, and so all buildings must be tested to achieve optimal air sealing. TIGHTNESS PROBLEMS Trapping indoor contaminants (radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, tobacco smoke, etc.) Inability to exhaust moisture, providing attractive environment for mold growth, mildew, and rot EXPIRING BPI BUILDING AIRFLOW STANDARD (FROM ASHRAE 1989): BAS natural = 0.35 Air Changes per Hour x Volume / 60 Example: 20,000 ft 3 x 0.35 / 60 = 117 cfm at natural EXAMPLE What is the BTL/BAS of a 2 story, 1600 ft 2 home with one adult and 3 children? The home should not be made tighter than the ASHRAE standard without considering ventilation. QUIZ #6.2: Ventilation 1. What is the required ventilation for a 3500 ft 2 home with 3 bedrooms, according to BPI? 2. Why are there building tightness limits? 3. What is the IHWAP building tightness limit for a 2 story well-shielded home with 7 occupants? 4. For the home in Question #3, what would the CFM at Natural be for that building tightness limit? 5. If the blower door test shows a higher CFM 50 than the BTL/BAS, what do you do? What do you do if the CFM 50 is lower than the BTL/BAS? This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

39 39 8 Mechanical Systems Mechanical Systems are defined here as anything pertaining to a building s: Heating (air or water) Air Conditioning Ventilation Unless employed by an HVAC contractor, weatherization workers will not clean, tune, repair or replace mechanical systems; however, for work involving air sealing or home insulation the home WILL BE AFFECTED AS A SYSTEM. It is important to be aware of the connection between mechanical systems and weatherization. Whenever a home is tightened or insulated, companies must test out at the end of the day. Testing out may include: A fuel leak test A CAZ depressurization limit (HDL) test A spillage test A draft pressure test An analysis of the CO content of exhaust gases This course does not cover these tests; however it is important to be aware that they are conducted. Types of Mechanical Systems: Water Heater (Domestic Hot Water, or DHW) Forced Air Furnace (FAF) Boiler (Steam or Water) Air Conditioner (A/C) Exhaust Fans (bath, kitchen, entire house, attic) Heating systems by common fuel type Natural gas Oil Electric Heating systems that set fuel on fire present the biggest Air Quality and Fire Safety hazards. Air quality can be affected to the point of making the home and its occupants ill - Combustion gases contain: Water vapor Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide (odorless and deadly) Presented By:

40 40 Carbon Monoxide (CO) CO is created when a combustion appliance isn't working correctly. An inefficient combustion appliance is generally a more dangerous one, therefore it is important to carry a CO monitor in the home, to ensure there is no more than 35 parts per million (ppm) in the air at any time. It is critical to remove combustion byproducts (CO, water vapor, CO 2 ) OUTSIDE safely and effectively. This is called Drafting of combustion appliances. Atmospheric Draft/Natural Draft (least safe-at right) uses air in the room to feed the fire combustion gases have an opportunity to escape into the home Induced Draft or Power Vented (safer-at left) uses air in the room to feed the fire combustion gases are helped out of the home by a small fan Sealed Combustion (safest- at right) draws air from outdoors to feed the fire combustion gases are pushed out of the home by a small fan No connection between the home and combustion More safety features also means higher efficiency! Atmospheric draft (65%-78% efficient) Induced draft/power Vented (80%-83% efficient) Sealed Combustion (90%-97% efficient) Dangers with Atmospheric Draft Back-`drafting/Spillage: the gases are pulled back into the home Flame Rollout: Gases are pulled back so hard that the flames come back into the home This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

41 41 In Illinois combustion appliances are typically in the basement, which is the lowest pressure part of the home for most of the year. Any combustion appliance that has its combustion process connected with a home s pressure and air flow represents a danger. By doing a good job of air sealing and insulating or by over- sealing and overinsulating, there is a potential of making the home more dangerous to live in. Verification of safe conditions for the combustion appliances is critical following work completion. QUIZ #7: Mechanical Systems 1. What are the 3 draft methods combustion appliances use to exhaust combustion gases? 2. Name 3 byproducts of combustion that can affect air quality. 3. What positive effects does air sealing and insulation have on mechanical systems in a home? 4. What negative effects might air sealing and insulation have on mechanical systems in a home? 5. What is the least safe type of combustion appliance? What's the safest type? Presented By:

42 42 9 Distribution Systems Duct Systems A majority of homes in Illinois use forced air furnaces for home heating and cooling. Forced air systems use ducts to channel conditioned air to the areas where the heated or cooled air is needed. Tight ducts bring more of the conditioned air to the areas where it is need than leaky ducts, so necessarily, weatherization work can include tightening ducts. The SUPPLY SIDE puts conditioned air into the home The RETURN SIDE takes stale air from it, and the cycle continues. DUCT TIGHTNESS MATTERS If furnace ducts are leaky they will release warm, moist air into wall cavities and unconditioned spaces. The moist air then condenses into water when it comes in contact with a cold surface. Moisture in wall cavities or unconditioned spaces can become a breeding ground for mold and can reduce the expected life of wood structures and make occupants ill. Ducts should be: Sealed with mastic or UL-181 metal tape Boots should be sealed to duct entrance points and to the drywall or plaster they connect to Ducts in inaccessible spaces may be sealed by removing drywall, if feasible PRESSURE CHANGES FROM DUCTS Leaky ducts can also lead to pressure differences in portions of the home. If return ducts leak to the outside the home will become positively pressured and force warm air out of the home. The SUPPLY SIDE pushes air, so it has a POSITIVE PRESSURE (more than 0 Pascals). The RETURN SIDE sucks air, so it has a NEGATIVE PRESSURE (less than 0 Pascals). Consider the images on the following page examples of a home in PERFECT EQUILIBRIUM. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

43 43 * Tight Ducts with the same amount of air returning to the furnace as is supplied to the home SUPPLY SIDE DUCT LEAKAGE * Leaky ducts with more air returning to the furnace than is supplied to the home Presented By:

44 44 RETURN SIDE DUCT LEAKAGE *Leaky ducts with more air supplied to the home than extracted through the returns Duct Leakage Testing A duct blaster is like a small blower door- it measures the overall tightness of the duct system. Ducts can also be pressurized and you can feel where leakage is occurring around the duct. Pressure Pan Method With the blower door running, cover each register with the pressure pan and measure the pressure difference with the manometer (just like in the Zonal Pressure Test.) Illinois Weatherization Standards state that one should take a measurement at all registers and the median reading of all measurements must be no higher than 4.0 Pascals. No measurement can be greater than 8.0 Pascals. If the standard is not met the ducts must be tightened. Pipe Insulation Pipes carrying hot water should not waste heat along the way. Hot pipes should be insulated with foam pipe insulation. Delta T drives heat flow, and hot pipes will lose significant amounts of heat if they are uncontrolled. REMEMBER: CONTROL IS THE GOAL. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

45 45 QUIZ #8: Distribution Systems 1. Why is duct sealing and insulation important? 2. Why would you insulate hot water pipes, even inside the home? 3. Name 2 methods for testing duct leakage. 4. If you find leaky, un-insulated return ductwork in a wet, crawlspace, should this be of concern? If yes, why? 5. If you find leaky, un-insulated supply ductwork in a ventilated attic, should this be of concern? If yes, why? Presented By:

46 46 10 Safe Work Practices Reference Guide As noted at the beginning of this workbook, this course is designed as a 40-hour modularized curriculum to be delivered in conjunction at minimum with the following worker health & safety courses: - Lead Renovation, Repair and Painting (40 CFR Part 745) - 40 hr. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER); (29 CFR ) or - 30-hour Occupational Safety and Health training course in Construction Safety and Health; (29 CFR 1926) THIS SECTIONTHEREFORE, SERVES ONLY AS A REFERENCE GUIDE AND PROVIDES A CONDENSED OVERVIEW OF HEALTH & SAFETY ISSUES ENCOUNTERED ON THE JOB. For weatherization installers, residential homes are the typical workplace. As described earlier, there are many different types of homes with varied characteristics that you will encounter. While workers may not associate a home with its relevant dangers, weatherization installers spend a significant amount of time in some of the most uncomfortable and dangerous parts of the home, including crawlspaces, basements, and attics. The U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration defines a confined space as one that has limited or restricted means for entry or exit, and is not designed for continuous employee occupancy. Moreover, a "permit-required confined space" is defined as a work space that possesses any of the following characteristics: contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; contains a material that has the potential to engulf an entrant; has walls that converge inward or floors that slope downward and taper; or contains any other recognized safety or health hazard, such as unguarded machinery, exposed live wires, or heat stress. While confined spaces and permit required confined spaces are commonly found in general industry and shipyard employment, much of the principle that supports taking a guarded approach to confined space dangers is shared and can be applied by weatherization installers when working homes; especially when working in crawlspaces, basements, and attics. Description of Home Workspace Hazards Crawlspaces Crawlspaces are typically uncontrolled and unconditioned spaces that lay beneath the normal living space of the home. True to the namesake, most crawlspaces are height restricted, thus forcing entrants to navigate them by kneeling, stooping, or crawling. Extended periods of kneeling, stooping, or crawling can pose a threat to one's health. Repetitive stress injuries are caused by poor body posture or by over-working a specific part of your body. Use of comfortable body placement and taking periodic rest breaks to stretch may help alleviate some of the stress your body. Crawlspaces happen to be the homes closest contact with the under-laying sub-soil. Due to their cool and dark environments, crawlspaces attract many undesirables such as pests and airborne molds and fungus spores. Another issue in crawlspaces that may arise as a result of direct contact with subsoil is the potential for overexposure to toxic gases such as radon, which are found in soil. Unconditioned crawlspaces should be completely sealed with a completely undisturbed vapor retarder; however, many homes are not adequately sealed, thus posing a threat to your health. When entering crawlspaces, weatherization installers should proceed with caution and adhere to the PPE and respiratory protection guidelines outlined in this manual. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

47 47 Basements Basements may or may not be uncontrolled and unconditioned spaces. Due to the usually harsh Midwest winter weather conditions, construction in this region nearly always necessitate homes be built with full basements or partial-full basements, with foundation floor and walls that extend below the frost line. You read about the science of stack effect and its resulting correlation with basements and the rest of the living space earlier. Naturally, as weatherization installers a large portion of your work in a home will occur in the basement. Basements are often used to house combustion appliances and are frequently used as storage areas for homes, thus making them often cluttered and difficult to navigate and work in. Due to the presence of appliances and other items stored in the basement, addressing issues in the basement can at times be very challenging. A common basement challenge includes, identifying and air sealing cracks and wall penetrations located in limited and difficult if access parts of the basement. Once identified, the challenge of working in a cluttered basement may make your task potentially hazardous. At times, you will need to pilot appliances in the basement for two primary reasons: 1.) If air sealing is located behind appliance, you will want to avoid potential burns 2.) Spray-foams can be highly combustible. When navigating around cluttered storage areas, you will need to redesign your work activity to minimize your exposure to awkward movements for prolonged time. If you need to reposition any basement items to better access your work area, remember to use proper lifting technique (lift with the legs and keep your back straight - whenever possible). Also, you will want to be aware of basement stairs and walkways. These should be clear from debris and trip hazards to prevent falls. Lastly, some homes you'll encounter homes that may have leaky basements. When working in homes with leaky basements, use extreme caution when handling power tools. Make sure your power tools and their cords are in good condition (no breaks in the cord/no exposed wiring) and use ground fault interrupter cords or outlets whenever possible. Attics Similar to crawlspaces, many of the attics you will encounter as a weatherization installer will be uncontrolled and unconditioned spaces in the home. The importance of air sealing and taking a top down approach, with significant priority and emphasis on attic weatherization improvements, will be the recommended approach observed in typical work orders. Attics are the small unconditioned space immediately above the highest conditioned space in the home. This point, just below the home s roof plane, represents the level of the home where the air/thermal boundary terminates. Attic spaces are usually difficult to access, poorly ventilated, have little to no lighting, are extremely dirty, and are difficult to navigate due to restrictive roof trusses and beams. All these characteristics make attics very challenging spaces to work in. Prior to entering the attic, you will need to dress yourself in the required PPE (detailed below). Before disturbing any material in the attic, you should do a thorough inspection of the present material in the attic, paying special attention the existing insulation and electrical wiring. When retrofitting and weatherizing in older homes, some of which that contain lead or asbestos-containing material like vermiculite insulation, you will want to avoid disturbing any existing material in the attic if you suspect the presence of vermiculate insulation and/or lead based material. Lead and asbestos can be extremely harmful once they become airborne, so use caution and assume there is a potential threat in every attic, until the assumption is proven non-existent in your initial work space inspection. Presented By:

48 48 Knob-and-tube wiring in older homes is a common occurrence. Knob-and-tube wiring can potentially expose weatherization installers to electrical hazards, such as electrical fires, during the installation of insulation. Exterior work such as window caulking and installation, or installing insulation on a second story (or higher) could pose an electrical hazard if the worker is working on scaffolds or rooftops in proximity to overhead power lines. If you suspect any of these mentioned hazards, your immediate response and responsibility should be to remove yourself from the hazard location and inform your crew chief of the threat. Lastly, attic spaces, especially those that do not have mechanical ventilation, can be extremely hot spaces to work in. While it is necessary to avoid fall hazards by minimizing your trips up and down attic hatches and scuttles, it is also important to monitor your health and body response while working in an attic. Everyone has a different level of exposure limit; however, to maintain safety, attention to detail, and the ability to focus while in an uncomfortable work space, you will need to incorporate rest and hydration breaks throughout your work day. Discuss the work rotation shifts with your crew chief before entering and working in attic spaces, and make sure to visit the hydration station during your rest time. Tyvek suits by design are a natural moisture barrier and do not breath. Your body can quickly become dehydrated when exposed to +100 degree attic temperatures so pay attention to your health and keep an eye out for the health of those around you. SAFETY TIPS TO REMEMBER IMPORTANCE OF WORKING SAFELY Safe work practices are an essential part of the Illinois weatherization program. Working safe protects: You Your co-workers The home s occupants THINK BEFORE YOU ACT Accidents happen more frequently when you are tired or under pressure to work quickly Take the time to think through what you are doing Pay attention to what s around you Take into consideration the carelessness of others Read the manufacturing instructions and understand the properties of any chemicals used during weatherization (Material Safety Data Sheets) Draw out a map of the existing hazards in the home and post in a central location for the duration of the project WORKER HEALTH & SAFETY The goal of OSHA regulations is to maintain worker health & safety and prevent cycles of carelessness that arise after long periods with no accidents Workers who have a regular routine, tend to stop paying as much attention as they should Eventually someone falls off a ladder or gets electrocuted Everyone gets scared and starts to take safety seriously for a while Nobody gets hurt for a long time People start to get careless again. The cycle repeats OSHA is here to try to avoid that cycle and keep everyone safe all of the time This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

49 49 OSHA STANDARDS Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) Standards Ladder safety Fall protection Personal protection equipment (PPE) Respiratory protection Motor vehicles Power-operated hand tools Fire prevention Permit-required confined spaces Other worker-related OSHA standards LADDER SAFETY Ladder safety is sometimes time consuming, but it could save your life. Use these tips to avoid injury. Always place ladders on firm, level surfaces before mounting Use the right ladder for the job. If you do not have a tall enough (or short enough) ladder for reaching your required height or it is not 1A rated for weight, either get another ladder or find another way up. When leaning a ladder, a 4:1 ratio of height to distance away from the building you are leaning the ladder against is idea. For example, on a 20 roof, the ladder should be 5 from the wall at its base. The base of the ladder must be level at all feet; use a support with enough surface area to hold the weight if you are unable to place the ladder on solid ground (such as in a garden). A 2 x 2 slab of ¾ plywood can be used under each leg of a ladder to provide a secure base. Use lanyards or lifelines to secure ladders at the top, and tie movable ladders when they are extended to avoid slippage. Use ropes or lifelines with harnesses for steep sloped roofs, as well as placing temporary wood cleats, such as 2 x 4 boards for toe holds. For larger jobs, a catch may be installed at the base of the roof. Wear rubber soled boots when working on roofs. Avoid using ladders near electrical wires, even if made of wood or fiberglass. Don t over reach to either side of the ladder; keep your belt buckle between the rails. Watch for wet weather conditions, as even dew in the morning can make ladders and roofs slippery. Never stand on the top step of the ladder Always open the ladder completely and secure with the cross supports CAUTION IN ATTICS Beware of stepping between ceiling joists Lay a temporary plywood floor when working in attics Beware of overhead hazards, such as protruding nails, rafters, or collar beams Don t step on insulation when you cannot see the support below it FLOOR OPENINGS Construction or renovation sites often have incomplete floors Beware of openings in floors or hazards when falls can result Beware of slipping hazards around floor openings Presented By:

50 50 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) Wear hard hats in low ceiling areas Wear safety glasses for eye protection Wear gloves when working with insulation Wear disposable that can be thrown out at the end of the day so that you don t bring hazards (like lead paint dust) home with you after work or don an insulation Tyvek suit with hood and booties Always wear closed-toe, hard-sole shoes at a works site never sandals or flip-flops Allow your body time to adjust to PPE before entering and working in challenging workspaces ELECTRICAL SAFETY Always use grounded electrical circuits Be aware of which extension cords and outlets are live Never work with electrical tools in wet areas Know your own limits if you are not a trained electrician, don t try to make electrical repairs Maintain power tools and extension cords in good condition OPERATING A GENERATOR Be sure that you know how to start up and turn off any electrical generator that you use Don t overload a generator Never place a generator in a wet area Turn off the generator and unplug the extension cord before winding the cord up Be aware of which generators are operating if there are more than one Monitor ambient carbon monoxide levels around the generator INSTALLATION TIPS Wear safety glasses. When dense packing, use a hose that is rated to remain the proper rigidity in the temperature you are operating in. To maintain the proper pressure in your insulation blower, follow the regular maintenance according to the operating manual. Bad seals are often a source of inadequate pressure. Reuse materials when possible an extra piece of drywall or rigid board used in a rim joist sealing project can provide air sealing in an attic. When using two part foam, maintain a parts mixture according to manufacturer specifications. Depending on the temperature and humidity, a 1 to 1 ratio may not be ideal. Use gloves and drop clothes when spraying foam, as the material cannot be easily removed when it is cured, especially from carpet and rough wood. To determine insulation in a wall, remove a switch plate and probe with a plastic hook (with the power off) to determine existing insulation. Remember that sidewalls may have firebreaks, usually 2 x 4 horizontal members in the middle of the cavity. Mark your hose by feet and measure from the outside to the height of the wall you wish to dense pack. To make sure that the hose goes all the way up, the two distances should match or be close. Flash around a chimney bypass with aluminum or steel and fire caulk, or use drywall and fire rated caulk. Expanding foam is not to be used in direct contact with a chimney. Depending on local code, foil faced rigid poly board should be used when sealing a rim joist instead of polystyrene. When fixing an air bypass, try to do so from the outer side of the building envelope (such as window rough opening infiltrations), as the air bypass may find another way into the home. Double hung window casings are often un-insulated and open to the outside due to the way holes are This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

51 51 made for the rope rigging. Removing internal molding, if possible, can give access. The cavity can be sealed with caulk or low-expansion foam and insulated with rigid board, batt, or cellulose. Be sure to properly dispose of any unused weights, as they are typically made of iron and lead. Never reach into the barrel of the insulation blower when it is moving use a stick to break up insulation Be careful of overloading an electrical circuit when turning on the blower Wear protective, disposable clothing when blowing insulation WORKING IN TEAMS Talk to your co-workers about what you are doing and what they plan to do stay coordinated Limit excessive exposure in hazardous work areas by using worker rotations Be aware of where others are moving as you use tools Be ready to stop work if co-workers move near hazards, such as tools that you are using FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Know the types of fire extinguishers Class A - combustibles Class B - flammable liquids Class C - electrical fires Know where fire extinguishers are at the job site If you have not used a fire extinguisher, ask for training KEEP THE WORK AREA CLEAN Safe work practices require keeping the work area free of obstructions Cleaning up should not be left to the end of the day Sweeping up reduces slipping and tripping hazards FIELD WORKER REQUIREMENTS Field workers must demonstrate the ability to: Select, fit, and use the appropriate Personal Protection Equipment for a particular task Safely use basic hand and power tools Use a basic first aid kit to treat common job-site injuries Work lead safe from training in Lead RRP Identify serious mold conditions Assess work area safety hazards WEATHERIZATION CREED In performing our work we pledge to: Do no harm to the occupants Do no harm to the building Save energy and energy costs Presented By:

52 52 11 Glossary ACH50 Measure of how often air is refreshed when the pressure difference is 50 Pa. Action levels Active ventilation Air barrier (air boundary) Air changes per hour (ACH) Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Air leakage Air-handling unit (AHU) Ambient Ambient air American National Standards Institute (ANSI) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Amperage Anemometer Area ASHRAE ASHRAE ASHRAE Atmospheric Levels of CO (in ppm, as tested) at which action (mitigation and/or evacuation) is recommended. A system of ventilation in which air is forced through ventilation ducts under pressure. Also known as mechanical or forced ventilation. Any part of the building shell that offers resistance to air leakage. The air barrier is effective if it stops most air leakage. The primary air barrier is most effective when in a series of air barriers. Also called air boundary or pressure boundary. The number of times in one hour that all of the air in a home is replaced by outside air through air leakage and/or ventilation. Industry group that works toward improving the air-conditioning industry, promoting industry best practices, and keeping homes and buildings safe, clean, and comfortable. Uncontrolled ventilation through gaps in the pressure boundary. Typical sites of air leakage include around windows, pipes, wires, and other penetrations. An equipment package that includes a fan or blower, heating and/or cooling coils, air filtration, etc. for providing heating, ventilating, and air conditioning to a building. Surrounding area or environment. Outdoor or unconditioned air A private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards. Bill signed by President Obama in February 2009 as an economic stimulus package. The amount of electrical energy flowing through an appliance at any given time; also called "current." A device for measuring wind speed, used in weatherization work to determine flow rates at registers. Length x width = area. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. International technical society which develops standards for those concerned with refrigeration processes and the design and maintenance of indoor environments. Air quality standard developed for large commercial buildings, usually with forced ventilation. Is accepted for use on existing small residential buildings as of this writing. Air quality standard developed for low-rise residential buildings. Defines the roles of and minimum requirements for mechanical and natural ventilation systems and the building envelope. The equation: (7.5 x #People) + (.01 x Floor Area) Used in reference to combustion appliances. Atmospheric appliances draw This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

53 53 Awning window B-vent Backdrafting Baffle Balloon framing Band joist Barometric damper Base load Blower Blower door Board feet Boot Boroscope Box sill Branch duct British thermal unit (BTU) Building envelope Building Performance Institute (BPI) Building tightness limit (BTL) Bulk moisture Butyl-backed tape combustion air from the room where they are located. The term used in building and safety codes is "natural draft." Awning windows are essentially casement windows that swing vertically. Awning windows are often used in basements. Jalousie windows, found on older mobile homes, are a type of awning window. A double-wall pipe for gas- or propane-fired combustion appliances. Continuous spillage of combustion gases from a combustion appliance. A plate or strip designed to retard or redirect the flow of flue gases. In carpentry, the lightest and most economical form of construction in which the studding and corner plates are set up in continuous lengths from the first floor line or sill to the roof plate to which all floor joists are fastened. Wall cavities act as major air leakage pathways in balloon framed homes. The outermost joist around the perimeter of the floor framing. Also known as a rim joist. A device installed in a chimney to allow for the adjustment of dilution air. The energy used by electric or gas appliances in a home that is not used for space conditioning, thus not a seasonal load. Used in reference to furnace blowers, also called squirrel cages. The blades should be cleaned for optimal performance. A diagnostic tool used to locate the points of infiltration in the building envelope and help guide air sealing. A measurement of lumber volume- a board foot of spray foam is one square foot, 1 inch deep. A duct section that connects a duct to a register or a round duct to a square duct. An inspection tool; a flexible tube with a light and camera or viewer at one end. Boroscopes can be used to look into wall cavities and other tight spaces that would be otherwise impossible to visually inspect. Common method of framing floor joists, where a header is nailed to the ends of the floor joists. An air duct which branches from a main duct. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. The area of the building that encloses conditioned space. Only the exterior four walls to the ceiling under the attic and the floor above the unheated basement area are considered part of the building envelope. The floor of a unit that is built on stilts or is above an unheated crawl space is considered a part of the building envelope. The roof of a building that has no ceilings (or that is part of the ceiling) is considered part of the building envelope. Organization supporting the development of a highly professional building performance industry through individual and organizational credentialing and a quality assurance program. A level of air tightness at which indoor air quality and building integrity may be compromised if the residence is any tighter. Large amounts of water intrusion, for example from wind-driven rain or subsurface water. Heavy-duty, pressure-sensitive duct joint rolled sealant. Presented By:

54 54 Bypass Calibration Can light Can t reach fifty (CRF) Cantilevered floor Capillary action Carbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon dioxide content Carbon monoxide (CO) Casement window Central HVAC system Certification CFM50 CFMnatural Chaseway Chimney chase Clearances Climate zone A channel though air and thermal boundaries where air passes, uncontrolled, into or out of the building envelope. Comparison of the test results of an instrument to a known reference point. A light fixture (or can) that is set into the ceiling. Also called recessed light fixture. A factor that extrapolates air flow at lower pressure differences to air flow at 50 pascals pressure difference. Used in blower door diagnostics when the shell is too leaky to allow the blower door to reach a pressure difference of 50 pascals. A floor that extends beyond the foundation of the framed structure below it and is exposed to outside conditions. Movement of liquid water across a material as a function of the surface tension of the water and the porosity of the material. One of two main products of complete combustion of a hydrocarbon. (The other is water vapor.) A measure of the bicarbonate level in the air. Higher than normal levels of carbon dioxide may induce a number of negative side effects just like Carbon Monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and poisonous gas that is a by-product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. It is usually caused by a lack of air to support combustion or impingement of the flame. Casement windows have a single operable sash that swings outward on a horizontal plane. Casement window frames that have gone out of square due to settling can stick and quite possibly render these types of windows inoperable. Heating, ventilating, and/or air conditioning equipment that serves a building from a main unit. A system generally includes the heat producing or air conditioning appliance, the return and supply system, and ducts or pipes for venting flue gases. Compare to separate equipment for each room or apartment. Recognition by an independent person or group that someone can competently complete a job or task, frequently demonstrated by passing an exam. Measurement of air leakage in cubic feet per minute at 50 Pa pressure difference. Amount of air leakage in cubic feet per minute under natural conditions. Cavity within a building with the purpose of conveying pipes, ducts, etc. through the building. Chaseway s, such as plumbing walls, are common sites for air leakage. Typically refers to the cavity between the chimney and the framing and other building materials that surround the chimney Because of fire-safety clearances, there is usually a gap of at least 2" between building materials and the chimney, allowing substantial air leakage. Allowable distances between heat-producing appliances, chimneys, or vent systems and combustible surfaces. An area with a prevailing climate that distinguishes it from other areas by parameters such as temperature, rainfall, and humidity This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

55 55 Codes Collar beam Combustible gas leak detector Combustion air Combustion analyzer Combustion appliance zone (CAZ) Combustion appliance zone (CAZ) testing Combustion byproducts Combustion efficiency Combustion gases Community Action Agency (CAA) Compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) Condensation Condensing furnace Conditioned air Conditioned space Conduction Conductive heat loss Consumption analysis Convection Convective losses Crawl space Any set of standards set forth and enforced by a government agency for the protection of public health and safety. A horizontal piece in roof framing that provides structural strength by connecting opposite rafters. Device used for finding natural gas or propane leaks. Air that chemically combines with a fuel during the combustion process to produce heat and flue gases, mainly carbon dioxide and water vapor. Instrument that measures flue gas samples to determine the safety and efficiency of the combustion process. Any area within a home containing a combustion appliance that can be closed off from another area. Diagnostics performed to ensure that combustion appliances work properly and that pressures in the home allow adequate ventilation for health and safety. Combustion byproducts are produced whenever carbon-based fuels such as gas, oil, kerosene, wood, or charcoal are burned. Many of these byproducts are pollutants. Percentage of fuel burned during combustion, also referred to as steady state efficiency. Combustion byproducts. Community Action Agencies are non-profit private and public organizations established under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 to fight America's War on Poverty. Community Action Agencies are designed to help people achieve self-sufficiency. Often used interchangeably with "Community Action Program." A small fluorescent light bulb that uses 75% less energy than a traditional incandescent bulb. The conversion of a gas to a liquid. Typically used here in relation to water when discussing moisture dynamics in the home. A high-efficiency furnace that also removes latent heat from combustion products. Air that has been heated, cooled, humidified, or dehumidified to maintain an interior space within the "comfort zone." Intentionally heated or cooled areas of a building. The transfer of energy through matter from particle to particle. When a teaspoon handle becomes hot while stirring hot tea, that is an example of heat transfer through conduction. The transfer of heat through a material. A method to determine how energy is used in the home, what the main base loads are, and if a home's utility bills make sense after a site survey. The transfer of heat caused by the movement of a fluid like water or air. When a fluid becomes warmer, it becomes lighter and rises. The stack effect is an example of convective currents at work. Heat loss in a building resulting from air movement. The low space beneath the ground floor of a building that gives workers access to wiring and plumbing. Presented By:

56 56 Crawl space conditioning The method by which a crawl space is intentionally heated or cooled. Cubic feet per hour (CFH) A measurement of air-transported heat loss. Calculated in BTU. Cubic feet per minute (CFM) A measurement of air movement past a certain point or through a certain structure. Used in pressure diagnostics to quantify air leakage. Cure Used in reference to spray foam insulation: The process of expanding and hardening. Many manufacturers consider the insulation cured when residuefree trimming is possible. Off-gassing can occur for many days after this. Dehumidification The removal of water from the air. Excess humidity can cause mold. Delta T Temperature difference. Dense-pack insulation Loose-fill insulation that is blown into building cavities to a specific density that substantially reduces air leakage while providing recommended R-value. Easy to use for irregularly shaped areas and around obstructions. Depressurization A condition that occurs when the air pressure inside a structure is lower that the air pressure outdoors. Depressurization tightness A test for back drafting. limit (DTL) Dew point The warmest temperature of an object in an environment where water condensation from the surrounding air would form on that object. Diffusion Movement of water vapor through a material as a function of the driving force across and the porosity of the material. Dilution Relying on adequate ventilation to reduce the concentration of pollutants to acceptable levels. Dilution air Room air that mixes with flue gases. Direct-vented appliance Appliances that draw combustion air directly from the outdoors, e.g., most 90+ condensing furnaces. Domestic hot water (DHW) A separate, closed system to heat potable (drinkable) water and supply it to the dwelling unit for washing, bathing, etc. Double-hung window Double-hung windows have operable upper and lower sashes that slide vertically in a channel. Draft A measurable pressure difference caused by combustion byproducts exhausting through a chimney flue as influenced by temperature difference, height of the flue, and the Venturi effect (the reduction in pressure that results when flow occurs through a constricted section of pipe). Draft diverter An intentional opening in the vent system serving an atmospheric furnace or water heater where dilution air is drawn from the surrounding room to mix with the flue gases in the chimney. Draft gauge Device for testing chimney draft. Draft hood See draft diverter. Dropped soffit A lowered part of the ceiling in a home. Duct blaster Combination of a small fan and a pressure gauge to pressurize a home's duct system and accurately measure air leakage of the ductwork. Duct blower A device for testing duct leakiness and airflow. Duct boot Transition piece that connects the main duct to the floor and is often vulnerable to failure. Duct-induced pressure differences Pressure differences between rooms in a building caused by the ducted air delivery system, can be due to supply ducts, return ducts, or both. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

57 57 Eave chute Eave vent Encapsulation Energy conservation measures (ECM) Energy Information Administration (EIA) Equivalent duct length (EDL) Equivalent leakage area (ELA) Evaporation Exfiltration Expanding foam Fenestration Flame impingement Flame roll-out Flue gas Furnace blower Furnace plenum Furred-out walls Gable vent Grade Health and safety (H&S) Heat exchanger Heat recovery ventilation Device that maintains air space between the insulation blanket and the roof sheathing and prevents insulation from clogging eave vents. Vent opening located in the soffit under the eaves of a home to allow the passage of air through the attic and out the roof vents. Containing the pollutant so it will not affect air quality. Building components or products installed to reduce the building's energy consumption. Section of the U.S. Department of Energy providing statistics, data, and analysis on resources, supply, production, and consumption for all energy sources. A measure of how much static pressure an exhaust fan has to overcome. Calculation, in square inches, of the total area of all holes and cracks in a structure. The leakage area is then combined to represent one total leakage point. The change that occurs when a liquid becomes a gas. Evaporation is the key process in the operation of air conditioners and evaporative coolers. This term describes the movement of air out of a building. Often refers to warm air leaving a building due to pressurization, infiltration, wind, stack effect, and/or convective flow. An insulation product designed to expand and harden upon contact with the air. Available in canisters with spray nozzles that make it easy to apply foam in a wide variety of situations. Window and door openings in a building's wall. The striking of flame against an object. Results in the creation of Carbon Monoxide. Fuel gas combustion process occurring outside the normal combustion area of a combustion appliance. Gases arising from the combustion of fuels, mainly consisting of carbon dioxide. Fuel gas normally contains pollutants, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and dust. A part of the furnace that produces a current of air. Often referred to as the "blower" or "squirrel cage." An air chamber that gets filled directly by a large blower that is above, below, or adjacent to it. Wall construction using furring strips (usually 1 x 3 lumber) to set the materials off from the substrate or existing wall being built upon. Common use of this detail is for rain-screen walls. The air spacing between the walls allows for protection against moisture. A screened vent installed at or near the peak of a roof gable that allows warm attic air to escape. The pitch of a slope such as a roof or a hill. Provision included in a 1976 law change for the Weatherization Assistance Program. WAP now considers the health and safety of low-income families, as well as reducing their energy costs. Furnace component that transfers the heat from the combustion gases to the surrounding air. Combustion gases travel from the burner through the heat exchanger and then out the flue in properly functioning furnaces. Most common in cold climates, these are typically whole-home systems that Presented By:

58 58 (HRV) Heating degree days (HDD) Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system High density fiberglass reclaim some of the heat from exhaust air and pass that heat on to the intake air so less energy is needed to heat the home. The number of degrees per day that the daily average temperature (the mean of the maximum and minimum recorded temperatures) is below a base temperature, usually 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Used to determine indoor space heating requirements and heating system sizing. Total HDD is the cumulative total for the year/heating season. The higher the HDD for a location, the colder the daily average temperature(s). All components of the appliances used to condition interior air of a building. Insulation product that has a high R-value. The denser material is intended for insulating areas with limited cavity space. Home Energy Rating System (HERS) An index established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) for assessing the energy efficiency of a home. Home Ventilating Institute (HVI) A non-profit association of manufacturers of residential ventilating products offering a variety of services including test procedures, certification and verification programs for products, and market support. House as a system The concept that many components of a home (e.g., building envelope, space conditioning and distribution, lighting, appliance) interact, affecting the home's comfort and performance. House wrap A polyethylene barrier wrapped around a home to protect building materials from moisture and save energy. Hygrometer A tool for measuring relative humidity. A psychrometer, which uses two thermometers, one with a dry bulb and one with a wet bulb, is a simple hygrometer. IC rated Insulation Contact rating for light fixtures. IC housings must be installed wherever insulation will be in direct contact with the housing. Ice dam Ice that forms at the roof eaves, and usually results in icicles. Generally the cause is air leakage from the home into the attic. Incidental repair Repair necessary for the effective performance or preservation of weatherization materials. Such materials may include framing or limited roof repair, so attic insulation doesn t get wet. It does not cover roof replacement. Indoor air quality (IAQ) Induced draft furnace Infiltration Infrared (IR) Infrared (IR) camera Infrared (IR) imaging Infrared (IR) thermography The quality of indoor air relative to its acceptability for healthful human habitation. Assessing and ameliorating, when necessary, the quality of indoor air is a major concern of the weatherization process. In particular, all byproducts of major combustion appliances must be directly evacuated to the outdoors under all operating conditions. Furnace type that has a chimney vent and a motor. The movement of air into a building through cracks and penetrations in the building envelope. Cold air often enters the structure due to depressurization, exfiltration, wind, stack effect, and/or convective airflow. A type of radiation not visible to the human eye, but detectable by thermography. Camera that converts surface temperature patterns into a visible picture. Use of an infrared camera to generate a visible picture of surface temperature patterns. The science of using infrared imaging to detect radiant energy or heat loss This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

59 59 characteristics of a building. Inspection The process of learning what you can with just your senses. Inspection precedes testing or weatherization. Internal gain The heat generated by bathing, cooking, and operating appliances. International Codes Council (ICC) An international non-governmental organization for developing building safety, fire prevention, and energy efficiency codes (I-codes). International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) Code that addresses the design and installation of fuel gas systems and gasfired appliances through requirements that emphasize performance. International Residential Code (IRC) Intrusion Jalousie windows Kilowatt hour Knee-wall attic Knob and tube wiring Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Lead-safe weatherization (LSW) Loose-fill insulation Louvered door Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) Low-flow rings Make-up air Manometer Manual J A comprehensive, stand-alone residential code that brings together all building, plumbing, mechanical, fuel gas, energy, and electrical provisions for one- and two-family residences three stories or less. The IRC also provides a prescriptive approach (i.e., a set of measures) and a performance approach (i.e., energy modeling) for determining compliance. Air moving into and out of insulation without going through the wall or ceiling assembly. A type of window usually associated with mobile homes with two or more panes of glass that pivot on a horizontal axis. The most commonly used unit for measuring the amount of electricity consumed over time; one kilowatt of electricity supplied for one hour. Equal to 3,600 kilojoules. An attic with short walls, usually under three feet in height. Common in Cape Cods and bungalows. Early standardized method for electrical wiring in homes consisting of insulated copper conductors supported by porcelain knobs (along their lengths) and tubes (when passing through framing members). Widely used from the 1880s until the 1930s, most States now require replacement of knob and tube wiring before installing any sort of insulation that will come into contact with the wiring. Member of the national laboratory system supported by DOE though its Office of Science. It conducts unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Methods, techniques, and engineering controls assuring that workers and home occupants are not exposed to harmful lead-based paint. Small pieces of insulation that are blown into a home using a blowing machine. Loose-fill insulation is typically installed by a professional and is especially effective at filling small and irregularly-shaped spaces. A louvered door has fixed or movable wooden fins that permit open ventilation while preserving privacy and preventing the passage of light to the interior. A program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help lowincome households, primarily in meeting their immediate home energy needs. Part of a blower door that forces air past the sensors fast enough so that a reliable reading can be obtained. Air supplied to a space to replace exhausted air. A measuring device for small gas pressure differences. Load calculation that allows the user to properly size HVAC systems for singlefamily-detached homes, small multi-unit structures, condominiums, town houses, and manufactured homes. Presented By:

60 60 Manufactured home Mastic Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Mechanical System Mildew Minimum ventilation guideline (MVG) Minimum ventilation requirements (MVR) Moisture meter Mold Multifamily (MF) housing Mushroom vent N-factor National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) code National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Natural draft Natural driving forces Transportable homes that are quick and cheap to build. Another name for mobile home. A thick creamy substance used to seal seams and cracks in ductwork and other building materials. Designed to provide both workers and emergency personnel with the proper procedures for handling or working with a particular substance. An MSDS includes information such as toxicity, health effects, first aid, disposal, and protective equipment. Any machine that provides heating, cooling, water heating, or ventilation for a home. A superficial coating or discoloration of organic materials, such as cloth, paper, or leather, caused by fungi, especially under damp conditions. Process used to emphasize the ventilation needed after a building is tightened to the maximum practical extent. Lowest level of ventilation that will be acceptable to human occupants and that will minimize the potential for adverse health effects. This level may be measured using ASHRAE Standard An instrument for measuring the percentage of water in a substance. A growth of minute fungi forming on vegetable or animal matter and associated with decay or dampness. A building with five or more residential units. A vent that has at the top of a vertical shaft a broad rounded cap that can be screwed down to close it. Used to convert readings taken at CFM50 to CFMnatural, the amount of air leakage that occurs naturally. The N-factor depends on climate, building height, and shielding from wind. N ranges from 9.8 to 29.4, but typically averages about 20. A higher N-factor means the blower door is creating more exaggerated conditions. A lower "N" means the blower door reading is closer to the natural leakiness of the home. NFRC is a non-profit organization that administers the only uniform, independent rating and labeling system for the energy performance of windows, doors, skylights, and attachment products. A U.S. organization charged with developing standards for fire prevention and suppression, including the National Electric Code. Codes and standards that are designed to minimize the risk and effects of fire by establishing criteria for building, processing, design, service, and installation in the United States. NIOSH is the Federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. NIOSH issues recommendations for respirator use. Used in reference to combustion appliances. Natural draft appliances draw combustion air from the room where they are located. Although the term "atmospheric" is often used to describe these appliances, all building and safety codes refer to natural draft, so practitioners should be familiar with both terms. Wind, stack effect, combustion, and ventilation, which all change the pressure in a building. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

61 61 Natural gas Net Free Area (NFA) NFPA 211 NFPA 54 Non-expanding foam Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Off-gas On center (o.c.) One-part foam Parts per million (ppm) Pascals (Pa) Passive attic venting Permeance rating Personal protective equipment (PPE) Picture window Pier and beam foundation Platform framing Pocket doors Polyurethane foam Positive displacement blower Pressure balancing A hydrocarbon gas that is usually obtained from underground sources, often in association with petroleum and coal deposits. The area of a vent after adjusting for insect screen, louvers, and weather covering. The free area is always less than the actual area. National Fire Protection Association s Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances includes installation procedures for vents and chimneys that serve wood-burning stoves and fireplaces. National Fire Protection Association's National Fuel Gas Code stating that combustion air must be provided for any combustion zone where the collective fuel input exceeds 1,000 BTU per 50 cubic feet. Spray foam that does not expand. Used in window and door jambs, and other constricted spaces where expanding foam may distort building materials and negatively impact operation. United States government agency that establishes and enforces safety standards in the workplace. Off-gassing is the evaporation of volatile chemicals in non-metallic materials at normal atmospheric pressure. This means that building materials can release chemicals into the air through evaporation. This evaporation can continue for years after the products are installed. Term used in carpentry for describing framing spacing. For example, a wall built with 2x4 framing, 16" o.c. means the studs are 2" x 4" lumber spaced so there are 16 inches between the center of one and the center of the next. One-part foam comes in spray cans (e.g., Great Stuff) and spray guns with screw-on cans. One-part foam is best suited for filling gaps and holes less than ¾. Unit for quantifying very dilute concentrations of substances. Metric standard for measuring pressure differences. 248 pascals equal one inch of water column, approximately the weight of one Post-it note. Takes advantage of the natural buoyancy of air by providing inlets and outlets low and high on the roof. Warm air rises through higher vents and cooler air is drawn through eave vents as the warm air escapes. Number that quantifies the rate of vapor diffusion through a material. Used to categorize Vapor Barriers and Vapor Retarders. Accessories such as safety glasses, ear plugs, and respirators worn to protect individuals from workplace hazards. Picture windows have no operable sashes and are used primarily for aesthetics. Housing base that uses a concrete footing and pier to support wood beams and floor joists. A system of framing a building in which floor joists of each story rest on the top plates of the story below or on the foundation sill for the first story, and the bearing walls and partitions rest on the subfloor of each story. Doors that slide into a wall cavity and are typically very leaky. Versatile plastic foam insulation, usually yellow in color. Blowing machines used in weatherization to blow insulation into attics and wall cavities. To equalize home or duct pressure by adjusting air flow in supply and return ducts. Used on dwellings with forced air heating systems. Presented By:

62 62 Pressure boundary Pressure pan Pressure pan testing Priority list Pull-down staircase Quality control (QC) R-value Radiation Rate of airflow Relative humidity (RH) Return plenum Ridge venting Right to appeal Rim joist Roof jack Roof vent Savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) Sealed combustion Set-point Single-family (SF) home Slab-on-grade foundation The surface that separates inside from outside, in relation to conditioned space within the home. Also called air boundary or air barrier. A device used to measure pressure differences between ducts and the home during pressure diagnostics. One method for determining duct leakage. Uses a pressure pan, manometer, and a blower door to quantify pressure differences and verify improvements after duct sealing. The list or ranking of recommended improvements developed by a program to produce the most cost-effective energy savings results based on a savings-toinvestment ratio calculation. Staircase that folds up into the attic until pulled down for use. Review of the final work product to ensure that it was correctly done. A measurement of thermal resistance for materials and related surfaces. Used in reference to heat transfer, independent of any medium. A measurement of the movement of air over time, frequently measured in cubic feet per minute. The amount of water vapor in the air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount that the air could hold at a given temperature. Used in reference to mobile home furnaces: Part of the belly return system where air is drawn back to the furnace through a louver in the floor of the furnace closet. Ridge venting is a continuous vent (or two strips of vents) along the roof ridge. Usually combined with continuous soffit or eave vents as part of an overall attic ventilation system. Ability for a client to appeal a deferral of service. The first appeal must go through the agency director. If this does not resolve the issue, the client may appeal to the State. The outermost joist around the perimeter of the floor framing. Chimney assembly that penetrates the roof and includes the flashing and chimney cap assemblies. A louver or small dome mounted on a roof (often near the ridge) to allow the passage of air through the attic. A calculation that determines the cost-effectiveness of a weatherization measure by dividing the estimated savings over its lifetime by the cost. SIR is computed over the lifetimes of the retrofit measures installed. Investment includes materials, labor, and support costs. Savings is expressed in terms of the net present value of the retail cost of the dwelling's fuel. Under some methodologies, other benefits or investments are included. SIRs of greater than one are counted as cost effective under this DOE WAP method of determining cost-effectiveness. A heater that draws air for combustion from outdoors and has a sealed exhaust system. A temperature setting associated with a thermostat control. A free-standing residential building Housing base that uses concrete slabs formed from molds set in the ground. Concrete is poured into the mold all at one time, with no space left between the ground and the home. This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

63 63 Soffit Spillage Spot source ventilation Stack effect Static pressure Steady-state efficiency Sub-floor Temperature Thermal boundary/thermal barrier Thermal break Thermal envelope Thermal transmittance Threshold Trim Two-part foam U-factor U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) The underside of a roof overhang or a small lowered ceiling, as above cabinets or a bathtub. Temporary flow of combustion gases from a combustion device. Spot source ventilation includes things like kitchen exhaust fans and bathroom exhaust fans. The term describes the effect of higher pressure at the top of a structure, lower pressure at the bottom of a structure, and neutral pressure somewhere in between, relative to the ambient (surrounding) air pressure. It is usually the result of different densities of warmer and cooler air (convective airflow). Static pressure is the resistance from the inlet grill, duct runs, elbows, and outside termination that a fan must overcome to move air through the system. The measurement of heat system balance in the on-cycle when heat into system equals heat out. Generally provided as a percentage of the maximum available heat generation capacity (100%) against the amount of usable heat being sent to the distribution system. This figure can also represent the percentage of heat being used within the system as compared to the heat lost through the flue. The reading is most valid when the stack temperature becomes constant and the distribution pumps or blowers are operating. Rough or structural floor placed directly on the floor joists to which the finished flooring is applied. A measure of the heat present. The continuous layer of building components, such as insulation, that retard conductive heat flow. A thermal break is an element of low thermal conductivity placed in an assembly to reduce or prevent the flow of thermal energy between conductive materials. See thermal boundary. See U-factor A beveled wood member fastened to the floor and situated between the side jambs. The threshold seals the space between the bottom of the door and the floor. Extends beyond the end of the window or door frame on the outside of the opening. This allows the window or door to fit flush with the exterior wall once it is installed. Triple-expanding foam appropriate for larger and more numerous air leaks, and for insulating crawl space walls and other big jobs. Two-part foam comes in portable two-tank kits and truck-mounted rigs. U-factor is a measure of non-solar heat flow through all the components of a material, typically used in reference to windows. The lower the U-factor, the better the thermal performance. U-factor allows consumers and energy technicians to compare insulating properties of commercially available windows. United States government agency whose mission is to advance energy technology and promote related innovation in the United States. United States government agency charged with rule-making and enforcement of the HUD Code. Presented By:

64 64 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Unconditioned space Under-fired Upper sash Vapor barrier Vapor permeable Vapor retarder Vent Vent pipe Vent terminations Vented crawl space Ventilation Vermiculite Volume Water management Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Weep holes Whole home exhaust ventilation systems Wind effect Wind-washing Winter Conditions With reference to (WRT) Work order The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to protect human health and the environment. An area within the building envelope that is not heated or cooled. In reference to furnaces: When too little fuel is being made available for combustion processes. The top portion of the window consisting of a pane of glass set inside a frame. The upper sash is fixed in a single-hung window and slides up and down in a double-hung window. A material such as sheet plastic or paint that stops moisture flow. Describes a material that permits the flow of water vapor. A material that slows, but does not stop, the flow of water vapor. Openings in an HVAC system to allow air flow. The pipe carrying combustion gases from the appliance to the chimney. Also called the Flue. Where a vent leaves the building. Vent terminations must prevent intrusion of moisture, detritus, or pests into the building, and allow safe exhaust of vented gases. Crawlspace with grilles or vents installed to allow for passive ventilation beneath the home. Controlled air leakage usually created with mechanical exhausting devices such as fans and dryers. A heat-expanded mineral once commonly used for insulation. The amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object or region of space, expressed in cubic units. Managing water to avoid damage to building components or low IAQ. Includes properly grading the landscape to ensure water flows away from building, installing or repairing gutters and downspouts, clearing perimeter drains, etc. DOE's Weatherization Assistance (Wx) Program is the nation's largest residential energy efficiency program. Its mission is to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income Americans, thereby reducing their energy costs, while safeguarding their health and safety. Holes drilled for the purpose of allowing water to drain out of an area in a building where it has accumulated. Use of one or more fans and duct systems to exhaust stale air and/or supply fresh air to the home. A driving factor of pressure differences. The leeward, or sheltered, side of the home experiences negative pressure. The exposed side, positive pressure. Phenomenon particular to fiberglass attic insulation. Air entering and leaving the attic through the attic vent openings is frequently able to blow through fiberglass attic flat insulation, removing heat as it goes. Closing off all exterior openings of a home and opening interior doors. Generally performed prior to performing a CAZ Depressurization or blower door test. Compared to another measurement. In weatherization, a way to assess pressure differences between ducts and the rest of the home. An order authorizing specific work to be done. Sometimes called the work This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

65 65 Worst case CAZ testing Zonal Pressure Testing scope. A safety test, performed by specific procedures, designed to assess the probability of backdrafting in the home. Using a blower door to determine the interconnectivity of various building components, which helps the practitioner locate the pressure boundary and know if the air and thermal barriers are aligned. Also called zonal pressure diagnostics. Presented By:

66 66 12 Appendix A This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

67 Presented By: 67

68 68 This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

69 69 13 Appendix B- Blower Door Quick Guide Presented By:

70 70 This program is funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), under the Chicago Southland Brownfields Job Training Program Grant Number 2J-00E

Home Energy Evaluation Report for Fritz Kreiss and Catherine McQueen

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