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2 REVIEW ARTICLE Global Impact Factor (GIF) (2013) AYURVEDIC DIET AND DIETETICS IN THE PREVENTION AND PROMOTION OF HEALTHY LIFE - A REVIEW Shital O. Chavan, 1* Yeshwant R. Patil 2 1. * Assistant Professor, Dept. of Swasthvritta, Government Ayurved College, Vazirabad, Nanded, , M.S, India, Professor and HOD. Dept. of Swasthavritta, Government Ayurved College Vazirabad, Nanded, , M.S, India, - Article Received on - 29 th March 2014 Article Revised on - 23 rd May 2014 Article Accepted on - 7 th July 2014 All articles published in IJAAM are peer-reviewed and can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for non commercial purpose (see copyright notice below). (Full Text Page IJAAM This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/deed.en_us), which permits unrestricted non commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

3 REVIEW ARTICLE AYURVEDIC DIET AND DIETETICS IN THE PREVENTION AND PROMOTION OF HEALTHY LIFE - A REVIEW *Corresponding Author Shital O. Chavan Assistant Professor, Dept. of Swasthvritta, Government Ayurved College, Vazirabad, Nanded, , M.S, India, QR Code IJAAM ABSTRACT: In the present scenario of 21 st century greater emphasis has been given on preventive and promotive aspects of health. We understand the usage of one basic need of our life i.e. food. The food is an important factor for every human being to attain a good health. In Ayurveda there is description of three sub pillar of life. Among them Diet has been given foremost importance. The food is an important factor for every human being to attain a good health. But the same food can also act as poison if not taken wisely, due to busy lifestyle, irregular diet habit; this kind of negligence regarding a healthy food leads to numbers of diseases are increasing day by day. How food can play an important role in maintenance of good physical, mental, social and spiritual health will be well elaborate in full paper and also at the time of presentation. Key Words: Food, Health, Diet, Ayurveda, Sub pillar of life INTRODUCTION In the present scenario of 21 st century greater emphasis has been given on preventive and promotive aspects of health. Three sub pillars of life (Traya-Upasthamba) comprise of words traya i.e. three and upastsmbha ie sub supports of the body. That which supports the body is upastambha. As the sub pillars near the main pillars help to strengthen the house, similarly these upastambha supports the body along with tristhuna; the main three pillars i.e. Vatta, Pitta, Kapha [1]. Food, sleep and celibacy are considered as three supports of life. These support the life by providing strength, complexion nourishment and maintenance of body in the whole life span. The measures which are conductive to the body and nonconductive to the body should be given emphasis [2]. Three Upastanbha are outlined and explained about role of these factors in physical as well as mental health. The three Upastanbha are Aahaara (Food), Nidraa (Sleep) and Bhramacharya (Celibacy) i.e. regulated sexual conduct. Proper food replenishes the Bhautika constituents, sleep is helpful to soothe the mind and sensory motor apparatus and observance of celibacy or moderation in sex is responsible for spiritual well being. In Ayurveda, the term Aahara is referred as food. According to Ayurveda, the Aahara which passes through the process of aaharan is called as Aahara. Aahara is the food which is ingested; it includes all foods like eatable, lickables, drinkables etc. Food has given prime importance since Vedic period. It is considered as Brahma in Upanishad. Kasyapa gives it the name Mahabhaisajya. This is responsible for the growth, development and enhancement of ojas. Food is supreme or Brahma. All the beings originate from food; food is responsible for life of all beings. Anna is present in all living being in the form of food sheath Annamayakosa. No medicine is equivalent to food. It is possible to make a person disease free with just proper diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1. Review Ancient and Modern Text related to the topic. AIMS AND OBJECTS 1. To review the importance of diet and dietetics in prevention as well as promotion of healthy life. DIET (Aahara) Definition: Food that is taken for the purpose of nourishment of the body in the form of solids or liquids is known as Aahara. Anna or food is the best among things which sustain life. Acharya Charaka emphasises importance of food, wholesome and unwholesome food are responsible for happiness and misery respectively [3]. Most of the incurable diseases are produced due to improper food. So intelligent and self controlled person should consume conductive food in right Page2

4 quantity and at right time to prevent diseases. [4] There are many kinds of food articles. The different food article not only helps in nourishment, but also gives variety and different tastes for the person who consumes it. Foods articles can be classified into many category types. 1. Anna Dravya and Drava Dravya, 2. Animal origin and plant origin, 3. According to use like drinking, licking, chewing; etc. 4. Liquid, solid, semisolid, 5. Wholesome and unwholesome Sr Table 1: Classification of food articles According to Charaka According to Sushrut According to Astanga Sangraha No. Anna Dravya Drava Dravya Solid Liquid solid Liquid 1 Suka dhanya Jala Varga Suka dhanya Dhanya Jala Suka Jala 2 Sami dhanya Ksira Varga Sami dhanya Mansa Ksira Simbi Kshira 3 Kudhanya Dadhi Varga Mamsa Varga Phala Dadhi Krtanna Iksu 4 Mamsa Varga Takra Varga Phala Varga Shaka Takra Mamsa Madhu 5 Phala Varga Ghrita Varga Saka Varga Lavana Ghrita Shaka Taila 6 Saka Varga Taila Varga Harita Varga Krtanna Taila Phala Madya 7 Puspa Varga Madya Varga Gorasa Varga Anupan Madhu Aushadi dravya & - vanaspati 8 Kanda Varga Madhu Varga Madya Varga - Iksu Lavana Varga Iksu Varga Jala Varga - Madya Ksara Varga Mutra Varga Iksu Varga Dhatu Varga - Krtanna varga Ratna varga - Ahara Yoni Kritanna varga Benefits of food: Food helps in sustenance of the life of living beings. All living beings in the world require food. Complexion, clarity, good voice, longevity, intelligence, happiness, satisfaction, nourishments, strength and intellect are all present in food. Professional activities leading to happiness in this world, Vedic procedures leading to heaven and observance of truth, abstinence leading to liberation are all dependent on food [5]. Time for taking food: According to classics man should take food twice daily in the morning and evening. Consumption of food in between is contraindicated like Agnihotri. After evacuation of bowels, when senses are clear, body is light, clear belching, heart is devoid of blemishes, vayu is normal, interest for intake of food is present, and emptiness in stomach and hunger flares up, one should consume food [6]. After the digestion of rasa, dosa and mala, one should consume food without giving consideration to time. Proper belching, clarity, enthusiasm, proper evacuation of urges, lightness in the body, hunger and thirst are the features of proper digestion [7]. One should not take food within three hours (1 yama) of consumption of food as it leads to Rasodvega and one should not fast more than six hours (2 yama) as it leads to loss of strength. One should not consume food after the prescribed time or food should not be consumed in less or more quantity. Consumption of food before feeling of lightness produces Mandagni, indigestion or even death. If one consumes food after long gap, jatharagni gets destroyed by the aggravated Vata, producing difficulty to digest the food taken. Even through the food consumed in the morning is not digested properly; the food consumed in the evening does not get vitiated [8]. Importance of food containing six tastes Sweet, sour, salt, bitter, pungent and astringent are six tastes. Intake of all rasas is considered as superior and wholesome to the body. Intake of all six rasas is the best among strength enhancing factors. Even this has been mentioned in the context of order of intake of rasas while taking meal. [15] One should consume food in the following order, so that there is proper digestion of food. One should consume food with full concentration; begin with sweet taste, sour and salt in the middle and pungent, bitter and astringent at the end; to pacify physiologically aggravated vata, kapha and pitta respectively [9]. Page3

5 DIETETICS (RULE OF FOOD INTAKE) AAHAR VIDHI VESHAYATANANI (special conditions for intake of food) Eight factors have to be considered before taking food. They are Nature (prakruti), processing (karan), combination (samyoga), quantity (rasi), place (desa), time (kala), rules of taking food (upayoga samstha), and one who takes food (upaokta) [10]. 1. Nature (Prakruti) Here prakruti means natural quality of food and medicine like guru (heavy), laghu (light) etc. As black gram is heavy, green gram is light, pork is heavy and deer`s flesh is light [11] 2. Method of processing food (Karana) Karana means processing substance which leads to transformation of inherent characters of the substance. They are brought about by the treatment with water, application of heat, cleaning, washing, churning, storage, socking, place, maturing, flowering, impregnation, preservation and container etc. During formation of substance a particular mode of combination of panchbhuta impart particular properties to the drug or food. By processing there is change in qualities [12]. 3. Combination (samyoga) Samyoga is the combination of two or more substance. This result in manifestation of specific qualities, which are not present when present singly. Ex. combination of ghee and honey, fish and milk. [13] 4. Quantity (Rasi) Rasi is the quantity of food to be taken. It is of two types i.e. sarvagraha; the quantity of food taken in its entirety and parigrah; the quantity of each of this ingredients. [14] 5. Place (Desha) Place relates to habitat. It may be the place of growth, movement of a substance in a particular locality, like drugs grown in Himalaya are potent, those in desert are light, the desha can be divided into three types; Jangala, Anupa, Sadharana and food should be consumed accordingly. [15] 6. Time (Kala) The Jatharagni digest food, in absence of food it digests doshas, in absence of doshas it digests dhatus and ultimately in absence of dhatus it digests prana, as it takes away the life. So if one feels extremely hunger he should consumes food irrespective of time. One desirous of strength and longevity should consume food in the morning, only when food taken at night is digested properly. Acharya Chraka gives higher importance for intake of food at proper time for maintenance of positive health. [16] Two kind of time has described in ancient text i.e. Daily (Nityaga) and Conditional (Aavasthika). Daily (Nityaga) is in the form of day and night. One should consume food two times a day according to rules. One should consume food according to season as told in Rutucharya. Conditional (Avasthika) means according to diseases one should consume food which is conducive to the disease. In health one should see his age and consume food accordingly. [17] 7. Dietetics rules (Upayoga samstha) These are the rules for taking food for diseased as well as healthy. One should consume articles which are wholesome to body. They are the dietetics rules, dependent on symptoms of digestion; such as clear belching, enthusiasm, evacuation of urges accordingly, lightness, hunger and thirst are the features of proper digestion. [18] One should eat in proper quantity which is hot, unctuous, and not contradictory in potency and that too after proper digestion of previous meals. Food should be taken in proper place, without talking, laughing, with concentration of mind and considering oneself. [19] a. Eat warm food Warm food is tasty, increase digestive fire (jatharagni), gets digested quickly, vata gets pacified and reduces the excess of kapha. [20] b. Eat unctuous food Unctuous food is delicious, it stimulates the digestive fire, gets digested fast, vata gets pacified, nourishes the body, strengthens the sense organ, promotes strength, brings out good complexion. [21] c. Eat according to quantity If food is taken in proper quantity it prolongs life, it does not aggravate doshas, easily passes down to rectum, does not impair the power of digestion, gets digested without difficulty so food should be taken in proper quantity. [22] The food consumed in proper quantity at proper time always enhances digestion. It is also dependent on nature of food consumed. Heavy food should be Page4

6 consumed half of stomach, light food should not be consumed in excess. The amount of food consumed should be so that it gets digested easily. [23] d. Eat after feeling of hunger One should take food after the digestion of previous food. Otherwise improperly digested food mixes with food product and aggravates all doshas. [24] There is good appetite, pure eructation channels open up, unimpaired cardiac function, proper evacuation of faeces, flatus and urine, promotes longevity and growth. e. Eat food which is not contradictory One should take foods which are not having contradictory property. Otherwise person may get afflicted with skin diseases like kushta, visarpa etc. [25] f. Eat in desired place with desired articles By doing this one does not get afflicted with factor which result in emotional strain, one should be supplemented with all accessories. [26] g. Do not eat in hurry If food is taken very fast, then food may enter in wrong passage. It gets depressed and may not enter into stomach properly. One cannot relish the taste of the food. Person cannot make out some foreign bodies if present. [27] h. Do not eat very slowly Does not give satisfaction, eats more than required, food becomes cold, irregularly digested. [28] i. Eat with concentration without talking and laughing During eating one should not laugh or talk; similar problems occurs as in case of fast intake of food. [29] j. Eat after considering oneself thoroughly One should consume food in prescribed manner. The knowledge of usefulness of food, whether it is wholesome for him or not should be thought. [30] 8. Person who takes food (upabhokta) He is the one responsible for the habitual intake of things ie okasatmya. [31] CONCLUSION: Without proper diet, medicine is of no use. With proper diet, medicine is of no need. Diet is considered as the foremost factor for keeping oneself healthy. If diet is taken in proper manner it will maintain health and can even curb diseases. But if taken in an improper way it may be the causative factor for diseases as Mithya Ahara is said to be one of the causes for the occurrence of diseases in Ayurveda. Ayurveda provides a complete and systemic understanding about the effect of food on our physical and mental functioning. Ayurveda consider Aahara as not only food, but also the source of taste, smell and satisfaction. Ayurveda always recommends the best suited Aahara for each person based on his dosha prakruti. Ensure good health. It is more important than the medicine itself. To become a proud possessor of sound health, it is also equally important that your daily diet contains all the six tastes, time, quantity of food and considering all dietetics explained in Ayurveda. When food was taken in disproportion, result into distortion in any of the three doshas or body humors and which result into production of various diseases. Ayurveda consider Aahara as a medicinal as one of the main factors to achieve optimal health. Each and every bite of food that we consume contributes to our health or ill health. REFERENCE: 1. Dr. Bramhananda Tripathi & Dr. Ganga Sahay Pandey, Caraka Samhita Sutrasthana, 2 nd edition, Choukhamba Surbharti Publication,2007 verse No.11/35:p Ibid 35:p Ibid verse No.28/45:p Ibid. verse No.06/11:p Ibid verse No.27/ : p Dr. Anantram Sharma, Sushrut Samhita uttartantra, second edition, Choukhamba Surbharti Publication, 2006, verse No. 64/84: p Shri. Bramhashankara Mishra & Shri. Rupalalji Vaisya, Bhavaprakash purvakhand Vidyodinee Tika, 11 th edition, Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Publication, 2007, verse No. 5/ :p Dr. Anantram Sharma, Sushrut Samhita uttartantra, second edition, Choukhamba Surbharti Publication, 2006, verse No. 46/ : p Shri. Bramhashankara Mishra & Shri. Rupalalji Vaisya, Bhavaprakash purvakhand Vidyodinee Tika, 11 th edition, Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Publication, 2007, verse No. 5/133:p Dr. Bramhananda Tripathi & Dr. Ganga Sahay Pandey, Caraka Samhita Vimanasthana, 2nd edition, Choukhamba Surbharti Publication,2007 verse No.1/21: Ibid verse No.1/21-1:p Ibid. verse No.1/21-2:p Ibid verse No.1/21-3:p Ibid verse No.1/21-4:p Ibid verse No.1/21-5:p Ibid verse No.25/40:p Ibid verse No.1/21-6:p Shri. Bramhashankara Mishra & Shri. Rupalalji Vaisya, Bhavaprakash purvakhand Vidyodinee Tika, 11 th edition Page5

7 ,Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Publication, 2007, verse No. 5/118: p Dr. Bramhananda Tripathi & Dr. Ganga Sahay Pandey, Caraka Samhita Vimanasthana, 2 nd edition, Choukhamba Surbharti Publication,2007 verse No.1/24: p Ibid verse No.1/24-1: Ibid verse No.1/24-2: Ibid verse No.1/24-3: Kaviraja Atrideva Gupta, Astang Hrudaya Sutrasthana, first edition, Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Publication, verse 8/1-2: p Dr. Bramhananda Tripathi & Dr. Ganga Sahay Pandey, Caraka Samhita Vimanasthana, 2 nd edition, Choukhamba Surbharti Publication,2007 verse No.1/24-4:p Ibid verse No.1/24-5: p Ibid verse No.1/24-6: p Ibis verse No.1/24-7: p Ibid verse No.1/24-8:p Ibid verse No.1/24-9: p Ibid verse No.1/24-10: p Ibid verse No.1/22: p. 665 CITE THIS ARTICLE AS Shital O. Chavan et.al., Ayurvedic Diet and Dietetics in The Prevention and Promotion of Healthy Life - A Review, Int. J. Ayu. Alt. Med., Source of Support Nil Conflict of Interest None Declared Page6

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