1 12 Benedict s Maritime Bulletin 185 Fourth Quarter 2014 WINDOW ON WASHINGTON GASSING UP By Bryant E. Gardner Due to a confluence of regulatory, technological, and economic factors, liquefied natural gas ( LNG ) is quickly gaining traction as a viable alternative marine fuel, particularly in the U.S. domestic sector. At a time when stringent new regulations regarding vessel air emission standards for the U.S. Emission Control Area ( ECA ) are coming into effect, U.S. domestic gas production has exploded and LNG prices have dropped relative to traditional marine fuels, making clean-burning LNG marine fuel a realistic alternative to traditional marine fuels. Operators are required to outfit their vessels to burn low sulfur fuels in order to comply with the most stringent emissions requirements by LNG fuel presents one path to emissions well below U.S. and international emissions requirements. When compared to Heavy Fuel Oil ( HFO ), LNG emits 85% less nitrogen oxide ( NOx ) and sulfur dioxides, 90% less particulate matter ( PM ), and 30% less carbon dioxide. 1 Thanks to the advent of shale gas and new drilling technologies, U.S. operators now have access to bountiful, and relatively cheap, LNG supplies: According to U.S. Energy Information Administration data, natural gas delivered for production is 75% less expensive on an energy equivalent basis than marine 1 Det Norske Veritas & U.S. Maritime Administration, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Bunkering Study, Report No. PP , Rev. 3, at 1 (Sept. 3, 2014) (hereinafter, MARAD Study ). residual fuel, and 85% less expensive than marine distillate fuel, with the price advantage predicted to increase through Faced with these dynamics, mainstream U.S. operators have begun to take the dive into LNG fueled vessels particularly those in the Jones Act coastwise trades, operating primarily within the ECA. In December 2012, Saltchuk s TOTE announced the construction of two dual-fuel containerships in the Puerto Rico trade, with options for three more vessels in the Jones Act trades, to be constructed at NASSCO in San Diego. 3 Harvey Gulf International Marine announced plans in February 2014 to build and operate a LNG-fueling facility at its Port Fourchon, Louisiana facility to support a fleet of six offshore supply vessels. 4 Interlake 2 American Clean Skies Foundation, Natural Gas for Marine Vessels: U.S. Market Opportunities (April 2012); MARAD Study; Frederick Adamchak & Amokeye Adede, Poten & Partners, LNG as Marine Fuel (May 2013). 3 See, e.g., Tote Press Release, World s First and Largest LNG-Powered Containerships to Serve Puerto Rico for TOTE, Inc. (Dec. 4, 2012); Gregory Morris, LNG Emerging as Fuel of Choice for Vessels, Ferries, The American Oil and Gas Reporter (July 2013). 4 Harvey Gulf International Marine Press Release, Harvey Gulf Breaks Ground with LNG Facility: Louisiana to Lead the Nation in Clean Energy (Feb. 14, 2014).
2 12 Benedict s Maritime Bulletin 186 Fourth Quarter 2014 Steamship announced plans to convert vessels, in concert with onshore LNG fueling facilities to be supplied by Shell. 5 Matson has contracted with a Philadelphia yard to build two 3500 TEU containerships with dual-fuel engines, convertible to LNG later depending upon LNG availability on the West Coast. 6 The Washington State and Staten Island Ferry Systems are also looking at conversion to LNG, and Seabulk Tankers, Inc. has also announced a contract to LNG-conversion ready product tankers. 7 And in July 2014, ABS and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering ( DSME ) announced partnership to build the first LNG-powered drillship. 8 During recent congressional hearings, EPA representatives touted these developments as evidence that environmental regulations, and particularly the North American and CaribbeanSeaECAs,areworkingbyspurringadvancement to cleaner technologies at lower cost. 9 Many of these first movers have cited concerns about supply shortages for ultra-low sulfur diesel in 2015 and related price spikes, high air emissions scrubber installation costs, the relative low cost and abundant supply of LNG, and LNG s ability to meet Tier 4 ECA and EPA requirements. 10 Washington has reacted by moving to support the transition to LNG through regulatory infrastructure and policy encouragement. Recent congressional hearings have featured favorable remarks on LNG marine fuel use, spurred by shipyard constituent interests, and the U.S. Maritime Administration has been very active in trying to get out in front of and promote the LNG marine fuel trend focusing particularly on how to encourage 5 Interlake Steamship Press Release, Interlake Steamship Moves Toward Upgrading Fleet to Energy Efficient LNG: Move Would Allow for Significant Environmental Benefits (May 6, 2013). Press reports have recently suggested Shell may be pulling back somewhat from the initial proposal. 6 Comments of Matson Navigation Company, Inc., Docket No. USCG (Mar. 10, 2014); MARAD Study at Commissioner William P. Doyle, U.S. Federal Maritime Commission, Remarks Before American Society of Transportation and Logistics (Oct. 29, 2013). 8 ABS Press Release, DSME & ABS Collaborate on First LNG Fueled Drillship (July 3, 2014). 9 Testimony of Christopher Grundler, Director, Office of Transportation and Air Quality Office of Air and Radiation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, before the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, Hearing on Maritime Transportation Regulations (Mar. 4, 2014). 10 MARAD Study at 21. and develop LNG bunkering infrastructure in the United States. 11 Although the Coast Guard has begun to develop a regulatory regime for LNG bunkering, it remains in a formative stage, and a report prepared by Det Norske Veritas ( DNV ) for the U.S. Maritime Administration ( MARAD ) in September 2014 found significant gaps remain with respect to U.S. regulations applicable to LNG bunkering. 12 Existing U.S. Federal regulations for LNG facilities, regardless of size, are generally covered in 33 C.F.R. Part 127 Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas and Liquefied Hazardous Gas, 33 C.F.R. Part 105 Maritime Security: Facilities, 33 C.F.R. Part 154 Facilities Transferring Oil or Hazardous Materials in Bulk, 33 C.F.R. Part 155 Oil or Hazardous Material Pollution Prevention Regulations for Vessels, 33 C.F.R. Part 156 Oil and Hazardous Material Transfer Operations, 49 C.F.R. Part 193 Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Federal Safety Standards, and 18 C.F.R. Part 153 Applications for Authorization to Construct, Operate, or Modify Facilities Used for the Export or Import of Natural Gas, among others. However, these regulations primarily contemplate the movement of LNG as cargo and in bulk, and gaps exist with respect to, inter alia, LNG bunkering barges and LNG fuel systems. The various Federal agencies and departments with responsibility for LNG facility regulation include the Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Department of Transportation (various agencies including MARAD, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Federal Railroad Administration, and Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration), Environmental Protection Agency, Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Army Corps of Engineers, and Department of Homeland Security including the U.S. Coast Guard, among others. State and local agencies may also assert overlapping jurisdiction with respect to LNG bunkering and LNG 11 See, e.g., Hearing on Merchant Marine Issues before the House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, September 10, 2014 (discussing U.S. yard orders associated with Jones Act LNG fueled vessel construction); MARAD Study. 12 See generally MARAD Study; ABS, Bunkering of Liquefied Natural Gas-fueled Marine Vessels in North America (Mar. 2014) (hereinafter, ABS Study ).
3 12 Benedict s Maritime Bulletin 187 Fourth Quarter 2014 facilities generally, particularly with respect to the review of location, design, and construction of any facility. Currently, LNG facilities face significant inconsistencies with respect to local adoption of National Fire Protection Association safety standards regarding plant siting requirements, regulatory inspections and enforcement, and shore to ship fuel transfer procedure. 13 The Coast Guard is the primary agency responsible for U.S.- flag and port state regulations governing the design, construction, and operation of LNG-fueled vessels, and its adoption of policy is also expected to bring greater consistency and certainty to LNG bunkering operations and facilities onshore as well as those afloat. On April 19, 2012, the Coast Guard issued Policy Letter CG-521 No Equivalency Determination Design Criteria for Natural Gas Fuel Systems, which provides a basis for designing gas-fueled vessels and is premised upon the 2009 International Maritime Organization s ( IMO ) Interim Guidelines on Safety for Natural Gas-Fuelled Engine Installations in Ships. 14 The main points of departure from the IMO guidance are with respect to U.S. standards for type approved products, fire protection, and electrical systems. For U.S. flag vessels, there are currently two paths to obtain Coast Guard approval of an equivalency determination to use LNG as a fuel. In the first instance, operators would ensure that the vessel design meets CG-521; alternatively, a vessel-specific concept review may be requested of the Coast Guard, Marine Safety Center. 15 Generally, LNG build and conversion vessel designs and concepts have been treated by the Coast Guard on a case-by-case basis to determine whether the proposed design is equivalent to standards otherwise existing under the C.F.R., with the CG-521 standards serving as the baseline MARAD Study at & IMO, Mar. Safety Comm., Res. MSC.285(86) (June 1, 2009). Note that in September 2014, the IMO Sub-Committee on Carriage of Goods and Containers agreed to a draft of the permanent Code of Safety for Ships using Gases or other Low Flashpoint Fuels (IGF Code), expected to replace the interim guidance. See IMO Press Briefing No. 28 (September 16, 2014), available at Briefings/Pages/28-CCC1IGF.aspx. 15 ABS Study at See Comments of Tim Meyers, Office of Design and Engineering Standards, U.S. Coast Guard, Before the Towing Safety Advisory Committee (Mar. 21, 2013). This is also the case for uninspected vessels. Id.; 46 C.F.R Additionally, on February 7, 2014, the Coast Guard released for comment two draft policy letters, No Guidance Related to Vessels and Waterfront Facilities Conducting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Marine Fuel Transfer (Bunkering) Operations and No Guidance for Liquefied Natural Gas Fuel Transfer Operations and Training of Personnel on Vessels Using Natural Gas as a Fuel. 17 Once finalized, these will serve as guidance applied by Captains of the Port ( COTP ) for fuel transfer operations and training of personnel working on U.S. and foreign vessels that use LNG as a fuel or conduct LNG fuel transfer operation in U.S. waters. Specifically, the new guidance sets out fuel transfer procedures, notification of transfer requirements, mariner training and drills, vessel equipment, pre and post transfer conduct, operations and emergency manuals, and simultaneous operations standards. The Coast Guard policy letters were publically noticed in February 2014, and received numerous comments, many of them technical in nature. In its comments, Matson noted that policy letter No provides that it is the responsibility of the operator of the facility and/or the transferring vessel to ensure that the receiving vessel has the necessary personnel and equipment to safely and securely participate in the conduct of LNG transfer operations, and suggested that the requirement be modified to impose mutual obligations on the transferring and receiving vessels and bunker suppliers. 18 Matson also suggested that a vapor recovery system requirement be added in order to prevent the release of methane greenhouse gas emissions, and both Matson and TOTE strongly encouraged the availability of simultaneous operations or SIMOPS, i.e., LNG refueling during loading and discharging in port, requesting a clear Coast Guard statement permitting such operations to ensure vessel turnaround times and schedules can be met. 19 On the other hand, the Society of International Gas Tanker & Marine Terminal Operators ( SIGTTO ) encouraged caution with respect to distractions which may arise during SIMPOS, and recommended that the guidance address emergency 17 U.S. Coast Guard, Notice of Availability and Request for Comments, Draft Policy Letters: Guidance for Use of Liquefied Natural Gas as a Marine Fuel, 79 Fed. Reg (Feb. 7, 2014) (Docket No. USCG ). 18 Comments of Matson Navigation Company, Inc., Docket No. USCG (Mar. 10, 2014). 19 Id.; Comments of TOTE, Inc., Docket No. USCG (Mar. 7, 2014).
4 12 Benedict s Maritime Bulletin 188 Fourth Quarter 2014 procedures to apply in the event of an incident during bunkering. 20 Matson also expressed concern that the policy letters are vague in many areas, leaving many decisions in the hands of the COTP and thereby creating the risk of disparate and conflicting practices port-toport. 21 In that vein, SIGTTO s comments suggested that there be some kind of clearing house to advise on issues and encourage consistent practices. 22 TOTE, in its comments, also suggested that the wording of 33 C.F.R remain as written where the COTP may require notification of bunkering, upon his discretion, with weekly or scheduled liner service to require notifications on an as needed or required basis, rather than imposing mandatory notification. 23 Interlake Steamship similarly proposed that the reporting and notification process be simplified through VTS reporting or simple , and both Interlake Steamship and Magnolia LNG proposed that the notification process not turn into a request for permission to bunker such that operations cannot commence prior to COTP approval. 24 Neither foreign flag nor U.S. international trade operators chose to submit comments. The development of bunkering infrastructure to support LNG fueling presents another significant hurdle to widespread adoption of LNG. For the foreseeable future in the U.S., targeted, port specific development will likely be driven by ad-hoc development through regular, localized contracts between suppliers and vessel operators, such as the Harvey development of a bunkering station in Port Fourchon to support its offshore fleet, or the potential cooperative platform between Interlake Steamship and Shell on the Great Lakes. High-volume onshore bunkering stations can be augmented by mobile 20 Comments of the Society of International Gas Tanker & Marine Terminal Operators, Docket No. USCG (Mar. 10, 2014). 21 Comments of Matson Navigation Company, Inc., Docket No. USCG (Mar. 10, 2014). 22 Comments of the Society of International Gas Tanker & Marine Terminal Operators, Docket No. USCG (Mar. 10, 2014). See also Comments of Mark Bell, Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel, Docket No. USCG (Mar. 10, 2014). 23 Comments of TOTE, Inc., Docket No. USCG (Mar. 7, 2014). 24 Comments of Interlake Steamship Company, Docket No. USCG (Mar. 10, 2014); Comments of Magnolia LNG, Docket No. USCG (Mar. 6, 2014). vessel-to-vessel and truck-to-vessel bunkering options where needed. 25 However, the MARAD DNV study found that currently there exists a regulatory gap for LNG bunkering and associated infrastructure operation to ensure consistent safety standards and guidelines across jurisdictions, and proper training for crew, operators, and first responders involved with LNG bunkering operations and contingencies. 26 Meaningful development of LNG bunkering infrastructure will also likely encounter significant local political interest in decisions regarding large-scale trucking versus rail or pipeline transport and local liquefaction, and Federal involvement will be required both to ensure uniformity and the achievement of nationally important onshore infrastructure in support of maritime commerce. 27 However, LNG industry participants have shown they are capable of handling the regulatory approval process for LNG import, and subsequently export, terminals which are of significantly larger scale than bunkering facilities. Although bunkering facilities will be free of the sometimes cumbersome Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ( FERC ) process under the natural gas Act which can take 1-2 years for import and export terminals, the Act did have the benefit of Federal pre-emption of states ability to disapprove of LNG facilities which bunkering facilities will not enjoy and therefore may experience more challenging regulatory hurdles at the local level, absent Federal intervention. Current market conditions for LNG and the new air emissions requirements have catalyzed the movement toward LNG in some markets. Operators are moving quickly to embrace the technology, while the Coast Guard is quickly establishing a regulatory regime in collaboration with industry. So far, the real traction for LNG appears to be in the Jones Act and offshore markets which are covered by the ECA. Successful transition to LNG will require swift regulatory action by the Coast Guard and other Federal agencies to ensure safe practices and consistent standards across locations and among operators and suppliers. Although LNG bunkering 25 See generally MARAD Study. 26 Id. at iv. 27 For example, proposals for transportation of LNG by truck through portions of the City of Savannah encountered significant local opposition in the context of the Elba Island LNG Terminal proposal in 2010, until the terminal ultimately abandoned the proposal in 2012.
5 12 Benedict s Maritime Bulletin 189 Fourth Quarter 2014 promises major environmental benefits and potential fuel costs savings under current and forecast market conditions, LNG is not without its risks. The public perception of LNG risk factors related to fire and explosion is already sensitive, and a major LNG bunkering incident could threaten confidence in the entire LNG supply chain. LNG marine fuel stakeholders will need to engage in the regulatory process to ensure that needed rules and consistent standards are put in place to support further investment, without imposing uneconomical and unnecessary regulatory burdens stifling investment in this promising new clean fuel alternative. ***** Bryant E. Gardner is a Partner at Winston & Strawn, LLP, Washington, D.C. B.A., summa cum laude 1996, Tulane University of Louisiana; J.D. cum laude 2000, Tulane Law School.
US Shipbuilding and LNG JECKU TEM Tom Wetherald US Coastwise Fleet Distribution Oceangoing Vessels Product Tanker Crude Carrier Containership 31 vessels in service 11 vessels in service 27 vessels in service
Natural Gas Fueling Our Future 2014 NGV Conference Sept 16, 2014 Houston Texas Introduction Who We Are We are a Ulysses, PA based a full service Well to Wheel LNG fuel distributor One of the very first
Crowley LNG Puget Sound Harbor Safety Committee June 3 rd, 2015 Matthew Sievert Director Business Development LNG Company Profile Crowley was founded in 1892. Largest US Jones Act Co. Focusing on Marine
Testimony of Matthew Paxton President, Shipbuilders Council of America Before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Examining the
Expanding the Twin Ports Energy Cluster to include LNG and CNG Production and Distribution Dr. Richard Stewart, Co-Director-GLMRI May 21, 2014 Natural Gas (NG) Study Overview The U.S. Maritime Administration
GREEN SHORTSEA SHIPPING The shipowners perspective Juan Riva President European Community Shipowners Associations ECSA Flota Suardíaz European Community Shipowners Associations ECSA Established in 1965,
Frequently Asked Questions: North American Emission Control Area (ECA) U.S. Coast Guard Office of Commercial Vessel Compliance The USCG and EPA have compiled this consolidated list of FAQs and associated
Shipping, World Trade and the Reduction of CO 2 Emissions United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF SHIPPING (ICS) Representing the Global Shipping Industry
Exhaust Emissions from Ship Engines in Australian Waters Including Ports Laurie Goldsworthy Honorary Research Fellow National Centre for Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics Australian Maritime College
EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 15.7.2011 COM(2011) 441 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE
2 Blind Mice & the GOM Marine Business Case for LNG Fuel Marine Money Houston Offshore Forum Saint Regis Hotel 3 April 2014 Houston, TX John Hatley PE LNG Initiatives Americas VP Ship Power Wartsila North
Ferry Business Case for LNG Interferry 39 th Annual Interferry Conference Westin Bayshore 4-8 October 2014 Vancouver, BC John Hatley PE LNG Initiatives Americas VP Ship Power Wartsila North America, Inc.
Commandant United States Coast Guard 2100 SECOND STREET SW WASHINGTON DC 20593-0001 Staff Symbol: G-MTH (202) 267-2960 COMMANDANT INSTRUCTION 5420.32 Subj: STANDARDS PROGRAM FOR MARINE SAFETY, SECURITY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Development of the Adoption of Liquefied Natural Gas as a Fuel for Shipping on the Great Lakes Richard D. Stewart, Ph.D. Professor Chair,
LNG bunkering market perspectives, challenges and trends Moscow 31 March 2015 Sergiu Maznic Full-picture perspective Sund Energy helps navigate into the energy future Energy Economics Environment Learning
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Production, Storage & Transport In New York State Presentation to Faster Freight, Cleaner Air Conference New York City July 9, 2008 By Jon Lear, Principal Ruby Mountain Inc.
White Paper Ten Points to Rationalize and Revitalize the United States Maritime Industry Cartner & Fiske, LLC 1629 K St., NW Ste. 300 Washington, DC 20006 firstname.lastname@example.org John A C Cartner Managing Member
Shipping, World Trade and the Reduction of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change International Maritime Organization Marine Environment Protection Committee International Chamber of Shipping
FAQs for Detainees in Marine Pollution Prosecutions Under what authority may the Coast Guard board a vessel? Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a coastal state has full and exclusive
S.R. NO. lo FEB 0 SENATE RESOLUTION THE SENATE TWENTY-EIGHTH LEGISLATURE, 0 STATE OF HAWAII REQUESTING CONGRESS TO EXEMPT HAWAII (JOINED BY PUERTO RICO, ALASKA AND GUAM) FROM THE U.S. BUILD REQUIREMENT
May 2014 Natural Gas White Paper The Growing Importance of Natural Gas The natural gas industry is experiencing a revolution. Fueled by advances in drilling technology, natural gas has become an abundant
Statement of Vice Admiral William A. Brown, United States Navy Deputy Commander, United States Transportation Command Before the House Armed Services Committee Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces
Ports of Stockholm meets new environmental requirements with LNG Tougher regulations demand new solutions Shipping faces major challenges when the international environmental requirements become tougher.
PORT OF SAN FRANCISCO STRATEGIC PLAN Mission: Goals: The Port of San Francisco is a public enterprise committed to promoting a balance of maritime, recreational, industrial, transportation, public access
Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 18, No. 2 2011 EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES VERSUS IMO CERTIFICATION AND REQUIREMENTS OF TIER 3 Jerzy Herdzik Gdynia Maritime University Marine Power Plant
Technology Implementation at the Port of Los Angeles Moving from Current to Emerging Technologies Captain J. M. Holmes Deputy Executive Director Marine Technology Workshop July 30, 2010 Strong Commitment
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION E IMO SUB-COMMITTEE ON BULK LIQUIDS AND GASES 11th session Agenda item 5 BLG 11/5/15 9 February 2007 Original: ENGLISH REVIEW OF MARPOL ANNEX VI AND THE NO x TECHNICAL
Working Document of the NPC Study: Arctic Potential: Realizing the Promise of U.S. Arctic Oil and Gas Resources Made Available March 27, 2015 Paper #7-5 OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS DUE TO COMPLIANCE WITH THE
COVER FEATURE SPINNING LIQUID GOLD 32 Later this year the first of as many as 12 sleek service vessels will throttle up and churn from Port Fourchon on the Louisiana coast, speeding to offshore rigs miles
Hot Regulatory and Enforcement Issues: ECA, Ballast Water, VGP and the Jones Act Jeanne M. Grasso March 25, 2015 Stamford, CT The information contained herein is abridged and summarized from numerous sources,
The world merchant fleet in 2013 Statistics from Equasis Table of content 1. Themes and Tables... 3 2. The Merchant Fleet Population... 5 Whole Fleet... 6 Ships by age... 7 Ships by flag... 12 3. Classification
The effect of shale gas revolution on oil industry Choi DooHo Oil & Gas Unit Introduction The Shale Gas Revolution is one of the most significant issues in the energy industry today. This revolution has
Next Challenge on the Horizon: Air Pollution Emissions from Ships By Terry Dressler, Tom Murphy, and Anthony Fournier INTRODUCTION The Santa Barbara Channel, with its sparkling blue water and wild, rugged
WikiLeaks Document Release February 2, 2009 Congressional Research Service Report RS21566 The Jones Act: An Overview John F. Frittelli, Resources, Science, and Industry Division Updated July 8, 2003 Abstract.
NATURAL GAS FOR MARINE VESSELS U.S. MARKET OPPORTUNITIES APRIL 2012 NATURAL GAS FOR MARINE VESSELS U.S. MARKET OPPORTUNITIES APRIL 2012 750 1st Street, NE, Suite 1100 Washington, DC 20002 Main: 202.682.6294
Marine LNG Fuel Tank Container An Introduction Marine Service GmbH Hamburg, January 2014 LNG Fuel Tank Container 2 Agenda Introduction Marine Service GmbH LNG Fuel Tank Container LNG Fuel Tank Container
Maritime High School Course Outline The required courses for College Preparatory High School Diplomas and General Diplomas are set by State Education Departments, and further defined by local school boards.
The world merchant fleet in 2011 Statistics from Equasis Equasis Statistics The world merchant fleet in 2011 Table of content 1. Themes and Tables... 3 2. The Merchant Fleet Population... 5 2.1. 2.2. 2.3.
FINNGULF LNG LNG IMPORT TO FINLAND CLEANLY WITH NATURAL ENERGY GASES Gasum is a Finnish expert in natural energy gases. We import natural gas to Finland, and transmit and supply it for energy production,
142 FERC 61,036 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman; Philip D. Moeller, John R. Norris, Cheryl A. LaFleur, and Tony T. Clark. The
Did You Know? Because natural gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, mercaptan (a chemical that smells like sulfur) is added before distribution, to give it a distinct unpleasant odor (it smells like
State of the Art (SOTA) Manual for Boilers and Process Heaters Original Date: July 1997 Revision Date: February 22, 2004 State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Air Quality Permitting
BRUCE P. DALCHER, ESQ. Bruce Dalcher is an attorney who recently formed the professional limited liability company of Bruce P. Dalcher, PLLC to begin a specialized law practice based in Washington, DC.
Before the U.S. COAST GUARD Washington, D.C. February 25, 2003 Request for Comments on Maritime Security Docket No. USCG-2002-14069 Comments of the American Association of Port Authorities 1010 Duke Street
Gas Fuelled ships LNG-Fuelled Engines and Fuel Systems for Medium- Speed Engines in Maritime Applications Dag Stenersen, MARINTEK GTS Technical Seminar Series, 2011-09-28 MARINTEK 1 Presentation outline
Contents Part 1 Acts........................................................ 21 Excerpts from the General Civil Penal Code of 22 May 1902 No. 10............. 24 The Public Administration Act...........................................
Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 18, No. 2 2011 LNG AS A MARINE FUEL POSSIBILITIES AND PROBLEMS Jerzy Herdzik Gdynia Maritime University Marine Power Plant Department Morska Street 81-87,
November 14, 2011 Department of the Interior Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (MS 4024) Attn: Rules Processing Team (Comments) 381 Elden Street Herndon, VA 20170-4817 Re: RIN 1010-AD 73 Revisions
Statement of Thomas A. Allegretti President & CEO The American Waterways Operators Maritime Transportation Regulations: Impacts on Safety, Security, Jobs and the Environment, Part I Before the Subcommittee
EUROPEAN PARLIAMT 2009-2014 Committee on Transport and Tourism 2009/2095(INI) 4.1.2010 DRAFT REPORT on strategic goals and recommendations for the EU's maritime transport policy until 2018 (2009/2095(INI))
Regulations that enforce reduction of marine- and air pollution from ships FOCUS ON GREENER SHIPPING Simultaneously with the growth of maritime transport, awareness of the influence of such maritime transport
Oil Spill Emergency Response 1 Oil Spill Emergency Response We work to prevent incidents that may result in spills of hazardous substances. This means making sure our facilities are well designed, safely
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Elba Liquefaction Company, L.L.C. Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. Elba Express Company, L.L.C. Docket No. PF13-3-000 NOTICE OF INTENT TO PREPARE
GAO July 2005 United States Government Accountability Office Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Environment and Hazardous Materials, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives
Meet Clean Diesel Improving Energy Security Fueling Environmental Progress Powering the Economy What is Clean Diesel? Diesel power is cleaner and more vital to the U.S. economy than ever before. The diesel
U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration 2011 U.S. Water Transportation Statistical Snapshot November 2013 For information about the Office of Policy and Plans and its products and services,
Joe Pratt Sandia National Laboratories A U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Livermore, California, USA Maritime Fuel Cells for Port Emissions Reduction and Fuel Cost Savings Fuel Cells and Hydrogen for
Executive Briefing: LNG Supply for Marine Vessels June 2011 1 Agenda Clean Energy Business Brief LNG Benefits Cheaper Cleaner American Economics LNG Supply & Logistics 2 About Clean Energy (NASDAQ: CLNE)
Maritime Institute of Technology Graduate Studies & Conference Center Maritime Security Regulations Maritime Institute of Technology (MITAGS) & Pacific Maritime Institute (PMI) 1 MITAGS Facility Linthicum
OUR CONVERSATION TODAY Our goal is to raise the level of awareness around the natural gas supply chain among key stakeholders in order to facilitate positive working relationships and more informed decision
LNG Imports by Country of Origin (Bcf) 2013 Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec TOTAL Egypt 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Norway 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Qatar 0.0 3.7 3.7 0.0 0.0 7.3 Trinidad
LNG Imports by Origin (Bcf) 2016 Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec TOTAL Egypt - - - - 0.0 Nigeria - - - - 0.0 Norway - - - - 0.0 Qatar - - - - 0.0 Trinidad 12.0 9.6 8.5 4.7 34.8 Yemen
First to US Market with trucked compressed natural gas delivered to companies beyond the pipeline 1 Natural gas is methane same stuff that comes from cow manure CNG is compressed natural gas LNG is liquefied
white paper May 2013 Assessment of the fuel cycle impact of liquefied natural gas as used in international shipping Dana Lowell, MJ Bradley and Associates Haifeng Wang, Nic Lutsey, International Council
West Coast LNG Workshop Overview of LNG as a marine fuel 26 June 2012 Tony Vollmers Lead Mechanical Engineer STX Canada Marine 28 June 2012 Page 1 Agenda STX Marine LNG Projects Benefits of LNG as a ship
- 1 - UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Note by the International Maritime Organization Ad-Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention Fourteenth session,
BP Texas City Refinery ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT FOR YEAR 2010 (Review of Y2009 Performance) Introduction Recognizing the complex nature of petroleum refining operations and to ensure that we meet our stated
ESF Coordinator: Energy Primary Agency: Energy Support Agencies: Agriculture Commerce Defense Homeland Security the Interior Labor State Transportation Environmental Protection Agency Nuclear Regulatory
OUR CONVERSATION TODAY Our goal is to raise the level of awareness around the oil supply chain among key stakeholders in order to facilitate positive working relationships and more informed decision making.
CBP Business Resumption Planning 1 Panel Kimberly Marsho, Director, Trade Relations Robert Moore III, Incident Management and Operations Division, Office of Intelligence and Operations Coordination Aileen
CHALLENGES IN REGULATING THE AIR POLLUTION FROM SHIPS Axel Luttenberger, Ph.D., Associate Professor Biserka Rukavina, M.Sc., Assistant Loris Rak, Junior Assistant University of Rijeka Faculty of Maritime
Laws and price drive interest in LNG as marine fuel The use of LNG as a marine fuel is one of the hottest topics in shipping. This growing interest is driven by legislation and price. By Henrique Pestana
Claudia Copeland Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy December 15, 2010 Congressional Research Service CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress 7-5700 www.crs.gov
LNG as ship fuel status and trends Preparing for the ECA Conference in Tacoma/WA Uwe Bullwinkel GL Your competitive edge Take the lead through innovation Contents Conversion of Bit Viking (movie) Ships
Title 46 Shipping (This book contains parts 200 to 499) CHAPTER II Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... 201 CHAPTER III Coast Guard (Great Lakes Pilotage), Department of Homeland Security...
LNG Bunkering Opportunities SNAME February 13 Overview of Today s Discussion Overview of Pace Global Case Study- Baltic and North Seas What s happened in the Baltic and North Seas? LNG as an Alternative
MSCMP - Maritime Security Compliance Management Program Full Regulatory Compliance Management for Port Facilities Vessels Offshore Rigs The M-P.A.C.T. Advantage M PACT is a full service maritime consultancy