Traffic Management Systems with Air Quality Monitoring Feedback. Phil Govier City & County of Swansea

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1 Traffic Management Systems with Air Quality Monitoring Feedback Phil Govier City & County of Swansea

2 The Swansea Project - what are we trying to achieve? Develop a working traffic emissions forecast model that feeds a traffic management system driven by air quality considerations. What will this enable us to achieve? The ability to forecast poor air quality conditions within any identified street up to 8 hours in advance of those conditions occurring and to attempt redirection of traffic from those areas.

3 The model chosen is the Nowcaster model developed by OPSIS of Sweden. Nowcaster will compute pollution loadings along the primary routes, initially located within the lower Swansea Valley road network every hour. It is the intention to expand the forecast in future years to cover the majority of the authorities area. Nowcaster will have an interface with variable messaging signs and will broadcast specific messages to specific signs in an attempt to manage the traffic flows.

4 Data requirements - a brief overview: Construction of an emissions database Identify and classify every road Details required of road width, pavement width, distance and height of buildings on each road section ( 3D map layer being purchased for building heights etc.) All industrial, point and area sources included within emissions database Digital maps

5 Major Data Inputs: Vehicle by vehicle traffic data. Meteorological forecasts. Real-time air quality monitoring data.

6 Traffic Data 30 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) ATC s installed within mainly Lower Swansea Valley Area GPRS ATC s manufactured and installed by Golden River Traffic Ltd ATC s produce a vehicle by vehicle count and classification to EUR6 standard Class Description 0 Unclassified 1 Motorcycle 2 Car or Light Van 3 Car or Light Van with Trailer 4 Heavy Van, Mini Bus, LGV, MGV or HGV 5 Articulated Lorry, HGV and Trailer 6 Bus

7 Vehicle by vehicle data records : The date and time the vehicle was detected The speed of the vehicle The direction of travel The EUR6 classification Data is transmitted from each of the ATC s via the GPRS data network in blocks of 5 minutes data to dedicated FTP servers located within Pollution Control.

8 GPRS Data transmittion route on Vodafone network

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13 Theory of Operation Loop monitoring utilises a form of metal detection based on magnetic induction by the metal content of a passing vehicle. A loop sensor consists of a coil of wire buried in the road. Typically a loop will be rectangular in shape and will have 4 turns of wire and measure 2.0m square (to UK standard MCH 1540C). The two ends of each loop are connected to the GPRS ATC The loops in the road are driven by an oscillator in the GPRS ATC. When a vehicle passes over the loop, it changes the loop inductance and alters the frequency and/or phase of oscillation. Loop cards within the ATC sense this change, and detect the leading and trailing edges of the metallic parts of the vehicle.. The figures below show the zone of detection, which spreads beyond the periphery of the loop. The first drawing shows a car just about to enter this zone and trigger the detector. The second drawing shows how a truck will enter the detection zone slightly later because it is higher above the road. The ATC compensates for this difference.

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17 Swansea 20 Fabian Way, Port Tennant 0.6M 2M 2.5M 2M Lane 4 N Flow > 4P 2M 4S 2M Channel 2 1.8M 2M 2M Lane 3 N Flow > 3P 2M 3S 2M Channel 2 0.6m 0.6M 2M 2.5M 2M Lane 2 S < Flow 2S 2M 2P 2M Channel 1 1.8m Lane 1 S < flow 1S 2M 1P 2M Channel 1 0.6M t-pole

18 Meteorological Data Meteorological data will be received via FTP from the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) in Denmark. The forecast will span three days as hourly time series. The forecasts will be updated four times every day, initialised at 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The weather forecasts include the following parameters: Wind speed (10 m, 80 m and 800 m), Wind direction (10 m, 80m and 800m), Temperature (2 m, 80 m and 800 m), Mean sea level pressure, Precipitation (convective, stratisform and snow), Boundary layer height, Friction velocity, surface heat flux, Relative humidity, Cloud cover (low and high).

19 Real Time Air Quality Data Data from all real-time air quality monitoring stations will be fed into the model Swansea AURN site ( data 15 minute integration) Morriston Groundhog (data 15 minute integration) * Morfa Groundhog (data 15 minute integration) * Hafod OPSIS Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) monitor (data 5 minute integration) * and also from the shortly to be established St.Thomas DOAS (data 5 minute integration) Uplands DOAS (data 5 minute integration) * Additional meteorological parameters available

20 Why bother to validate the model? Model Validation Seen as vital requirement of the project. Best achieved by validating the predicted model output against real-time air quality data measured along a typical congested street. The Hafod OPSIS DOAS measures NO, NO 2, O 3 and benzene approx. 18 inches from the front façade of a 250m section of terraced housing along Neath Road at a height of approximately 3-4 meters (first floor level)

21 As part of the validation process a meteorological station has been established opposite the DOAS transmitter - fixed to the front facade of the Post Office Parameters measured Vertical and horizontal wind speed and wind direction will be recorded at 1 st floor level. Horizontal wind speed and wind direction from roof ridge level. Global radiation, ambient air temperature and relative humidity measured at 1 st floor level. These measurements will have a resolution of 1 minute and will aid the definition of the vertices and mixing capacity of the street. These measurements will also be used to determine and evaluate the atmospheric chemistry responsible for the formation of NO 2 and ozone within the street.

22 Nowcaster will receive the compiled climatological datasets from the stations at the Guildhall, Morriston and Morfa Groundhog sites.

23 Air Quality (5 and 15 min) Traffic (1 min) The Swansea Nowcaster System Weather (1 minute and 15 minute) Weather forecast (6 hours) Data collection from monitoring stations and weather forecast from N.E.R.I. Time Series Database (TDB) Read the expected traffic volumes on all traffic links in the EDB and update the figures based on the sample of the most recent monitored traffic data Emission Database (EDB) Air Quality observations Weather observations Weather forecast Compute emission for all traffic links using emission factors from the EDB The EnviMan Street Pollution Model (OSPM) The adaptive modelling filter Real time emissions Real time EDB Message generator

24 Predictive Output Nowcaster will produce an hourly list of the road links predicated to fail any predefined level for the particular pollutant. Output can be produced for any of the various pollutants for up to 8 hours in advance of the conditions occurring for each road link. Nowcaster will also output the hourly predicted pollution levels in a colour coded graphical form on the pre-defined digital map

25 Any images generated will be uploaded to our air quality web pages (

26 More importantly, a link is being developed between Nowcaster and the Variable Message Signs interface TRAMS Nowcaster will send status signals (via a.csv file) to TRAMS for those section(s) of road links that are/may exceed the predefined levels. Variable Message Signs will be sited strategically on the road infrastructure - initially within the Lower Swansea Valley Area. (text and graphics) TRAMS will be pre-programmed with a set of logical instructions and messages to determine which sign receives which message for the existing/predicted conditions as not all signs will receive the same message. Variable Message Signs are customising the TRAMS interface for the Swansea application

27 This ability to forecast ahead allows an opportunity to attempt management of the traffic flows within the identified areas and for the traffic to be redirected away from those areas. It is planned to incorporate information relating to the availability of all parking spaces within the city centre as well as the authorities park and ride sites at Landore, Port Tennant and the proposed site at Fforestfach. This information should allow the motorist to make an informed decision regarding their final destination? Subsequent years will see the Nowcaster forecast expand to match the areas where new GPRS ATC s are established.

28 Any added benefits from the use of variable message signs? Information can be disseminated to the signs regarding traffic congestion/slow moving traffic ahead etc. as the system is able to detect the average speed of the traffic flow on any road link from the vehicle by vehicle GPRS speed data. Information regarding weather conditions i.e. ice on road / roadwork's ahead / scheduled roadwork's next week/information can all be sent.

29 What next? No answers as yet!! Extensive testing and development works remain: Complete the import and validation of the traffic data into the traffic emissions database. Complete the data collection for the emissions database Begin the validation of the Nowcaster output Establish and test the interface between Nowcaster and TRAMS Establish new GPRS ATC s in other heavily trafficked areas. Update the swansea.airqualitydata.com web pages with the Nowcaster output Integrate with other traffic management systems i.e. SCOOT as long term objective??

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