1 1 SCIENTIFIC WRITING DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY The purpose of a scientific paper is to describe and document an observational or experimental study. A scientific paper is typically divided into seven sections: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited. The Abstract is a short summary of the paper. The Introduction explains the background and significance of the problem being investigated. The Methods describes study sites, equipment/materials and procedures used in the study. The Results clearly and succinctly presents data, observations, and the outcome of any hypothesis tests. The Discussion elaborates on the significance of your findings and how they relate with previous studies. Literature referenced in the Introduction, Methods, and Discussion is listed in the Literature Cited. Tables and Figures are used to illustrate important results. They must be properly captioned and complement, not duplicate, the text. Both the text and Tables/Figures should stand alone as independent and complete stories. More detailed descriptions of each section of the scientific paper are given below. Set off all sections except the Title (Abstract Introduction, Methodology, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited) with the appropriate heading centered on the sheet. The general format described below will serve as a guideline for students preparing scientific research reports for classes in Environmental Science and Biology (ENVB). Instructors may choose to modify their writing assignments, based upon learning objectives. However, please note that the format described below should be used for all scientific research reports prepared by students in Environmental Science and Biology classes, unless otherwise instructed. An example of a good scientific report, and a checklist that can be used as you are writing your paper are found at the Department of Environmental Science and Biology website: Title Include title, author(s), course number, and date centered at the top of the first page. Some instructors may ask that your name not be included on the title page, but instead be written on the back of the last page. Abstract The Abstract is placed on the first page, immediately after the title. The Abstract briefly summarizes the purpose of the study, methods, major results, and conclusions. The Abstract is written after the rest of the paper, and should be in the past tense. A good Abstract should be specific enough to give the reader a sense of how and why the study was done, the major results, and what the take home message was. Abstracts generally should be no more than 250 words long. For some assignments, an Abstract may not be required. Introduction The Introduction provides the justification and purpose of the study, and states all questions and hypotheses examined. For most papers written in ENVB classes, the Introduction will be onetwo paragraphs in length. The Introduction should begin with a short review of background
2 2 information necessary to understand the significance of the problem being investigated. Relevant scientific literature often will be cited in this part of the Introduction. All literature should be cited using the format of the journal Ecology; examples are in the Literature Cited section below. The Introduction should end with a very brief (one or two sentence) description of the major objectives and hypotheses of the study. A one sentence description of the general methods may help clarify the nature of the study. Objectives are the goals of the study, and should be as clear and precise as possible, while hypotheses are statements that can be falsified. Methods The Methods section should briefly describe the procedures employed in the study, and should have enough detail so that a similarly trained scientist could duplicate and verify your work. For most papers written by ENVB students, information included in this section will come from a handout, but be sure to describe the procedures in your own words, and do not simply list a series of steps. The Methods section should begin with a brief (one page or less) description of where and when the study was conducted. Location should include specific locality, county and state, such as: The College at Brockport woodlot, Monroe County, New York. Date should be given in the following format: 24 January For field studies, include a brief description of the habitat and weather conditions. Be sure to identify important equipment and materials used in the study, how they were used. However, do not include a list of all materials and equipment used in the project. The final section of the Methods should include a brief description of the experimental design and any statistical tests. Results The Results section usually includes: (1) one or more paragraphs of text and (2) one or more figures (graphs or illustrations) and/or tables that present important data or observations. Any data or observations you present or discuss must be included in the Results section. State all findings in a concise and complete way, but do not include raw data, or attempt to interpret your findings. Tables and figures should follow the Literature Cited section. Number tables and figures sequentially, and refer to them within the paragraph describing your results by using the following format: (Figure 1) or (Table 1). Tables and figures are referenced in the narrative text by stating a fact [e.g., The mass of ENVB students increases daily (Table 1; Figure 1)]. All tables and figures must have captions clearly describing their content. Tables and figures also must include units [e.g., mass (g)], while figures must have clearly labeled axes. See the examples below for details. Finally, each table and figure must have accompanying text explaining its significance. If you have performed a statistical analysis, include this in the Results section. Report all statistics in the following format: (symbol for test statistic = value, degrees of freedom, probability). For example: (t = 3.451, df = 45, P < 0.05). Statistics are used to test hypotheses, so be sure to clearly state whether or not you are rejecting or accepting your hypothesis.
3 3 Table 1. Nest site and nest patch characteristics (mean ± 1 SD) for Australian Pipits, Kosciuszko National Park, NSW, Sample sizes for unsuccessful and successful nests are given in parentheses. Variable Successful Unsuccessful Test statistic P Shrub height (cm) 20.7 ± 4.8 (20) 18.8 ± 5.8 (17) t 31 = Distance to edge of 152 ± 165 (20) 79.5 ± 91.6 (17) t 30 = shrub (cm) % shrub cover, 1 m 91.4 ± 4.3 (18) 74.2 ± 15.5 (16) t 21 = % shrub cover, 10 m 74.8 ± 4.2 (18) 57.6 ± 9.9 t 25 = Orientation ( ) 37.5 ± 30.8 (18) 84.2 ± 52.8 (16) F 1, 32 = Total Phosphorus µg P/L Oatka 1 Oatka 2 Oatka 3 Oatka 4 Oatka 5 Oatka 6 Oatka 7 Oatka 8 Oatka 9 Oatka 9a Oatka 10 Oatka 12 Oatka 12a Oatka 13 Oatka 14 Oatka 15 Oatka 16 Oatka 17 Oatka 19 Oatka 20 Oatka 21 Oatka 21a Oatka 25 Figure 1. Total phosphorus concentrations (µg P/L) from twenty-three sites on Oatka Creek, Wyoming and Genesee Counties, NY on 23 September Discussion The Discussion section is where you evaluate the results of your study, based upon what is known or logically expected. If your data differ from what might be expected, provide some possible reasons. Point out assumptions and limitations associated with your study. Integrate your results with existing knowledge (i.e., cite relevant references), speculate on the relevance and implications of your findings, and if appropriate, make suggestions for future work. The Discussion is a major section of your report and should be well thought out. Analyzing the significance of data from figures and tables, and results of statistical tests, will be particularly important as you write the Discussion. In certain situations, such as short papers or simple studies, it may be desirable to combine the Results and Discussion into one section. Dialogue with your partner, other teams, and the instructor will greatly facilitate development of a good discussion.
4 4 Literature Cited All literature cited in the laboratory report must be clearly and accurately referenced, in the format used by Ecology. List citations in alphabetical order, and include only those works cited in your paper. In the text of the paper, cite the references using the author's name and year. For example: One author: Male Harris s Sparrows actively defend their breeding territories (Jones 1985). Or: Jones (1985) documented the territorial behavior of male Harris s Sparrows. Two authors: "Male Harris s Sparrows actively defend their breeding territories (Jones and Smith 1985). More than two authors: "Male Harris s Sparrows actively defend their breeding territories (Jones et al. 1985). Two or more separate works: "Male Harris s Sparrows actively defend their breeding territories (Jones et al. 1985, Smith 1995). Note that the more recent paper is given last. Examples of the correct format for use in the Literature Cited section are as follows: Journal article Author(s). Year published. Title. Journal. Volume: pages. Buttner, J.K., J.C. Makarewicz, and T.W. Lewis Concentration of selected priority organic contaminants in fish maintained on formulated diets in Lake Ontario waters. Progressive Fish-Culturist. 57: Book Author(s). Year published. Title. Edition (if applicable). Publisher, City, State. Merritt, R.W. and K.W. Cummins An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Third Edition. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, Iowa. Chapter in book Author(s). Year published. Chapter title. Pages in book, name of editor. Book title. Publisher, City, State. Nickum, J.G Walley. Pages in R. R. Stickney, editor. Culture of nonsalmonid freshwater fishes. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida.
5 5 World Wide Web sources These should be used sparingly, and only with your instructor s approval. Many web sites are scientifically suspect. In addition, use only those cites that are more or less permanent, although this may be difficult to determine. Author(s). Year. Title, version. [Online.] Organization, City, State. Available at: Sauer, J. R., G. Gough, I. Thomas, and B. Peterjohn The North American Breeding Bird Survey, version [Online.] Pautuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland. Available at Note, information obtained by verbal correspondence or from unpublished material is not considered "literature," but may be referenced as (personal communication, individual, affiliation): Aardvarks are not capable of insight learning (personal communication, Dr. Jane Doe, Department of Environmental Science and Biology, SUNY Brockport.) Format of the ENVB Scientific Paper: 1. Remember that this is a scientific report and not an extensive term paper, don't exceed page limitations, if given. 2. Because the laboratory report relates work previously done, it should be written totally in the past tense (e.g., we measured, temperature was recorded, collected data indicate). 3. Because we desire to read your original thoughts, avoid quotations. 4. Be concise and precise; use complete, grammatically correct sentences. 5. Footnotes are inappropriate and should be avoided. 6. Use a word processor and double-space the text. Text can be written on both sides of the paper. Staple together all pages in the upper left. Use a font size of 12, with 1 margins on the left and right. Number all pages in the upper right hand corner, or bottom center. 7. The scientific name (binomial) must be used the first time any organism is mentioned in the paper; common names can then be used by themselves. Because scientific names are in Latin, they should be either underlined or in italics, as in: We studied Harris s Sparrows (Zonotrichia querula) near Lawrence, Kansas.
6 6 8. Always use metric units and their abbreviations! Some of the more common ones are: km = kilometers s = seconds m = meters min = minutes cm = centimeter h = hours ha = hectares d = days l = liters kg = kilograms ml = milliliters g = grams mg = milligrams 9. Use the following rules when reporting numbers. When reporting counts (number of items), write out numbers < 11 (one aardvark, nine eggs, etc). Numbers > 10 should be in numerals (11 newts, 30 wombats, etc). When reporting measurements with units (days, meters, liters, seconds, kilograms, etc), always use numerals, as in 1.0 m, 5 ha, 3 s, etc. The only exception to the above rule is that you cannot use a numeral when starting a sentence. 10. Plagiarism is unacceptable, and grounds for failure. Plagiarism can be the blatant copying at length from another work or the failure to give credit for information obtained through reading an article. When in doubt, reference the source according to the following practices: Buttner et al. (1996) found... or yellow perch survived and grew (Buttner et al. 1996). 11. Try to write using the active, rather than the passive, voice. Examples are given below. Passive voice: Numbats were studied near Perth, Western Australia. Active voice (preferred): We studied numbats near Perth, Western Australia. 12. Grades will be based on following the guidelines above, quality of results and clarity of presentation, discussion, conclusions, organization, grammar, neatness, and spelling.
7 7 SCIENTIFIC PAPER CHECKLIST, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY The checklist below should help you write a good, complete, and properly formatted scientific paper for your Environmental Science and Biology classes. Go through the checklist before you write, and after your first draft is complete! I. Abstract: Does the abstract summarize the following points: Question being investigated? Methods? Major results? Conclusions? Is the Abstract concise? II. Introduction: Does the Introduction: Introduce the topic in a straightforward way? Provide an adequate background through reference to other studies? Present the rationale for the experiment/project? Give major hypotheses? III. Methods: Does the Materials and Methods: Accurately describe the methods in a manner that could be repeated by someone not familiar with the project? Present the methods in a concise way? Give relevant information on date, location, and habitat (if necessary)? Briefly describe the experimental design and any statistical tests used? IV. Results: Does the Results section: Have an adequate text describing the results of the experiment/project? Present only necessary figures and/or tables in the proper format? Are the tables and figures in numerical order, as presented in the text? Do all figures and tables have clear captions, with necessary units and any abbreviations defined? Present the results of all statistical analyses in a clear way? Analyze all hypotheses? Are the statistics correct? V. Discussion: Does the discussion: Summarize in a concise way results of the experiment or project and relate them to other research? Provide sufficient citations for a context in which to evaluate results of the project? Draw appropriate conclusions? VI. Literature Cited: Does the Literature Cited: Cite works in the format of Ecology? List all references cited in the text, in alphabetical order by last name of the first author? Are references cited properly in the body of the paper? (e.g., Smith et al. 2003)?
8 VII. Overall Is the paper clearly and logically written, with good grammar and spelling? Are all sections included? Is the paper in the correct format? Are metric units used throughout? 8
BSN GUIDE 1 BSN GUIDE FOR SCHOLARLY PAPERS This guide is to assist the BSN student in utilizing the American Psychological Association (APA) format and writing in a professional style. The focus of this
Organization (nb) Each page is dated and numbered consecutively. The table of contents is detailed, current, and accurate. Continuation notes are used when necessary. missing from high elements missing
Guidelines for Writing An APA Style Lab Report Research articles in psychology follow a specific format as set forth by the American Psychological Association (APA Style). The following sections describe
HOW TO WRITE A PROPER SCIENTIFIC (LABORATORY) PAPER or HOW TO GET AN A ON YOUR SCIENCE LAB REPORT THE PURPOSE OF A LAB (OR SCIENTIFIC) REPORT IS SO THAT SOMEONE ELSE (ANOTHER RESEARCHER OR EVEN A LAYPERSON)
An Example Manuscript for Submission to the Journal of Natural History Education and Experience Stephen C. Trombulak and Thomas L. Fleischner Stephen C. Trombulak (email@example.com) is a professor
Student Writing Guide Fall 2009 Lab Reports The manuscript has been written three times, and each rewriting has discovered errors. Many must still remain; the improvement of the part is sacrificed to the
TITLE The title should describe the experiment. It should be specific, professional, and scientific. Don t use a generic title like Density Lab ; instead, you could use something like Using Calculations
M.S. Degree Prospectus Guidelines Department of Biological Sciences The signature page should include all information on this page. A copy of the Prospectus Guidelines should be attached to the copy of
Writing Research Reports (Brower, J.E., J.H. Zar, and C.N. von Ende. 1989. Field and laboratory methods for general ecology. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA.) Introduction Ecological research involves
SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON COLLEGE OF NURSING American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guidelines Sixth Edition The following information is provided as the highlights
Writing Support Services, Student Success Centre ucalgary.ca/ssc/writing-support Report Writing Guidelines and Checklist for Revising The guidelines presented here should give you an idea of general conventions
Union College Physics and Astronomy How to Write a Formal Lab Report A formal lab report is essentially a scaled-down version of a scientific paper, reporting on the results of an experiment that you and
SCIENCE PROJECT PAGE 1 Introduction YES!!! It s that Science Fair time of year. No amount of groaning is going to make it go away. Just imagine the inquiry and organizational skills you ll learn and practice.
COM207: CREATIVE WRITING: FICTION SYLLABUS LECTURE HOURS/CREDITS: 3/3 CATALOG DESCRIPTION Prerequisite: ENG101 English Composition I Students study a variety of short fiction for story structure and write
Sample of title page for UROPS Report TITLE Student's Name Matric Number Undergraduate Research Opportunities in Science PROJECT REPORT submitted to the Department of Biological Sciences National University
Introduction BSN HANDBOOK 2009 APPENDIX D APA WRITING GUIDELINES Basic Use of APA Format Tips for Writing a Professional Paper Prepared for the Finlandia University Nursing Program Using APA Publication
Running head: EXAMPLE APA STYLE PAPER 1 Example of an APA Style Paper Justine Berry Austin Peay State University EXAMPLE APA STYLE PAPER 2 Abstract APA format is the official style used by the American
GUIDELINES FOR ACADEMIC ESSAYS DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, LATIN AND POLITICAL SCIENCE, LANGARA COLLEGE January, 2012 Introduction As a student in the History/Latin/Political Science department, you will invariably
College of Graduate Studies and Research Master s Thesis Manual Table of Contents GENERAL INFORMATION... 1 Selecting and formulating a thesis topic... 1 Preparing a thesis proposal... 2 Acceptance of a
The Psychology Lab Checklist By: Danielle Sclafani 08 and Stephanie Anglin 10; Updated by: Rebecca Behrens 11 1. Title Page My title is informative, mentioning both the independent and dependent variable(s).
1 Chapter 1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1.1 What Is Chemistry, and What Can Chemistry Do for You? Special Topic 1.1: Green Chemistry 1.2 Suggestions for Studying Chemistry 1.3 The Scientific Method 1.4
Science Fair Paper Format Due: Friday, February 15 th, 2013 This packet will show your what your final Science Fair written report should look like. Include page numbers on each page of your paper. Each
AT THE ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY THE COLLEGE WRITING PROGRAM www.iit.edu/~writer firstname.lastname@example.org FALL 1999 Table of Contents Table of Contents... 2 Introduction... 3 Need for Report Writing...
9/06 History Department Junior Research Paper Guidelines The Junior Research Paper is a graduation requirement for all history and history/social science majors beginning with students who entered Wheaton
Los Angeles City College Laboratory Report and Notebook Guidelines for Chemistry 101 The following guidelines are provided to acquaint students with the expectations for maintaining a laboratory notebook
Running head: APA STYLE FOR RESEARCH REPORTS 1 Introduction to APA Publication Style for Research Reports in Psychology Dawn M. McBride Illinois State University APA STYLE FOR RESEARCH REPORTS 2 Abstract
APPENDIX V: WRITING A LAB REPORT Lab reports, like journal articles, communicate your work to others and help you to organize and analyze your data. Scientific journal articles have a particular form -
GUIDELINES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORING A TECHNICAL REPORT As a Partial Requirement Toward Certification at the Technologist Level GUIDELINES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORING A TECHNICAL REPORT Completing
Student research project Writing a research report Number: 43935 Title: Student Research Project This publication is copyright New South Wales Department of Education and Training (DET), however it may
Microbiology Research Project Introduction You are going to have an opportunity this semester to have some fun with science by designing and carrying out your own experimental research project. The project
Running head: APA FORMAT REVIEW FOR SIXTH EDITION 1 PAGE SETUP (Section 8.03, pp. 228-230) Uniform margins of at least one inch on all sides All parts double spaced No extra spacing before or after the
TECHNICAL REPORT WRITING GUIDELINES Prepared by LEAH M. AKINS and JEFFERSON H. AKINS for TECHNICAL/ENGINEERING STUDENTS ABSTRACT This document specifies the recommended format to be used when submitting
ENG235: AMERICAN FILM CLASSICS SYLLABUS LECTURE HOURS/CREDITS: 3/3 CATALOG DESCRIPTION Prerequisite: ENG101 English Composition I This survey of the American film industry emphasizes its development as
Name Date Period Furrey How do I do that unit conversion? There are two fundamental types of unit conversions in dimensional analysis. One is converting old units to new units with in the same system of
Scientific communication and learning for nutritionists, 7.5 hp: Course assignments, check lists, and grading criteria Course leaders: Johanna Zilliacus and Magdalena Rosell 2011-08-25 1 Contents Assignment
Format for Experiment Preparation and Write-Up Scientists try to answer questions by applying consistent, logical reasoning to describe, explain, and predict observations; and by performing experiments
Appalachian State University Master of Public Administration Program Writing Guide Introduction Students should use the following guidelines to complete written assignments in the Appalachian State University
Short guide on academic writing style. Audience. Not a teacher! Your reader has a background which is similar to yours before you started to work on this project. Title. Good title is usually short, straightforward
Chemistry Department Policy Assessment: Undergraduate Programs 1. MISSION STATEMENT The Chemistry Department offers academic programs which provide students with a liberal arts background and the theoretical
OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES STYLE AND FORMAT REQUIREMENTS MASTERS OF SCIENCE THESIS The University of Wisconsin-Green Bay graduate programs in Applied Leadership for Teaching and Learning and Environmental
Middle School Science Fair Report and Display Guidelines Modified July 2014 Student Name: Period Experimentally Based Research Paper Rubric Your final paper should be put together in the order presented
Running head: 50 CHARACTER VERSION OF TITLE IN CAPS 1 Title of Paper (up to 12 words) Your Name, Including Middle Initial School 50 CHARACTER VERSION OF TITLE IN CAPS 2 Abstract A concise summary of each
EDITING AND PROOFREADING Use this sheet to help you: recognise what is involved in editing and proofreading develop effective editing and proofreading techniques 5 minute self test Read the following statements
JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL FOR HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT STRUCTURE FOR RESEARCH PROJECT AND THESIS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS 1. STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL A) Title page
Table of Contents Grade 4 Module 2 Time Frame: About 7 Days Unit Conversions and Problem Solving with Metric Measurement Topic A: Metric Unit Conversions 3 4 days By the end of Topic A, your students will
Running head: SAMPLE APA PAPER FOR STUDENTS 1 RUNNING HEAD: Yes, it will say, Running head:...., but only on the first page. Use an abbreviated form of the title (not exceeding 50 characters, which will
HSU Thesis and Project Format Requirements HSU format requirements were developed to assist you in preparation of a thesis/project for publication through Humboldt Digital Scholar. It is your responsibility
Page # 31: 1. What is the scientific method? A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories supported by data.
PUBLIC POLICY 29800 FALL 2007 PUBLIC POLICY B.A. PAPER CHECKLIST This overview of requirements/helpful hints for your final B.A. papers in Public Policy includes the following sections: 1. Paper Sections
WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER FOR A GRADUATE SEMINAR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Ashley Leeds Rice University Here are some basic tips to help you in writing your research paper. The guide is divided into six sections
APA General Format: Research Papers General format for papers written in APA style is covered in the first chapter of the Publication Manual (Call number here at Morrisville College Library: REF BF 76.7.P83
EDITING YOUR THESIS Some useful pointers What is involved? Editing is all about making it easy for the reader to read your work. The editing process involves looking at the work in three distinct ways:
THIS IS THE RUNNING HEAD IN UP TO 50 CHARACTERS 1 (The running head is what gets printed across the top of journal pages. The 50 characters include spaces. It usually contains as much as the title that
A P A 6 th Edition Sample Paper Text Margins 1 inch all around Typing -Do not break (hyphenate) words at end of a line. -Indent the first line of every paragraph except for the abstract page (The default
DEPARTMENT OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES DISSERTATION FORMATTING The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, sixth edition (American Psychological Association, 2010, ISBN # 1-4338-0561-8),
Section 1 Tools and Measurement Key Concept Scientists must select the appropriate tools to make measurements and collect data, to perform tests, and to analyze data. What You Will Learn Scientists use
1 EDF65 Literature Review & Research Proposal Directions 1) Introduction You may choose any quantitative research study related to education or psychology. While not required, I encourage you to propose
FW472 LIMNOLOGY [Spring 2011] LITERATURE REVIEW PAPER Dr. Soranno 1 of 5 A literature review paper reviews and synthesizes the current understanding of a particular topic. It is a very useful way to become
Master of Science Education Capstone Experience Handbook Thesis/Project Revised 11/6/2012 Contents INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS A CAPSTONE EXPERIENCE?... 3 Capstone Experience Options... 3 Which Option is Right
Independent University, Bangladesh UNDERGRADUATE SENIOR PROJECT MANUAL Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Copyright Dept. of EEE, IUB Guidelines for senior project These guidelines may serve
BIRKBECK, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences BSc Earth Science Project (SCES017D6); BSc Environmental Geology Project (SCES020D6); BSc Geology field-based project (SCES021D6)
1 GRAM = HOW MANY MILLIGRAMS? (1) Take the 1-gram expression and place the decimal point in the proper place. 1 gram is the same as 1.0 gram (decimal point in place) (2) Move that decimal point three places
Report Writing Guide F2009 1 REPORT WRITING GUIDE Introduction The importance of good report writing and data presentation cannot be overemphasized. No matter how good an experiment, or how brilliant a
Liberty High School Science Department Lab Report Format General Information: 12 pt Times New Roman font Double Spaced 1 inch margins Always write in third person Write in Full Sentences except for the
NAME Lab Day DATA EXPRESSION AND ANALYSIS LABORATORY 1 OBJECTIVES Understand the basis of science and the scientific method. Understand exponents and the metric system. Understand the metric units of length,
Fifth Grade History and Social Science Design Brief Model of a Colony Background: The class has been learning about the American Colonies during the 1700s. We have studied the New England, Mid-Atlantic,
Guideline for Writing a Master s Thesis and Research Project / Internship Reports Master s Programme Life Science Economics and Policy Adapted from: General Advice on How to Write Scientific Papers Edition:
Creating APA Style Research Papers (6th Ed.) All the recommended formatting in this guide was created with Microsoft Word 2010 for Windows and Word 2011 for Mac. If you are going to use another version
University of Missouri St. Louis College of Education Dissertation Handbook: The Recommended Organization and Format of Doctoral Dissertations 2006 Note: This handbook only addresses formatting standards.
BCMB 496: BIOCHEMISTRY/MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SENIOR RESEARCH Course Description Biochemistry/Molecular Biology senior research is a two-semester long independent research project that culminates in the submission
Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education and Psychology Dissertation Format Requirements Manual APA 6 th edition format Version 10/29/2010 Table of Contents A. PEPPERDINE UNIVERSITY FORMAT...
Title: Grade and Subject: Number of Days for Completion of the Project: Overarching Project Goals/Outcomes: Making a Poster 9 th -12 th grades; GK-12 Elective Course 1 Understanding how to create a scientific
Bates College Department of Biology PEER REVIEW FORM Reviewer s Bates ID#: Authors Bates ID# s: Guidelines: This peer review is to be done anonymously. Your task is to help the author to write a better,
MALAYSIAN JOURNAL OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION (MJLI) FORMATTING YOUR ARTICLE ARTICLE COMPONENTS Abstract Structured abstract must be a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article. It allows
University of Connecticut Writing Center Writing a Psychology Literature Review There are two main approaches to a literature review in psychology. One approach is to choose an area of research, read all
Masters in Information Systems Management- Thesis Guidelines The preparation of a master s thesis is a systematic process that starts in the first semester and finishes with the defense of the final thesis
Name Testing the Effectiveness of Antacid Tablets 1 This packet is a step-by-step guide to designing and carrying out your science project. In this science project, you will use a titration to see which
YOUR SCIENCE PROJECT ORGANIZATION IS IMPORTANT FOR ANY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. YOU WILL KEEP ALL OF YOUR RESEARCH, DATA, AND CONCLUSIONS IN A BINDER WITH DIVIDERS SEPARATING 17 MAIN AREAS. YOUR BINDER SHOULD
Biological Principles Lab: Scientific Measurements Name: PURPOSE To become familiar with the reference units and prefixes in the metric system. To become familiar with some common laboratory equipment.
Running head: NEUROSCIENCE TERM PAPER 1 Format, Style, and Suggested Topics for Neuroscience Term Paper W. Jeffrey Wilson Albion College NEUROSCIENCE TERM PAPER 2 Abstract A term paper on any topic concerning
HOW TO WRITE A TECHNICAL REPORT by Alan Smithee A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for ME 000 Some Course Department of Mechanical Engineering Fictitious Institute of Technology