1 REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois 2013 Award for Outstanding Concrete Repair Projects
2 Project Abstract REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois PROJECT ABSTRACT The Repair and Preventative Maintenance of the East Monroe Parking Garage was a fast paced 15-month renovation project in the heart of downtown Chicago. The underground parking facility is located below Grant Park and covers a foot print of 760 feet wide by 1200 feet long. The parking garage is part of the largest parking system in the United States and has three levels with two underground parking levels accommodating 3,850 vehicles. The garage has been in operation for almost four decades and has exterior and interior structural elements that were severely deteriorated. The entire garage received upgrades including extensive concrete repairs, new waterproofing systems, new elevator, escalators, HVAC, and renovations to the North Lobby. One of the most crucial aspects of the project was the hydro-demolishing of the concrete deck on the upper level of the parking garage and replacing the concrete. There are only a hand-full of contractors in the country that specialize in hydrodemolition.
3 Sustainability Initiative REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVE East Monroe Parking Garage project required the collection, treatment, and re-use of over 11 million gallons of water resulting from the hydro-demolition process. The team hired an independent testing agency to treat and test the water to ensure compliance with any City of Chicago water quality standards prior to depositing any waste water into the storm or sanitary sewer system. Testing of the waste water was done every 14 calendar days. Prior to releasing waste water offsite, waste water was run through settling tanks and then filtered to remove particles in excess of 100 microns. Once the water had passed through the filter system, it was then be treated to reduce the PH level to meet discharge requirements. No water was released until tests indicated that the waste water met requirements stipulated by the City.
4 Project Description REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS The East Monroe Parking Garage was originally constructed in It is a three level facility with two underground parking levels to accommodate 3,850 vehicles. The facility includes about 1,470,000 square feet of garage space. Along with three other related parking facilities, they provide over 9,000 parking spaces beneath Chicago s Millennium and Grant Park in downtown Chicago and adjacent to Lake Michigan. The East Monroe Garage has a 753 x 1179 footprint. The top (roof lid) level supports Maggie Daley Park. This 20+ acre park is currently under renovation and when completed in 2015, will feature multisensory landscaping, an ice skating ribbon, rock climbing sculptures, play gardens and multiple event spaces. CAUSES OF DETERIORATION / PROBLEMS THAT PROMPTED REPAIR The parking garage has been in operation for almost four decades. Exterior and interior structural elements were severely deteriorated from seasonal and environmental exposure. This exposure caused corrosion damage to the concrete walls, columns, slabs, and ceilings. Structural condition surveys discovered that much of the concrete had extensive deterioration, delamination, and spalling on the surfaces. The majority of the deterioration was due to corrosion of embedded top reinforcing steel and a chloride contaminated environment. The structural slab consists of 9-inches of conventionally reinforced concrete. There were a variety of traffic bearing, waterproofing systems of different vintages on the top floor surfaces. All existing top reinforcing steel was deteriorated and in need of replacement. Cracks in the concrete leaked severely, exposing portions of the structure to both topside and underside deterioration.
5 Project Description REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois INSPECTION/EVALUATION METHODS AND TEST RESULTS Preliminary recommendations included complete slab replacement in all areas of the structure. Indeed, extensive full depth deterioration was noted in primary areas such as the entrance/exit lanes and primary drive lanes and ramps. However, the extent of the deterioration was visually less in parking module areas. Additional testing (chloride and corrosion half cell potentials) at the underside of many slab areas revealed little or no chloride contamination or corrosion potentials. Accordingly, the engineering firm designed a unique approach that incorporated hydromilling to remove the chloride contaminated portions of the slabs. A combination of full depth repairs and a partial depth overlay was adapted as a cost effective, long-term repair approach while updating the structure to meet the current requirements of the Chicago Building Code. A new, (dry) sprinkler fire suppression system and fire doors were installed. These new features provided an added benefit in that it permitted the removal of every other fire separation wall to create new open areas of 80,000 square feet versus the original 40,000 square feet, enhancing the parking experience from a site visibility and security standpoint. SITE PREPARATION The original plan called for the underground garage to remain partially open during the restoration but, due to the fast-track nature of the project and the logistical difficulties in decommissioning existing life safety systems in an underground structure and bringing all new life safety systems on line in reopened areas, a different approach was pursued. It was decided that the facility would be closed and the work would proceed in the shortest possible time. The goal was to complete the project in approximately half the original allotted time. Before work could begin, all vehicles were cleared from the facility. Additional site preparation measures included creating a detailed logistics plan, which was a challenge since crews needed to share an entrance with an adjacent garage that remained open at all times. All pumping equipment and trucks needed to safely stay out of the way of live traffic.
6 Project Description REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois DEMOLITION METHOD Hydro-demolition (milling) was chosen as the most efficient approach. The combination of underground work and hydro-demolition posed distinct challenges not typically present in most projects. The roaring noise coming from the specialized equipment was over 100 decibels, creating a communication challenge. Furthermore, 36,000 psi of water pressure was used to selectively remove portions or all of the slab surface. Hand chipping was performed around columns and drop head using 15 lb. air hammers. The use of hydro-demolition equipment required us to enforce special safety precautions. Faceshields, safety glasses, and walkie-talkies kept our crews safe and in constant communication. Since the garage consists of two parking levels (upper and lower levels), fall hazards were prevalent on the upper levels due to holes that were a result of blowthroughs (a.k.a. full depth removal). Nets were erected at areas adjacent to hydrodemolition work to separate and protect workers. SURFACE PREPARATION After the completion of the hydrodemolition, rebar was inspected to meet the criteria in the specifications. Any bar that did not meet specs was removed. To ensure proper bonding, workers sandblasted partial depth areas. The surface was then cleaned by blowing and vacuuming to eliminate any foreign matter that might interfere with adhesion to the existing slab. APPLICATION METHOD SELECTION Each full depth area was framed, and new epoxy-coated steel was installed in the top mat of reinforcing throughout as well as in the bottom mat in full depth areas. Concrete was placed from the top surface through air shafts by truck pumps. A pipe system was brought in to be used once underground to transport the concrete to the placement area. From that point, the slabs were water cured according to the specifications. To ensure the longevity of the new structure, low water-cement ratio concrete, epoxy coated steel and a polyester reinforced hot rubberized waterproofing membrane was placed over the water cured slabs. This high performance waterproofing system was then protected by a minimum 1 ½ inch thick, asphalt paved driving surface. The new slab surfaces were shot blasted clean to ensure proper bond of the membrane to the slab.
7 Project Description REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois REPAIR PROCESS EXECUTION Debris from the demolition had to be moved in order to place the shoring for the frame work. The surface of partial depth areas were sandblasted and cleaned. The next step of the process was saturating the surface with water, covering it with wet burlap, and then covering it with plastic to retain the moisture for a minimum of 24 hours. The plastic and burlap was peeled back one bay ahead of the pour on the day of placement. The slabs were poured in 14-foot bays at an average of 18,000 SF per pour. The surface was then wet cured using the burlap and plastic from the SSD. The north exterior wall showed severe deterioration from years of exposure to moisture and de-icing slats that leaked through a failed expansion joint from the public sidewalk area above. The delaminated concrete was removed from the wall, surface then sandblasted, inspected, and new reinforcement was placed. The wall needed to be framed and saturated until placement. The concrete was placed mainly by truck pumping selfconsolidating concrete along with handmixed material into a framed cavity. All the work was done off of swing stages. UNFORESEEN CONDITIONS FOUND Unexpected and unforeseen conditions that presented unique challenges to our team included re-shoring column drop heads due to the extensive amount of full depth repairs which compromised the drop head connection to the existing floor. A complete re-design of fire suppression systems was necessary based on the City of Chicago requirement of a two sourced water supply for the for the dry sprinkler system which involved direction boring to tap into the waterline from Monroe Street. Another unique challenge special to the East Monroe Garage project is its ventilation, lighting, communication, and egress based on its underground location. The accelerated project schedule created a unique challenge. The schedule called for us to complete the project in 455 days so working through the winter months was a must. Additionally, working in the heart of the City of Chicago presented many logistical challenges. There was a time period during the winter months were we worked 24 hours a day due to cold and freezing temperatures which made job conditions extremely difficult to manage. Controlling the water usage and collection while allowing proper drainage throughout the freezing temperatures was a challenge.
8 Project Description REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois UNFORESEEN CONDITIONS FOUND - continued Other significant unforeseen conditions include: Micro silica overlay on existing slab entrance required removal Amount of unreinforced and/or under reinforced drop heads Total area repaired on the North wall increased by thousands of SF SPECIAL FEATURES THAT MAKE THE PROJECT WORTHY OF AN AWARD The Repair and Preventative Maintenance at the East Monroe Street Parking Garage revitalized an essential commuter hub in downtown Chicago. This project was extremely unique due to the fact it was entirely underground. Ventilation, temporary lighting, wireless phone usage, and ingress/egress to the site are typically not a cause for concern on most projects. But being underground is a different scenario. Maintaining proper ventilation and lighting were major concerns. Supply and exhaust fans surrounding the garage were monitored daily to ensure they were functioning properly and carbon monoxide levels were monitored regularly. Without proper ventilation, none of the machines and equipment could be used. The main culprit, of course, was the hydro-demolition machine. Not only did it exhaust a large amount of carbon monoxide, it also emitted a lot of heat and introduced a tremendous amount of moisture into the air. When these machines were running at full capacity, a mist formed around it causing humidity and visibility concerns in the area and the water spray guns only made things worse. Blowers/ fans were situated at these areas to combat these hazards. An ice box was provided to battle heat exhaustion among the workers. Also, additional land-lines were installed at various locations within the garage. All of these measures ensured a safe and successful project.
9 Project Description REPAIR AND PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE EAST MONROE PARKING GARAGE Chicago, Illinois WHAT SETS THIS PROJECT APART? Full Depth Replacement: 234,000 SF New Concrete Overlay Replacement: 800,000 SF OVER 1,000,000 SF Overhead Repairs: 5,000 SF Vertical Repairs to the North Wall: 13,000 SF Yards of Concrete: 15,000 Pounds of Steel: 1,432,000 East Monroe Garage is the largest of the four garage parking system that makes up the largest underground parking system in the world. Unique demolition and concrete repair to a below ground structure Restoration to a facility incorporating long-term solutions that will last the test of time Repair of corrosion and moisture damage to an entire concrete structure and exterior vertical walls Working under unique and hazardous conditions, on a scale that has never in history been seen on an underground parking structure Unique solutions to unexpected and unforeseen conditions Extradited work schedule that was completed in a short amount of time Replacement of concrete at the parking entrance where there was live traffic Volume of water and debris from lower-level demolition completely removed Totals of 15,000 yards of concrete, over 600 tons of steel and pumping from the top surface underground with pipe that runs as long as 1,200 feet As part of the park renovation project over the garage, a complete membrane tear off and re-waterproofing of the top level was performed
10 Existing drive lane of the parking garage prior to repair.
11 Existing ceiling of the Lower Level prior to repair.
12 Existing conditions on the North wall prior to repair.
13 Up to five hydro-demolition machines working at once.
14 Lower level shoring and re-shoring due to unforeseen conditions.
15 North wall demolition and prep for receiving concrete.
16 Pre-pour inspection of a concrete slab that includes full depth repairs.
17 Crews pouring concrete.
18 Pouring of concrete at the North wall.
19 Waterproofing and asphalt process on the upper level.
20 Waterproofing of the parking garage and repaired ceiling prior to painting.
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