1 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 1 of 14 1 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 2 DISTRICT OF PUERTO RICO 3 THE SENATE OF THE COMMONWEALTH 4 OF PUERTO RICO, through its 5 6 President, Hon. Kenneth McClintock, Civil No (JAF) 7 Plaintiff, 8 v. 9 Hon. Aníbal Acevedo Vilá, in 10 his official capacity as 11 GOVERNOR OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF 12 PUERTO RICO; Hon. Juan Carlos 13 Méndez, in his official 14 capacity as SECRETARY OF THE 15 TREASURY OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF 16 PUERTO RICO; and Eng. Ileana 17 Fas Pacheco, in her official 18 capacity as DIRECTOR OF THE 19 OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND 20 BUDGET, 21 Defendants. 22 OPINION AND ORDER 23 On October 11, 2005, Plaintiff, the Senate of the Commonwealth 24 of Puerto Rico ( Plaintiff or the Senate ), filed the present 25 action against Defendants, Aníbal Acevedo Vilá ( the Governor ), Juan 26 Carlos Méndez, and Ileana Fas Pacheco in their official capacities 27 ( Defendants or, collectively, the Executive Branch ), seeking 28 injunctive relief under section 37 of the Federal Relations Act 29 ( FRA ), 48 U.S.C. 821 (2003). Docket Document No. 1. On October 30 12, 2005, we ordered the parties to file memoranda regarding our 31 jurisdictional power to hear this case. Docket Document No. 6. On
2 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 2 of 14 Civil No (JAF) -2-1 October 17, 2005, both parties complied with the order. Docket 2 Document Nos. 14, 15, 16. Defendants concomitantly moved to dismiss 3 for lack of subject matter jurisdiction. Docket Document No Upon review of the parties submissions, we find that Plaintiff s 5 claim does not bear upon a federal question. Accordingly, we do not 6 have subject matter jurisdiction over this matter. 7 II. 8 Factual Synopsis 9 The present case involves a power struggle between the Executive 10 and Legislative Branches of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. On July 11 1, 2005, the Legislative Assembly (consisting of two houses, one of 12 which is the Senate) submitted the General Budget for fiscal year ( the Budget FY05") to the Governor for his signature. The 14 Governor did not sign the Budget FY05 within thirty days of its 15 submission, effectively vetoing the bill. Absent a budget for the 16 present fiscal year, the appropriations approved for the previous 17 year ( the Budget FY04") remained in effect. On August 30, 2005, the 18 Governor issued an executive order redistributing the appropriations 19 stipulated in the Budget FY Plaintiff argues that the August 30 order amounted to an 21 executive usurpation of legislative power, as the Governor 22 unilaterally altered the Budget FY04's appropriations as they applied 23 to the fiscal year, effectively creating a new budget by 24 law without the legislative branch s approval.
3 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 3 of 14 Civil No (JAF) -3-1 III. 2 Standard of Review 3 Under Rule 12(b)(1), a defendant may move to dismiss an action 4 against him for lack of federal subject matter jurisdiction. See FED. 5 R. CIV. P. 12(b)(1). Federal courts are courts of limited 6 jurisdiction, and must monitor their jurisdictional boundaries 7 vigilantly. Diaz-Rodriguez v. Pep Boys Corp., 410 F.3d 56, 62 n.5 8 (1st Cir. 2005)(quoting Am. Fiber & Finishing, Inc. V. Tyco 9 Healthcare Group, LP, 362 F.3d 136, 139 (1st Cir. 2004)). 10 Consequently, even absent a motion by the party seeking to avoid 11 federal jurisdiction, this court bares an obligation to inquire sua 12 sponte into its own subject matter jurisdiction. McCulloch v. Velez, F.3d 1, 5 (1st Cir. 2004). In either case, the party asserting 14 jurisdiction has the burden of demonstrating its existence. See 15 Skwira v. United States, 344 F.3d 64, 71 (1st Cir. 2003) (citing 16 Murphy v. United States, 45 F.3d 520, 522 (1st Cir. 1995)); Diaz- 17 Rodriguez, 410 F.3d at In the case at bar, we raised the 18 jurisdictional issue on our own initiative, but gave both parties the 19 opportunity to voice their respective positions. Docket Document No Defendant subsequently moved for dismissal. Docket Document No Rule 12(b)(1) is a large umbrella, overspreading a variety of 23 different types of challenges to subject-matter jurisdiction, 24 including ripeness, mootness, the existence of a federal question,
4 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 4 of 14 Civil No (JAF) -4-1 diversity, and sovereign immunity. Valentin v. Hosp. Bella Vista, F.3d 358, (1st Cir. 2001). The present case turns on the 3 existence of a federal question, which presents a sufficiency 4 challenge. Id. at 363. We will take the plaintiff s 5 jurisdictionally-significant facts as true and assess whether the 6 plaintiff has propounded an adequate basis for subject-matter 7 jurisdiction. Id.. 8 III. 9 Analysis 10 Plaintiff argues that the Governor s unilateral manipulation of 11 the Budget FY04 usurps authority delegated by the U.S. Congress to 12 the Puerto Rico Legislative Assembly under 37 of the FRA, which 13 states, [t]he legislative authority shall extend to all matters of 14 a legislative character U.S.C Plaintiff 15 interprets 821 as establishing federal court jurisdiction over 16 disputes involving the scope of the Commonwealth legislature s 17 authority vis-à-vis other branches of Commonwealth government. 18 Docket Document No Both parties acknowledge, at the outset of their respective 20 memoranda, that this court would not have subject matter jurisdiction 21 over this separation-of-powers conflict if Puerto Rico were a state, 22 rather than a commonwealth. Docket Document Nos. 14, 16. When 23 threatened by a perceived usurpation of power from their executive 24 counterparts, state legislatures have frequently sought federal court
5 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 5 of 14 Civil No (JAF) -5-1 intervention under the Guarantee Clause of the U.S. Constitution, 2 which provides: The United States shall guarantee to every State in 3 this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of 4 them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of 5 the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against 6 domestic Violence. U.S. CONST. art. IV, 4, cl. 1. Federal courts 7 have consistently concluded that the Guarantee Clause does not 8 require states to adopt a specific formula for the separation and 9 sharing of powers among branches of their government, and that 10 separation-of-powers disputes are therefore non-justiciable. Id., 11 construed in New York v. United States, 505 U.S. 144, (1992)(except in rare circumstances, Guarantee Clause claims present 13 nonjusticiable political questions ); Mayor of Phila. v. Educ. Equal. 14 League, 415 U.S. 605, 615 n.13 (1974) ( The Constitution does not 15 impose on the States any particular plan for the distribution of 16 governmental powers. ); Colegrove v. Green, 328 U.S. 549, 556 (1946) 17 ( Violation of the great guaranty of a republican form of government 18 in States cannot be challenged in the courts. ); Pac. States Tel. & 19 Tel. Co. v. Oregon, 223 U.S. 118, 142 (1912)(holding that whether a 20 state has ceased to be republican in form, in discord with the 21 Guarantee Act, is a political question, solely for Congress ); 22 Largess v. Supreme Judicial Court for Mass., 373 F.3d 219, 227 (1st 23 Cir. 2004)(the Guarantee Clause does not authorize federal court 24 intervention in state separation-of-powers conflicts).
6 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 6 of 14 Civil No (JAF) -6-1 Defendants argue that as state separation-of-powers disputes are 2 non-justiciable under the Guarantee Clause, so too are Commonwealth 3 disputes non-justiciable under the FRA. Plaintiff argues that this 4 case is distinguishable from Guarantee Clause cases because the 5 current controversy relates to the authority delegated by Congress 6 under 821 rather than the sovereign powers of a State implicated 7 by cases brought under the Guarantee Clause. Docket Document No To assess the merits of both parties claims, we must examine the 9 history and the evolution of the FRA to determine its full purpose 10 and scope. 11 A. Legislative History 12 Between 1898 and 1950 Congress passed two organic acts to 13 establish internal government for Puerto Rico. The first of these 14 organic acts, the Foraker Act, was enacted in 1900 and directed that 15 [t]he [local] legislative authority shall extend to all matters of 16 a legislative character Stat. 83 (1900). This directive 17 was later incorporated verbatim as 37 of the second organic act, 18 the Jones Act, which was passed in Stat. 964; 48 U.S.C (1950). 20 In 1950, control over the organization of Puerto Rico s internal 21 government shifted when Congress enacted Public Law 600 ( P.L. 600 ), 22 authorizing Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution. Pub. L. No , 64 Stat. 319 (1950) (codified at 48 U.S.C. 731b, et seq.). 24 P.L. 600 required Puerto Rico s new constitution to establish a
7 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 7 of 14 Civil No (JAF) -7-1 republican form of government and a bill of rights, and, effective 2 upon the constitution s ratification, P.L. 600 repealed sections of 3 the Jones Act pertaining to the structure of Puerto Rico s executive, 4 judicial, and legislative branches of government. 731c; P.L. 600, 5 ch. 446, 5, 64 Stat. 319 (1950). Among the provisions repealed 6 were sections: vesting legislative powers in the bicameral 7 Legislature of Puerto Rico ; relating to the election, number, and 8 qualifications of senators and representatives; stipulating terms of 9 office for senators and representatives; and relating to legislative 10 procedures, including with those concerning the approval or veto of 11 legislation by the Governor of Puerto Rico. Id.; Letter of Secretary 12 of Interior Oscar Chapman to Hon. Joseph C. O'Mahoney, Senate 13 Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs (May 19, 1950), H.R. REP , at Section 37, which vests Puerto Rico s local 15 legislature with legislative authority, was not among the deleted 16 provisions. 17 B. Section Plaintiff avers that 37's survival into the post- 19 constitutional era indicates that the Puerto Rico Legislature s 20 authority remains delegated by Congress such that any attempt by 21 the Executive branch to usurp the exercise of legislative authority 22 that was expressly and exclusively delegated by Congress to the 23 Legislative Assembly constitutes a violation of federal law
8 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 8 of 14 Civil No (JAF) -8-1 cognizable by the judicial power of the United States. Docket 2 Document No Defendants argue that 37 cannot justify federal jurisdiction 4 for territorial separation-of-powers disputes because the statute 5 does not speak at all to the issue of the separation of powers of 6 the government of Puerto Rico, as it does not define the powers 7 conferred on the Commonwealth s other two branches. Id. 8 We are convinced that the Defendant's argument is correct. We 9 decline to imply a federally enforceable three-branch local 10 constitutional system for Puerto Rico from 37 for the important and 11 obvious reason that the people of Puerto Rico have already 12 meticulously crafted their own locally enforceable three-branch 13 constitutional system in P.R.CONST. Arts. III, IV, V. 14 Confronted with an apparent dissonance in Congress s complete 15 dismantling of the federally-mandated legislative institutions, on 16 the one hand, and its preservation of 37, on the other hand, we are 17 unsatisfied with Plaintiff s explanation that Congress thereby 18 intended to protect the Puerto Rico legislature s domain from threats 19 by the Commonwealth s executive and judicial branches. Because provides that legislative authority shall extend to all matters of 21 a legislative character, but remains silent as to the executive or 22 judicial branches of government, Plaintiff s interpretation would 23 lead to the surprising result that the Puerto Rico Legislative 24 Assembly enjoys federal review of any actions abrogating the scope of
9 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 9 of 14 Civil No (JAF) -9-1 its authority, while the two remaining branches of Commonwealth 2 government are denied an equivalent privilege. We find this result 3 untenable. 4 Given P.L. 600's repeal of the Jones Act provisions setting forth the 5 structure of the Puerto Rico Legislature the only explanation we can divine 6 for the simultaneous retention of 37 is a Congressional intent to 7 preserve a legislative body to effectuate the constitutional task 8 central to P.L. 600's mandate. Our supposition is confirmed by the 9 statute s language: upon Puerto Rico s acceptance of P.L. 600's 10 proposal that it creates its own constitution through an island-wide 11 referendum, the Legislature of Puerto Rico is authorized to call a 12 constitutional convention to draft a constitution for... Puerto 13 Rico. 48 U.S.C. 731c. Absent 37's continued existence there 14 would be no legislative body left intact to proceed with the task of 15 creating and implementing a constitution. 16 As Congress weighed passage of P.L. 600 in the spring of 1950, 17 Secretary of the Interior Oscar L. Chapman advised the Senate 18 Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs that: 19 The sections of the organic act which section 5 20 of the bill would repeal are the provisions of 21 the act concerned primarily with the 22 organization of the local executive, 23 legislative, and judicial branches of the 24 government of Puerto Rico and other matters of 25 purely local concern. These matters would be 26 provided for in any constitution adopted and any 27 local government organized by the people of 28 Puerto Rico.
10 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 10 of 14 Civil No (JAF) H.R. REP , at The House Committee on Public Lands 2 echoed Chapman's sentiments that the three branches organization 3 were matters of purely local concern in its own P.L. 600 report. 4 Id. at This purely local admonition would be rendered 5 toothless if federal courts were permitted to enforce a designated 6 balance of powers in Puerto Rico by reference to Federal case law reflects an clear understanding of Congress s 8 intent to provide for the organization of a constitutional government 9 by the people of Puerto Rico that does not contemplate federal 10 jurisdiction over purely local affairs. See United States v. 11 Quinones, 758 F.2d 40, 41 (1st Cir. 1985)(P.L. 600 was intended to 12 accord to Puerto Rico the degree of autonomy and independence 13 normally associated with States of the Union. ); Puerto Rico v. 14 Branstad, 483 U.S. 219, (1987) (quoting Examining Bd. of 15 Engineers, Architects and Surveyors v. Flores de Otero, 426 U.S. 572, (1976)). Since 1953, the U.S. Supreme Court and lower federal 17 courts have determined that Puerto Rico, like a state, is an 18 autonomous political entity, sovereign over matters not ruled by the 19 Constitution. Rodriguez v. Popular Democratic Party, 457 U.S (1982) (quoting Calero-Toledo v. Pearson Yacht Leasing Co., 416 U.S , 673 (1974)). See e.g. Mora v. Mejias, 115 F. Supp. 610 (D.P.R ); Marin v. Univ. of P.R., 346 F. Supp. 470, 481 (D.P.R. 1972); 23 Suarez v. Administrador del Deporte Hipico de P.R., 354 F.Supp (D.P.R. 1972)).
11 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 11 of 14 Civil No (JAF) Pursuant to the Constitution of the Commonwealth, Puerto Rico 2 elects its Governor and legislature; appoints its judges, all 3 cabinet officials, and lesser officials in the executive branch; sets 4 its own educational policies; determines its own budget; and amends 5 its own civil and criminal code. Calero-Toledo v. Pearson Yacht 6 Leasing Co., 416 U.S. 663, (U.S. 1974)(citing Leibowitz, The 7 Applicability of Federal Law to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, 56 8 Geo. L. J. 219, 221 (1967); 28 Dept. of State Bull (1953); 9 Americana of P.R., Inc. v. Kaplus, 368 F.2d 431 (3d Cir. 1966)). 10 In light of this considerable body of law recognizing Puerto 11 Rico s sovereignty over its local affairs, Plaintiff s allegation 12 that the Commonwealth s separation of powers is mandated by 37 is 13 unsustainable. 14 Courts in the U.S. District of Puerto Rico have previously heard 15 cases involving Commonwealth separation-of-powers disputes. See 16 Acosta v. Agosto, 590 F. Supp. 144, 145 (D.P.R. 1984) (silent on 17 federal statutory or constitutional basis for subject matter 18 jurisdiction); Agosto v. Barcelo, 594 F. Supp. 1390, (D.P.R. 1984) (rev d, Hernandez-Agosto v. Romero-Barcelo, 748 F.2d 1 20 (1st Cir. 1984)(remanding to commonwealth court on other grounds). 21 However, we have found no case in which a court has interpreted to establish federal jurisdiction over power struggles between the 23 legislature and the other branches of government. We refuse to
12 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 12 of 14 Civil No (JAF) impinge upon the Commonwealth s sovereignty over its own affairs by 2 adopting Plaintiff s ill-supported reasoning. 3 C. Congressional Approval 4 Defendants speculate that Plaintiff may be arguing by 5 implication that Section 37 of the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act 6 somehow federalized the Puerto Rico Constitution, and particularly 7 those provisions that deal with the separation of powers. Docket 8 Document No. 14. Construed in this manner, Plaintiff s argument 9 still fails. The First Circuit has stated that the [Puerto Rico] 10 Constitution is not an act of Congress, though congressional approval 11 was necessary to launch it forth. Figueroa v. Puerto Rico, 232 F. 12 2d 615, 620 (1st Cir. 1956). 13 As Congress approved the constitution after assuring that it 14 constituted a republican form of government, it also conditioned 15 approval on the constitution s inclusion of a bill of rights. If we were 16 to follow the federalization argument to its logical extension, we would 17 reach the untenable result that federal courts would have exclusive 18 jurisdiction over all disputes involving the Puerto Rico constitution, in 19 order to assure that the Puerto Rico bill of rights continues in force. 20 Fortunately, nothing in P.L. 600 suggests that federal courts should 21 be responsible for interpretation and enforcement of Puerto Rico s 22 constitutional provisions. Federal jurisdiction over such matters 23 would impute to Congress the perpetration of a monumental hoax in
13 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 13 of 14 Civil No (JAF) its designation of Puerto Rico s governmental organization as a 2 purely local matter. Figueroa, 232 F.2d at IV. 4 Conclusion 5 Finally, we cannot refrain from expressing a concern presently 6 in the mind of the vast majority of members of this community to the 7 effect that elected officials in both the executive and legislative 8 branches have abandoned pursuit of reasoned solutions to the many 9 problems confronting present day Puerto Rico. This lawsuit and the 10 underlying controversy are telling evidence that bickering and lack 11 of political vision have obscured the minds of elected officials, to 12 society s great detriment. Entirely absent, meanwhile, is any sense 13 of responsibility or civic duty virtues that are indispensable to 14 effective governance. Political leadership in both the executive and 15 legislative branches must make paradigmatic changes to their 16 priorities and methods of operation, or the standstill presently 17 facing Puerto Rico will continue unabated. 18 Federal courts are limited in the remedies that they can 19 provide, and final judgment on the issues relevant herein rests with 20 the voting public, who will make their voices heard on election day. 21 Without regard to political accountability, however, we hope that the 22 parties to this dispute will rise above their petty quagmires to 23 provide positive, result-driven leadership to the Commonwealth of 24 Puerto Rico.
14 Case 3:05-cv JAF Document 20 Filed 10/19/05 Page 14 of 14 Civil No (JAF) For the reasons stated herein, this court lacks subject matter 2 jurisdiction over the present matter. Plaintiff s claims are 3 DISMISSED WITH PREJUDICE. Judgment to be entered accordingly. 4 IT IS SO ORDERED. th 5 San Juan, Puerto Rico, this 19 day of October, S/ José Antonio Fusté 7 JOSE ANTONIO FUSTE 8 Chief U.S. District Judge
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