VOLUME 20, NO. 6 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2010

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1 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2010 VOLUME 20, NO. 6 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2010 INSIDE: EDR Delta-V Reliability and Restitution Values for Six Crash Tests Case Study: Farmer Dies When Tractor Rear-Ended by a Semi Braking Rates for Students in a Motorcycle Training Program Crash Testing and Evaluation of Breakaway Signs Pedestrian Walking Speeds in Crosswalk Study ARJ and AIQ Subject Index Toyota Lawsuit Updates

2 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL

3 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2010 VOLUME TWENTY, NUMBER SIX NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2010 TOYOTA SPEED-UP CASES WON'T BE DISMISSED, JUDGE SAYS A federal judge tentatively ruled today that he will reject most of Toyota Motor Corp.'s first major legal challenge to class-action lawsuits filed against the automaker by car owners over sudden acceleration. Car owners' lawyers provided sufficient evidence to allow their cases to go forward, U.S. District Judge James V. Selna in Santa Ana, Calif., said in a tentative ruling posted on his court's Web site. Selna heard arguments today over Toyota's motion to dismiss class-action, or group, lawsuits claiming economic loss linked to sudden acceleration. It is true that plaintiffs do not generally allege the precise dollar value of their losses, but that level of specificity is not required at this pleading stage, Selna wrote in his 63-page ruling. It is enough that they allege a tangible loss that can be proved or disproved upon discovery. Selna said he would issue a final ruling by the U.S. Thanksgiving holiday on Nov. 25. The economic-loss lawsuits, combined for pretrial filings and rulings before Selna, claim Toyota drove down the value of vehicles by failing to fix or disclose defects that triggered unintended acceleration. Federal suits claiming death or injury caused by such episodes are also combined in the Santa Ana court. ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL P.O. Box 234, Waldorf, MD Telephone/Fax: 301/ Individual Subscription Rates: 1 Year - 6 issues 3 Years - 18 issues U.S.A. $ U.S.A. $ U.K U.K Canada $ c Canada $ c Years - 12 issues Back Issues - each U.S.A. $ U.S.A. $ 5.00 U.K U.K Canada $ c Canada $ c 8.00 Technical Article Review Committee: Dennis R. Andrews, PhD Wade Bartlett, PE Samuel Brown, PE, PhD Kyle Clark Jeremy Daily, PhD John C. Glennon, PE, PhD Rudolph Limpert, PE, PhD Richard Ratcliffe VICTOR CRAIG - EDITOR Cherry Hill, NJ Rochester, NH Houston, TX Naples, FL Tulsa, OK Overland Park, KS Park City, UT Huntingtown, MD The Committee assists the editor in the review and evaluation of readersubmitted technical articles for consideration of publication in both Accident Reconstruction Journal and Accident Investigation Quarterly. Not all members review every article that is selected. The editor would like to express his appreciation to the committee for its dedication and hard work. Toyota over the last year has recalled more than million vehicles around the world for a variety of problems, including 10.2 million for unintended acceleration issues. In September 2009, the automaker announced a recall of 3.8 million Toyota and Lexus vehicles because of a defect that may cause floor mats to jam accelerator pedals. The company later recalled vehicles over defects involving the pedals themselves. Toyota disputed the claims of economic loss at today's hearing. The vehicles have produced as promised, Cari Dawson, a Toyota lawyer, told Selna. These cars have not malfunctioned, their owners have not had to pay any money for repairs or retrofit, and they have not suffered any loss, she said. Dawson argued that economic loss can't be speculative based on losses that the owners may never suffer if they don't sell their cars or if Continued on page 58 INDEX New UCF SGA Campaign Tackles Distracted Driving... 2 Porsche Patrol Car... 2 Court: Daewoo Korea Is Liable for US Damages... 3 UK Owner of Segway Dies Driving One Off Cliff... 3 Mass. Distracted Driving Bill Heads To Governor's Desk... 3 Teen Drivers Involved in Fewer Fatal Car Crashes... 4 Safety: Distracted Driving as a Medical Condition... 4 FHWA Issues New Guidance on Pavement Friction... 4 Yamaha Motor Corp Wins Four Lawsuits... 4 New Sensor from Continental Increases Pedestrians' Chances of Survival... 5 Upcoming Events... 6 AAA: Teens Don't Get Enough Supervised Driving Experience... 7 Test Your Skill... 8 CEO of Kia Motors Resigns Over Recalls... 8 Allstate Sues Toyota Over Acceleration Claims... 9 Editorial: Federal Study of Antilocks Junk Science... 9 LaHood Applauds New Kansas Primary Seat Belt Law Pedestrian Walking Speed in Crosswalk Study The CMF Clearinghouse: A Handy Safety Tool Braking Rates for Students in a Motorcycle Training Program Farmer Dies When His Tractor Was Rear-Ended by a Semi EDR Delta-V Reliability and Restitution Values for Six Crash Tests Toyota Recalls 1.5M Vehicles Worldwide Crash Testing and Evaluation of Breakaway Signs Will Your Next Car Be a Smartphone? Montana Drinking and Driving Culture at Crossroads ARJ and AIQ Subject Index Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation Additional News Reports Copyright 2010, Accident Reconstruction Journal. All rights reserved. Note: This notice does not apply to those news items already copyrighted and received through wire services or other media, or federal research reports already in the public domain. Accident Reconstruction Journal, ISSN , USPS , is published bimonthly at 3004 Charleton Court, Waldorf, Maryland Second class postage paid at Waldorf, Maryland. Postmaster: Send address changes to Accident Reconstruction Journal, P.O. Box 234, Waldorf, MD

4 2 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL NEW UCF SGA CAMPAIGN TACKLES DISTRACTED DRIVING For young adults, a cell phone is part of their everyday life from text messaging, status updates to checking s on the go. But these popular devices are also becoming part of a statistic that UCF's Student Government Association hopes to reduce. UCF's SGA hosted a rally outside the Student Union to kick off a new campaign targeted against distracted driving by students. The "Put Down Ur Cell Fone" campaign featured support from the Florida Highway Patrol, Florida Department of Transportation, the Orlando Magic, UCF administration, and Senator Lee Constantine. "Texting and driving is very dangerous, and we want to make students more aware of this so that they can be more safe while driving," SGA Vice President Taylor Lochrane said. He also says students will benefit by knowing that texting while driving is the same as driving under the influence. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, individuals younger than 20 years old had the highest proportion of distracted drivers at 16 percent, followed by the 20-to 29-year-old age group at 12 percent. At 22 years old, Nicole Hughes described a life to the audience that most young adults experience daily. She also told a story of how her life changed when she was hit while walking across a crosswalk by a distracted driver who ran a red-light. "Don't take your life for granted, if you have to use it, put it down," Hughes said. Ten years later, she remains paralyzed on her right side. SGA's purpose of the week-long campaign is to decrease the statistics and educate students about the dangers of such a common routine. Former Magic player Bo Outlaw says the campaign is a great cause. Speaking to a group of students outside the Student Union, he says his younger son lead to his change in phone use. "If you really got to text that bad, just pull over or wait till you get to a stop light to send the message," Outlaw said. Students received free t-shirts for signing the distracted driving campaign petition. Students waiting in line agreed that texting while driving is a problem. UCF student Autumn Daumen says she has seen people swerve on the road while using their phone. She also said texting is a lot easier for students than actually calling someone because it doesn't waste minutes from your plan. "I think some kind of law should be taken into consideration," Daumen said. Those three seconds it takes students to send a text message is very dangerous says Florida Highway Patrol Sergeant Kim Montes. "If you are driving 55 mph and look down at your phone for three seconds, you have traveled the length of a football field with your eyes off the road," Montes said. NerdWorld, a Orlando based mobile solutions company, recently launched a SafeTexting application for Blackberry phones. The app uses GPS technology to automatically activate controls that will allow or deny texting and phone calls while the car is in motion. An iphone and Android version will be released by the end of the year. "Our hope is that this campaign prevents accidents that result from distracted driving and makes the university a safer environment for everyone," Lochrane said. - WDBO News PORSCHE PATROL CAR Austrian police are testing a Porsche 911 as a traffic control as a traffic control car to help prevent motorists from speeding. A spokesman said, "The preventative effect is excellent. Drivers just need to see it parked alongside the road and slam on the brakes." - Road & Track

5 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, COURT: DAEWOO KOREA IS LIABLE FOR U.S. DAMAGES Even though Daewoo dropped out of the U.S. market in 2002, the remnants of liquidated Daewoo Motor Co. in South Korea still are liable for damages incurred in product liability lawsuits, a California superior court jury ruled. An appeal is likely from Daewoo's Korean parent company and GM Daewoo & Technology Co. In denying its liability, Daewoo Korea attempted to foist responsibility onto the bankrupt husk of its U.S. subsidiary, Daewoo Motor America. Daewoo Motor America, now known as StarPoint USA, is the national representative for 300 service points for the 185,000 Daewoo vehicles sold in the United States from 1998 through StarPoint was forced from the retailing business when General Motors bought some of Daewoo's automotive assets in 2003 and decided that Chevrolet, not StarPoint, would be the retail channel for its Korea-made vehicles. GM Daewoo bought Daewoo's hard assets but not the Daewoo U.S. distribution chain. StarPoint COO Ben Rainwater said there was no way StarPoint could address consumers' liability claims. "Daewoo Korea sold their automobiles to U.S. dealers and consumers here in the U.S. market," he said. "It is not reasonable that they should be able to pull out of the U.S. market and turn their back on it, claiming no responsibility for or liability to those Daewoo vehicles that they sold here." The judgement comes after seven years of litigation. International legal reciprocity codes mean a U.S. court judgement should be recognized and enforced in South Korea, Rainwater said. No monetary amount has been assigned to Daewoo's potential liabilities. The remaining shell of Daewoo's Korean parent amounts to a handful of people selling properties to pay creditors pennies on the dollar. But as long as the suit is in process, Daewoo is prohibited under South Korean law from fully liquidating, Rainwater said. The suit originally rose in a product liability case filed in 2003 by Michelle Bandy, who was involved in a car accident and who alleged that there was a design defect with the Daewoo vehicle. Bandy sued all Daewoo entities involved in the manufacturing and sale of the car, and Daewoo Korea refused to defend and indemnify StarPoint for any product liability lawsuit. Lawyers representing Daewoo's Korean parent company could not be reached for comment. Jay Cooney, a spokesman for GM Daewoo, called the judgement a "non-issue" and said GMDAT would take part in appealing the ruling. Cooney declined further comment. - Automotive News UK OWNER OF SEGWAY CO. DIES DRIVING ONE OFF CLIFF The British tycoon who owned the Segway company died after accidentally riding a rugged version of the two-wheeled machine off a cliff and into a river, according to published reports. Jimi Heselden, 62, plunged into the River Wharfe while checking on the grounds of his estate in northern England, the Telegraph reported. He was riding on a "rugged country version" of the scooter, the paper said. "Police were called at 11:40 a.m. yesterday to reports of a man in the River Wharfe, apparently having fallen from the cliffs above," a spokesman for West Yorkshire Police said today, according to British media reports. "A Segway-style vehicle was recovered. He was pronounced dead at the scene," the spokesman said. "At this time we do not believe the death to be suspicious." Police confirmed the body of Heselden, a multimillionaire philanthropist who founded defense company Hesco Bastion, was found in the river, the Guardian reported. He was found five miles from a factory in Leeds where he made his fortune from defense contracts for Afghanistan and Iraq. His top-selling innovation was a wire basket filled with earth and water that was better than sandbags in protecting troops from missile and mortar attacks, the paper said. Authorities are investigating whether the death was due to driver error or a problem with the scooter, the Daily Mail reported. [Recently], Heselden became one of the United Kingdom's most generous philanthropists, making a $15.7 million donation to a charity he established in 2008, the Daily Mail said. He had previously given about $20 million to the same organization. Heselden was worth about $260 million and ranked 395th on the Sunday Times Rich List, according to reports. In December, Heselden bought the U.S. company that makes the battery-powered Segway, which uses gyroscopes to stay upright and is controlled by the direction in which the driver tilts. He was said to be testing a crosscountry version of it at the time of his death. - AOL News MASS. DISTRACTED DRIVING BILL HEADS TO GOVERNOR'S DESK The Patrick administration said it is studying legislation that would make it illegal to drive while texting and that would ban teenagers from using cellphones while behind the wheel. The governor has been supportive of efforts to make our roads safer and looks forward to reviewing the bill,'' Juan Martinez, Patrick's spokesman, said in an statement. the Senate unanimously passed the bill, the last legislative action needed before Patrick can sign or veto the measure that supporters call a "safe driving bill.'' The House gave its approval earlier on a vote. Everyone knows cellphones are a distraction and that texting while driving is especially dangerous, Senate President Therese Murray said in a statement. I hope this legislation will dissuade people from putting themselves and others at risk. According to Murray's office, the ban on texting while driving applies to all drivers. A violation would not lead to an insurance surcharge, but police would be authorized to stop someone they see texting while driving. Junior operators a driver under the age of 18 are banned from the use of cellphones, including the hands-free version. A first offense would be a 60-day license suspension. The measure would also shield health care providers from liability if they report a patient they consider a risky driver to the Registry of Motor Vehicles. It would also require anyone 75 or older, to renew their licenses in person and to take an eye exam every five years. "We took a comprehensive approach to making our roadways safer by trying to take the distractions out to focus people on driving as opposed to other things that distract them,'' said Senator Steven A. Baddour, Senate chair of the Transportation Committee. - The Boston Globe

6 4 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL TEEN DRIVERS INVOLVED IN FEWER FATAL CAR CRASHES Far fewer people are dying in car crashes with teens at the wheel, but it's not because teenagers are driving more cautiously. Experts say laws are tougher, and cars and highways are safer. Fatal car crashes involving teen drivers fell by about a third over five years, according to a new federal report that credits tougher restrictions on younger drivers. The number of deaths tied to these accidents dropped from about 2,200 in 2004 to 1,400 in 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said. The CDC looked at fatal accidents involving drivers who were 16 or 17. There were more than 9,600 such incidents during the five-year span, and more than 11,000 people died, including more than 4,000 of the teen drivers and more than 3,400 of their passengers. The report is being published in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The rate of such fatal crashes has been declining since Experts credit a range of factors, including safer cars with air bags and highway improvements, which reduce the risk of death. The number of nonfatal accidents involving drivers 16 and 17 years old has been dropping as well - by 31 percent from 2004 through 2008, according to government figures. Experts say a chief reason is that most states have been getting tougher on when teens can drive and when they can carry passengers. "It's not that teens are becoming safer," said Russ Rader, spokesman for the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, an Arlington, Va.-based research group funded by auto insurance companies. "It's that state laws enacted in the last 15 years are taking teens out of the most hazardous driving situations," such as driving at night or with other teens in the car, he said. Graduated driver's licensing programs, as they are called, began appearing in 1996, and 49 states now have them. The CDC found that Wyoming had the highest death rate, with about 60 traffic fatalities involving 16- and 17-year-old drivers per 100,000 people that age. New York and New Jersey, which have rigorous driving restrictions on teens, had the lowest rates, about 10 per 100,000. Wyoming's driver's license laws are laxer than other states. For example, 16-year-olds are allowed to drive until 11 p.m., or later, while other states set the driving curfew at around 9 p.m. - Tulsa World SAFETY: DISTRACTED DRIVING AS A MEDICAL CONDITION Family doctors routinely ask their patients whether they smoke, watch their diet, remember to fasten their seat belt. Now, in an essay in The New England Journal of Medicine, a doctor suggests adding a question to that litany: Do you drive while texting or talking on a cellphone? The physician, Dr. Amy N. Ship, a primary care doctor and assistant professor at Harvard Medical School, called on her colleagues to initiate these discussions, saying they are well worth the time and effort. This is such an easy way to keep people healthy it s prevention, and it s such lowlying fruit, Dr. Ship said in an interview, adding: As physicians, we have an opportunity to counsel patients. It s an enormous power, and we should take advantage of it. In her essay, Dr. Ship says she often initiates the discussion by asking about texting while driving, using that as an opening to mention that talking on the phone actually causes more accidents. When patients ask why a phone conversation should be any more dangerous than talking to a passenger in the car, she said, she talks about the difficulties of multitasking. When patients aren t convinced, she said, I ask them, How would you feel if your surgeon talked on the phone hands free, of course while operating? - The New York Times YAMAHA MOTOR CORPORATION WINS FOUR LAWSUITS FHWA ISSUES NEW GUIDANCE ON PAVE- MENT FRICTION A new technical advisory issued by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on June 17, 2010, Pavement Friction Management (T ), provides guidance to State and local highway agencies on managing pavement surface friction on roadways. The new advisory supersedes FHWA Technical Advisory , Skid Accident Reduction Program, which was issued on December 23, The advisory outlines the purpose of a pavement friction management program, which is to minimize friction-related vehicle crashes by ensuring that new pavement surfaces are designed, constructed, and maintained to provide adequate and durable friction properties, as well as by identifying and correcting sections of roadways that have elevated friction-related crash rates. Pavement friction management also includes collecting and analyzing pavement friction, crash, and traffic data to ensure the effectiveness of the engineering practices being used. Another vital aspect of a friction management program is prioritizing the use of resources so that the program can be carried out cost effectively. Guidance on constructing pavement surfaces with good friction characteristics, including adequate wet pavement friction, can be found in FHWA Technical Advisory T , Surface Texture for Asphalt and Concrete Pavements. This Advisory is available at Also covered in the new Technical Advisory are such topics as test equipment for measuring pavement friction, the identification and classification of roadway locations with elevated crash rates, how to prioritize projects for improving pavement friction, the appropriate frequency and extent of friction testing on a highway network, and how to determine a pavement friction management program's effectiveness. Additional reference materials on pavement friction management and measurement are highlighted as well. FHWA's Pavement Friction Management Technical Advisory is available online at For more information about pavement friction management, contact Mark Swanlund at FHWA, ( - FHWA Focus Yamaha Motor Corporation has successfully defended three product liability lawsuits involving its Rhino off-road vehicle. On August 11, a jury in San Bernardino County, California rejected the plaintiff s claims and awarded no damages in an accident case involving a Yamaha Rhino. The case was Lewis/ Hernandez vs Yamaha. This followed another jury decision in favor of Yamaha on July 26 in a case in Orange County, California. The jury has rejected plaintiff s claims regarding the Rhino s design, finding no defect in the Rhino. On August 12, a jury in Tallapoosa County, Alabama rejected the plaintiff s claims and returned a unanimous defense verdict for Yamaha in the case Mathis vs Yamaha. The case involving an accident on a Yamaha Rhino in Alexander City. On Friday, October 22, a jury in Montgomery, Alabama rejected plaintiffs' claims and returned a unanimous defense verdict in the case McMahon vs Yamaha, another case involving an accident on a Yamaha Rhino. A jury once again rejected plaintiff s claims the Yamaha Rhino was defectively designed. Sources: Yamaha Motor Corp., Business Wire

7 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, NEW SENSOR FROM CONTINENTAL INCREASES PEDESTRIANS' CHANCES OF SURVIVAL IN AN ACCIDENT In 2009, more than 4,000 people lost their lives in pedestrian/motor vehicle accidents across the United States. Another 59,000 pedestrians were injured. International automotive supplier Continental today introduced a unique pedestrian protection system that fundamentally enhances the protection of pedestrians on the roads. The system features a novel type of air hose connected to two pressure sensors which builds flexibly into the bumper. "The sensor reliably recognizes collisions with pedestrians and supplies the safety systems with the information they need to trigger protective measures," said Scott Morell, passive safety engineering director for Continental's North American region. Within milliseconds of an impact, the active hood of the vehicle is triggered and raised by special actuators. This prevents the pedestrian who has been hit from being severely injured or killed by the impact with the hood and underlying engine block. The extra space provided between the hood and engine can considerably mitigate the consequences of the accident. In a collision, sensors detect the change in pressure in the plastic hose Until now, fiber optics or acceleration sensors have been used as the sensors for detecting collisions with pedestrians. The pressure hose sensor, which Continental has developed in partnership with Daimler, is a new system offering a range of advantages, for example it is easy to integrate into any vehicle because it can be flexibly adapted to the shape of the chassis. "This means that there are no restrictions on vehicle developers if they alter a vehicle's design as part of a facelift, for example," said Morell. "What's more, the system's technology is extremely robust and offers high resolution and strong signal quality, which boosts the reliability of crash detection." The crash sensor consists of a hose that is laid across the entire width of the car in its front bumper. The hose is situated directly behind the foam block that is fitted at the front of the vehicle to absorb energy. Standardized pressure sensors are installed at either end of the air-filled pressure hose. The same type of sensor is used to activate side-impact airbags. When a vehicle collides with an obstacle, the resulting pressure exerted on the hose through the front bumper and foam block creates a typical waveform that is detected by the two sensors at the ends of the hose and forwarded to an airbag control unit. Crash algorithms in the analysis software and speed information from the vehicle's information network enable the type of collision to be identified in a hundredth of a second. The signal relay time even allows conclusions to be drawn about the location of the impact, for example the front right-hand corner or the middle of the vehicle. This enables the rapid activation of protection systems, which are most effective in accidents in urban traffic with a pre-crash speed of no more than 34 mph and a crash speed of between 12 and 18 mph. Particular challenges for the sensor system include reliability and the ability to detect a collision between the vehicle and a pedestrian regardless of whether the person is a small child or a grown man. The sensors must, with the highest degree of reliability, ascertain 'no-fire' situations in which the protection systems must not be activated under any circumstances. Such situations include bumping the curb with the front spoiler or hitting a small animal. - PR Newswire

8 6 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL UPCOMING EVENTS - Through October 2011 Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction Contact: 800/ Event: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Date/Loc: Testing for Acceditation January 21, Orilla, Ont., Canada January 26, Hershey, PA January 26, Kansas City, MO January 27, Blythewood, SC February 18, Seattle, WA February 22, Chesterfield, MO April 1, Salt Lake City, UT April 18, Springfield, MO April 20, Kansas City, MO April 27, Willoughby Hills, OH April 30, SanJose, CA May 10, Seattle, WA June 16, Cedar Rapids, IA Contact: Event: Date/Loc: Event: Date/Loc: Engineering Dynamics Corp. Machelle Palomo 503/ x115 EDC Simulaions Course January 24-28, Burbank, CA 2011 HVE Forum February 21-25, Scottsdale, AZ Inst. of Police Technology & Management Contact: 904/ Event: At-Scene Traffic Crash Investigation Cost: $895 Date/Loc: March 21 - April 1, Murfreeboro, TN Date/Loc: March 28 - April 8, Jacksonville, FL Date/Loc: September 12-23, Jacksonville, FL A.C.T.A.R.* TEST PREPARATION KIT Includes a tutorial with practice problems, plus a 2-part practice test of equal size and comparable difficulty. COST: $99 Send check/money order/ dept. purchase order to: Accident Reconstruction Journal P.O. Box 234 Waldorf, MD * This kit is a product of Accident Recon. Journal and is not produced or endorsed by ACTAR itself. Event: Advanced Traffic Crash Investig'n Cost: $895 Date/Loc: Jan Feb. 4, Scottsdale, AZ Date/Loc: April 11-22, Jacksonville, FL Date/Loc: Sept Oct. 7, Jacksonville, FL Event: Traffic Crash Reconstruction Cost: $895 Date/Loc: April 25 - May 6, Jacksonville, FL Event: Inspection and Investigation of Commercial Vehicle Crashes Cost: $695 Date/Loc: Feb March 4, Jacksonville, FL Date/Loc: March 28 - April 1, Scottsdale, AZ Date/Loc: Aug Sept. 2, Jacksonville, FL Event: Investigation of Motorcycle Crashes Cost: $695 Date/Loc: February 7-11, Scottsdale, AZ Date/Loc: March 21-25, Jacksonville, FL Date/Loc: October 17-21, Jacksonville, FL Event: Pedestrian & Bike Crash Invest'n Cost: $695 Date/Loc: March 7-11, Scottsdale, AZ Date/Loc: April 4-8, Jacksonville, FL Event: Energy Method and Damage Analysis Cost: $725 Date/Loc: May 23-27, Murfreesboro, TN Event: Occupant Kinematics for the Traffic Crash Investigator Cost: $725 Date/Loc: March 14-18, Marietta, GA Event: Event Data Recorder Use in Traffic Accident Reconstruction Cost: $695 Date/Loc: March 14-18, Jacksonville, FL Date/Loc: March 21-25, Scottsdale, AZ Date/Loc: October 24-28, Jacksonville, FL Event: Event Data Recorder Use in Traffic Accident Reconstruction - Update Cost: $495 Date/Loc: April 25-27, Jacksonville, FL Event: Digital Photography for Traffic Crash Investigations Cost: $695 Date/Loc: March 28 - April 1, Marietta, GA Date/Loc: October 3-7, Jacksonville, FL Event: Human Factors in Traffic Crash Recon. Cost: $725 Date/Loc: February 14-18, Scottsdale, AZ Date/Loc: March 21-25, Marietta, GA Date/Loc: June 6-10, Murfreesboro, TN Event: Special Problems in Traffic Crash Recosntruction Cost: $695 Date/Loc: May 2-6, Jacksonville, FL Contact: Michigan State Univ. / Rec*Tec Event: Crash3 - Linear Momentum - SMAC Cost: $375 Date/Loc: March 23-25, New Orleans, LA Event: World Class Turcks Cost: $975 Date/Loc: March 27 - April 1, New Orleans, LA Michigan State Univ. Contact: 517/ Event: AI - 1 Date/Loc: January 24-28, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: February 7-11, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: March 28 - April 1, Auburn Hills, MI Date/Loc: September 12-16, Garden City, MI Event: AI - 2 Date/Loc: January 17-21, Clinton Twp., MI Date/Loc: Feb March 4, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: March 21-25, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: May 16-20, Auburn Hills, MI Date/Loc: October 12-16, Garden City, MI Event: AI - 3 Date/Loc: February 15-16, Clinton Twp., MI Date/Loc: April 5-6, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: May 10-11, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: June 21-22, Auburn Hills, MI Event: AI - 4 Date/Loc: February 14, Clinton Twp., MI Date/Loc: April 4, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: May 12, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: June 23, Auburn Hills, MI Event: AI - 5 Date/Loc: February 17, Clinton Twp., MI Date/Loc: April 7, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: May 12, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: June 23, Auburn Hills, MI Event: AI - 6 Date/Loc: February 18, Clinton Twp., MI Date/Loc: April 8, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: May 13, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: June 24, Auburn Hills, MI Event: AI - 7 Date/Loc: March 21-25, Clinton Twp., MI Date/Loc: May 9-13, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: June 15-17, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: October 3-5, Auburn Hills, MI Event: AI - 8 Date/Loc: April 25-27, Clinton Twp., MI Date/Loc: June 6-8, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: June 15-17, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: October 3-5, Auburn Hills, MI Event: AI - 9 Date/Loc: January 10-21, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: September 19-30, Clinton Twp., MI Event: AI - 11 & 12 Date/Loc: October 7-11, Auburn Hills, MI

9 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2010 Event: AI - 13 Date/Loc: February 14-18, Garden City, MI Date/Loc: March 7-11, East Lansing, MI Event: AI - 14 Date/Loc: June 9-10, East Lansing, MI Event: AI - 17 Date/Loc: April 18-20, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: June 27-29, Garden City, MI Event: AI - 18 Date/Loc: June 22-24, East Lansing, MI Event: AI - 20 Date/Loc: May 23-27, East Lansing, MI Date/Loc: October 10-14, Garden City, MI Event: AI - 24 Date/Loc: June 13-17, East Lansing, MI Northwestern University - Center for Public Safety Contact: 800/ or 847/ Event: Crash Investigation 1 Cost: $975 Date/Loc: March 7-18, Evanston, IL Event: Crash Investigation 2 Cost: $975 Date/Loc: March 21 - April 1, Evanston, IL Event: Vehicle Dynamics Cost: $775 Date/Loc: April 11-15, Evanston, IL Event: Math and Physics Workshop for Crash Reconstruction Cost: $775 Date/Loc: April 4-8, Evanston, IL Event: Traffic Crash Reconstruction 1 Cost: $1050 Date/Loc: October 18-29, Evanston, IL Date/Loc: April 18-29, Evanston, IL Event: Traffic Crash Reconstruction 2 Cost: $850 Date/Loc: November 1-5, Evanston, IL Date/Loc: May 2-6, Evanston, IL Event: Traffic Crash Reconstr'n Refresher Cost: $500 Date/Loc: May 16-18, Evanston, IL Event: Heavy Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Cost: $875 Date/Loc: May 9-13, Evanston, IL Event: Pedestrian/Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Cost: $575 Date/Loc: May 23-25, Evanston, IL Event: Event Data Recorder Technician Cost: $200 Date/Loc: November 16, Evanston, IL Event: Event Data Recorder Technician Field Cost: $375 Date/Loc: May 26-27, Evanston, IL Contact: Rudy Degger and Associates Event: Basic Traffic Collision Investigation Cost: $273 Date/Loc: January 25-28, Concord, CA Date/Loc: March 1-4, Concord, CA Date/Loc: April 26-29, Concord, CA Event: Intermediate Traffic Collision Invest. Cost: $505 Date/Loc: February 7-11, Concord, CA Date/Loc: May 2-6, Concord, CA Event: Advanced Traffic Collision Investigation Cost: $616 Date/Loc: June 13-24, Concord, CA Event: Traffic Collision Reconstruction Cost: $770 Date/Loc: March 14-25, Concord, CA Society of Automotive Engineers Contact: Prof. Development 724/ Event: Side Impact Occupant Safety and CAFE Cost: Member: $1184 Non-member: $1315 Date/Loc: February 21-22, Troy, MI Event: Frontal Impact Crash Occupant Safety and CAFE Cost: Member: $1139 Non-member: $1265 Date/Loc: March 3-4, Troy, MI Event: Brake Testing for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks Cost: Member: $1103 Non-member: $1225 Date/Loc: February 21-22, Troy, MI Event: Vehicle Dynamics for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks Cost: Member: $1499 Non-member: $1665 Date/Loc: March 23-25, Troy, MI Texas A & M Univ. - TEEX Contact: 800/ Event: Advanced Collision Investigation Cost: $470 Date/Loc: Jan Feb. 4, Bryan, TX Date/Loc: March 21 - April 1, Baytown, TX Event: Advanced Collision Investigation Cost: $835 Date/Loc: October 18-29, Hot Springs, AR Event: Collision Reconstruction Cost: $835 Date/Loc: January 3-14, Conroe, TX Date/Loc: February 14-25, Humble, TX Date/Loc: June 6-17, Baytown, TX Event: Collision Reconstruction Cost: $835 Date/Loc: January 10-21, Van Buren, AR. # # # AAA: TEENS DON'T GET ENOUGH SUPERVISED DRIVING EXPERIENCE 7 Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 18 across the nation. A new study from the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety suggests one of the reasons teenaged drivers are some of the most vulnerable drivers on the road is because parents aren t spending enough time practicing driving with their teens. During the study, the AAA Foundation placed cameras in the vehicles of 50 families to monitor teenage drivers and their parents during the supervised driving phase. The study found the average amount of weekly driving varied greatly among families ranging from 20 minutes to five hours. Overall, teens averaged about an hour and a half of supervised driving each week. Most of the supervised driving occurred during routine trips along the same routes, with few teens gaining significant experience in challenging situations, such as driving during heavy traffic or in inclement weather. A statistic, AAA Foundation President and CEO Peter Kissinger says the best way for teen drivers to become responsible drivers is by driving in a variety of settings. Starting early and practicing often can make the crucial difference between being a tentative novice driver or one capable of handling challenging and unavoidable driving scenarios. About 70 percent of parents from the study reported opportunities for driving with their teen were limited by the busy schedules of the parents and teens. According to the Ohio Insurance Institute one in three drivers under the age of 16 crashed and one in seven drivers between the ages to 16 and 20 crashed in The Nation Highway Traffic Safety Administration says inexperience is what makes teens some of the most vulnerable drivers on the road. The state of Ohio has a graduated driver s license system (GDL). The state requires six months of supervised driving before a teen is eligible for a license. During this stage of GDL, parents need to make sure their teens see enough practice in a variety of driving situations, including frequent practice with driving at night, in bad weather, through heavy city traffic, on rural highways and on busy interstates. Parents should also share their driving wisdom to help their teen spot potential dangers that aren t obvious. Teens need to also need to be taught how to drive defensively and to anticipate the unexpected, such as running red lights. - nbc4i.com

10 8 T E S T Y O U R ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL S K I L L Solutions begin on page A truck is traveling at 56 mph [90 kph]. A car is travelling in the opposite direction at 71 mph [114 kph]. The distance between them is 950 feet [290 m]. If they both maintain constant speed, how much time will elapse before they collide? 2. A bus stops at an intersection. It then accelerates at a moderate rate of 0.12 g's for 30 feet [9.3 m], and is then struck broadside by another vehicle. How fast was the bus going at impact? 3. The car that struck the bus in Problem 2 was traveling at a constant rate of 42 mph [68 kph]. How far from the point of impact was the car when the bus began to accelerate? 4. A motorcycle skids 76 feet [23.2 m] with only the rear wheel skidding (drag factor =.35). It then skids 21 feet [6.4 m] with both wheels sliding (drag factor =.80). It then slides 128 feet [39.0 m] on its side (drag factor =.53). Determine the speed of the bike at the start of the one-wheel skid. 5. A Camaro is drag racing another vehicle when it goes out of control, hits a curb, and goes airborne. As it leaves the ground it scrapes the top off a small dirt mound. The scrape is measured and found to correspond to a take-off slope of 7% for the car. The horizontal distance of the jump is 75 feet [22.9 m]. There is no change in elevation from takeoff to landing. Determine the take-off speed of the Camaro. 6. An automobile begins to yaw on a banked curve. The critical speed scuff mark laid down by the outside front tire was measured with a 60 foot [18.3 m] chord and found to have a middle ordinate of 13 inches [33 cm]. The LEVEL coefficient of friction is Along the scuff mark the surface is level. Determine the speed of the vehicle pound [1826 kg] V-2 is stopped at a traffic signal when it is struck in the rear by 4678-pound [2122 kg] eastbound V-1. After impact V-1 travelled east 29 feet [8.8 m] at an average drag factor of After impact V-2 travelled east 40 feet [12.2 m] at an average drag factor of Calculate the impact speed of V For the collision in Problem 7, recalculate V-1's impact speed using dissipation of energy. V-1 has an average of 7.5 inches [19 cm] of crush on its front. V-2 has an average of 15 inches [38 cm] of crush on the rear. Use the following Campbell equations: S in mph, C AVG in inches: V-1 front: ebs = 1.40*C MAX + 7 V-2 rear: ebs = 1.15*C MAX + 5 S in kph, C AVG in cm: V-1 front: ebs = 0.89*C MAX + 11 V-2 rear: ebs = 0.73*C MAX + 8 CORRECTION: In the July/August issue, problem 3, the speed of the car should have been given as 45 mph [72 kph]. CEO OF SOUTH KOREA'S KIA MOTORS RESIGNS OVER RECALLS Chung Sung-eun, vice chairman and chief executive of South Korea's second largest automaker, has quit, according to company spokesman Michael Choo. "His resignation comes in the light of the recent global recall issued by Kia Motors," Choo said, without elaborating. Kia is the sister company to Hyundai Motor. Together they form Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, the world's fifth largest auto company. Chung's decision to resign contrasts with the management decisions made at Japan's No. 1 automaker, Toyota Motor (TM), which saw its reputation for quality and safety wither in recent months after recalls of about 10 million cars worldwide to fix an array of problems, mostly related to unintended acceleration. Despite the massive recalls, no heads have rolled at Toyota, although top management's pay was cut 10% and some executives, including President Akio Toyoda, forfeited bonuses. South Korea's Yonhap news agency reported that Hyundai Chairman Chung Mong-koo asked Chung to step down in order to take responsibility for the recalls, the Associated Press reported. Neither Choo nor Hyundai Motor spokeswoman Song Meeyoung could confirm the report. Last week, Kia recalled about 100,000 cars for defective wiring that controls mood lighting, including 35,000 Kia Sorento and Soul models sold in the U.S. Defective soldering may short out and possibly result in a fire, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration website. Federal safety investigators also said they were beginning an investigation into a report of steering problems in a 2010 Soul model. The complaint claims steering components broke apart resulting in a complete loss of steering. - DailyFinance

11 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, ALLSTATE SUES TOYOTA OVER ACCELERATION CLAIMS Allstate Insurance Co has sued Toyota Motor Corp, seeking to recover more than $3 million the insurer and affiliates paid in claims for accidents linked to unintended acceleration in Toyota vehicles. The lawsuit, filed [recently] in Los Angeles Superior Court, marks a relatively new front in the wave of U.S. civil litigation piling up against the Japanese automaker for economic losses stemming from complaints about Toyotas that have sped out of control and crashed. "We are expected to be one of several insurance companies that are taking this action," Allstate spokeswoman Christina Loznicka told Reuters. Echoing claims in a major class-action consumer suit pending in federal court against Toyota, the Allstate complaint says the automaker long ignored evidence of acceleration problems in its vehicles and failed to install a brake override system that would have prevented accidents. The Allstate action asserts, as have other lawsuits, that acceleration flaws were rooted in a defect in an electronic throttle system Toyota introduced in the 1990s, and that Toyota "essentially hid the problem" instead of recalling the cars or changing the design. "This has resulted in numerous claims of instances of property damage and injuries, including in some instances fatalities," the suit says. Claims paid by Allstate and affiliates to policy-holders or third parties for accidents involving unintended acceleration in Toyotas total more than $3 million, according to the suit. That sum is a fraction of the $10 billion in total potential U.S. civil liability Toyota is estimated to face overall from unintended acceleration. But similar suits from other insurance carriers are bound to multiply the effect of such subrogation claims. Toyota spokesman Steven Curtis said the company had not seen the Allstate complaint, but "based on reports we believe the unfounded allegations in this suit have no basis." Toyota has insisted the only defects causing its vehicles to speed out of control were illfitting floor mats and sticking gas pedals -- both addressed in safety recalls encompassing 5.4 million U.S. vehicles. The automaker has staunchly denied that an electronic glitch of any kind is to blame for its acceleration problems. But the unprecedented magnitude of the recalls has damaged Toyota's once-sterling reputation for safety and reliability in its largest market. Toyota's North American manufacturing arm said on Monday that consumer complaints regarding unintended acceleration have dropped 80 percent since April, when it instituted a new approach to handling those complaints. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is investigating reports that as many as 89 crash deaths since 2000 may be linked to unintended acceleration in Toyota cars. - Reuters EDITORIAL: FEDERAL STUDY OF ANTILOCKS IS JUNK SCIENCE A poorly designed government study of antilock brakes threatens to lock up the wheels of an effort to require this safety feature on all new motorcycles. Relying on flawed methods, the authors fail to find any significant effect on crash risk from antilocks. A broad spectrum of research by the Institute and others has found otherwise. More than 5,000 motorcyclists were killed in crashes in Such deaths continued to grow in recent years despite an overall drop in traffic deaths. More people have started riding motorcycles, with bike registrations nearly doubling from 2000 to Given that surge, it s important to look for ways to make riding safer. Brakes are a good place to start because stopping a motorcycle is much more complicated than stopping a car. Most motorcycles have separate controls for the front and rear brakes, and braking too hard can lock up a wheel, causing a fall. Improper braking has been shown to be a common cause of crashes. Antilocks help by automatically reducing brake pressure when a lockup is about to occur and increasing it again after traction is restored. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) announced in its agenda that it was considering an antilock requirement for motorcycles. The Institute strongly urged the agency to adopt the rule and reiterated this in a recent letter to the agency, warning that the new study should be ignored because it contributes nothing reliable to what s already known about the benefits of antilock brakes on motorcycles. The agency s own studies have shown that motorcycle antilocks reduce stopping distances on the test track. Other studies have quantified the benefits using crash reconstructions. Two recent statistical analyses from the Institute and the affiliated Highway Loss Data Institute provide even more support for motorcycle antilocks. Institute researchers found that motorcycles with antilock brakes are 37 percent less likely to be involved in fatal crashes than bikes without antilocks. The researchers looked at crashes from 2003 to 2008 and measured the exposure of both types of motorcycles by looking at vehicle registrations. A separate analysis of insurance claims found that motorcycles with antilocks have 22 percent fewer damage claims per insured vehicle year than the same models without antilocks. There s ample evidence that motorcycle antilocks prevent crashes and save lives, says Institute president Adrian Lund. Unfortunately, NHTSA decided to do its own study using a flawed methodology. The agency should disregard its latest findings, which only serve to muddle the issue. NHTSA s report is an apparent response to the Institute s study of fatal crashes. The authors point out that Institute researchers weren t able to control for possible differences in the riding habits of people who buy motorcycles with antilocks compared with people whose bikes don t have the feature. But the government researchers didn t consider the Highway Loss Data Institute analysis of collision claims. This study does take into account factors known to affect crash rates including rider age and sex and a bike s location, and the findings still show a significant benefit of antilocks. Instead, the government research- ers tried to solve the problem by comparing crashes that would be affected by antilocks with a control group of crashes in which antilocks are deemed irrelevant. The problem, Lund says, is that the categories are hardly clear-cut. Agency researchers performed 2 versions of their analysis using different definitions of the control group. First, they defined this group strictly as crashes in which a motorcycle was stationary or moving very slowly. However, such crashes are so rare that, as the researchers themselves acknowledge, it s hard to draw any conclusions from them. In the second version of NHTSA s analysis, the control group includes all crashes in which a motorcycle rider wasn t at fault but the driver of another vehicle was. In this case, the methodological problem is the inclusion of many crashes in which antilocks are anything but irrelevant. For instance, a rider going straight who has to brake suddenly to avoid hitting someone improperly turning left from the opposite lane wouldn t be at fault, although antilock brakes could save the life of a rider in this situation. It s hard to find many crashes in which effective braking is irrelevant, Lund says. The agency s attempt to analyze the issue this way adds nothing to what we know about antilocks and certainly doesn t refute earlier studies showing the benefits of antilock brakes. Motorcycle antilock braking systems and crash risk estimated from case-control comparisons, along with the Institute s letter to NHTSA, is available at regulations.gov, Docket No. NHTSA IIHS Status Report

12 10 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL U.S. TRANSPORTATION SECRETARY LAHOOD APPLAUDS NEW KANSAS PRIMARY SEAT BELT LAW Kansas now eligible for more than $11 million in federal funds U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood today applauded Kansas for enacting a new primary seat belt law that is expected to save lives, reduce serious injuries and cut medical and other economic costs by more than $70 million. The new Kansas law enables police officers to stop and ticket the driver of any passenger car if either the driver or front seat passenger is observed not wearing a seat belt. This law also applies to anyone under age 18. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), seat belt use is the most effective protection against serious crash injuries, reducing the risk by 50 percent. "We are pleased that Kansas has joined those states that have adopted primary seat belt laws to save lives," said Secretary LaHood. "Wearing a seat belt can make the difference between life and death in a crash, so always buckle up on every trip, every time. NHTSA Administrator David Strickland added, We applaud Governor Mark Parkinson and the state legislature for stepping up to the plate to make Kansas roads safer. Seat belts have saved more lives than any other piece of safety equipment in the American automobile, but they only work when you wear them. NHTSA estimates that, with the passage of its primary belt law, Kansas will increase its belt use by approximately nine percent, cut annual fatalities in passenger cars and light trucks by eight percent and reduce serious injuries. Traffic crashes cost the nation about $230 billion each year in medical expenses, lost productivity, property damage and related costs. Kansas pays $1.9 billion of these costs, $700 for every resident of Kansas, each year. The new law makes Kansas eligible to receive $11 million in federal incentive funds from the Department of Transportation. Primary seat belt laws have a proven track record of increasing state seat belt use rates. In 2009, the average seat belt use rate in states with primary enforcement laws was 11 percent higher than in states with secondary enforcement laws. With the addition of Kansas, 31 states, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have primary seat belt laws. - DOT press release This comprehensive database of motor vehicle dimensions and weights, designed to be used in accident reconstruction, is immune to challenge in court by other lawyers or engineers because the data comes directly from each vehicle manufacturer. Our Standard Data Sheet (40 data points) Includes: AAMA Widths and Lengths AAMA Height & Ground Clearance Measurements AAMA Curb Weight AAMA Tire & Wheel Size AAMA Optional Equipment Weights Additional Information Available: AAMA Headlamp Data Recall Information Acceleration Speeds/Distances Braking Distance VIN Number Analysis AAMA Interior Dimensions Manufacturing Materials Used Center of Gravity Calculations Pricing Structure: $48.00 Standard Data Sheet $28.00 Mini Data Sheet (12 data points) $15.00 VIN Analysis $15.00 Interior Dimensions Supplement Information Provided at No Extra Charge Same Day Service No Extra Charge Interior & Exterior Line Drawings and Dimensional Explanations at No Extra Charge MOTOR VEHICLE DATA Waywood Drive Twinsburg, OH Phone Orders: 330/ Fax Orders: 330/

13 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, PEDESTRIAN WALKING SPEED IN CROSSWALK STUDY By: Frank Carson INTRODUCTION Pedestrian walking speed is a parameter often needed for time/distance analyses in traffic accident reconstruction cases. A walking speed of 3 mph (4.4 ft/sec) or 4 ft/sec (2.7 mph) is typically assumed for a healthy, adult pedestrian, based studies published in this periodical and elsewhere. [Ref. 1-5] Pedestrian walking speed is also widely used as input for many transportation engineering applications, such as determining required gap sizes and pedestrian signal timing. The U.S. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices [Ref. 6] assumes a pedestrian walking speed of 4 ft/sec (1.2 m/sec) or slower by pedestrians such as the elderly, people using wheelchairs or other assistive devices, and others. The purpose of this study was to provide data that would corroborate or possibly contradict previous studies, and to see what effect variable factors such age, gender, etc., would have on expected pedestrian travel speed. METHODOLOGY The study was conducted at a major sports complex. A crosswalk was measured, and found to be 39 feet in length from curb to curb. The roadway was of asphalt construction and the path that the pedestrian walked was straight and level. The data, as it was collected, was entered onto a form and then transferred to a simple spreadsheet for analysis. The pedestrians were timed using a Timex Triathlon digital stopwatch. The watch was started when the pedestrian s foot left the curb and stopped when the pedestrian s trailing foot came up onto the curb at the end. Pedestrians were timed prior to the beginning of the sports event and before the crowds became so dense that a pedestrian s walking speed may have been effected by them walking within crowds across the roadway. Only pedestrians who walked a straight line and were walking alone (not holding hands with another person, etc.) along the measured path were timed unless otherwise noted. Special instances, such as a person walking with a cane, were noted by a numeric code. The key to these numeric codes is visible at right. It was possible for a pedestrian to have required more than one note. For example, a person limping and using a cane would merit two separate codes. There was no precipitation falling dur- ing any of these measurements. The road surface was dry, except for the samples taken on 9/ 18/2004 at which time the roadway on which the pedestrians walked was wet from an earlier rain. No pedestrians who appeared to be im- paired by alcohol or other drugs were included in the study. The decision to exclude a pedestrian from the study was based on the author's experience as a law enforcement officer for 16 years, and his training as a Drug Recognition TABLE 1 - Individual Walking Speed Measurements Date Race Sex Age Time Dist. (ft) ft/sec mph Note 8/14/2004 B M /14/2004 W F /14/2004 W F /14/2004 W F /14/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /14/2004 W F /14/2004 W F /14/2004 W F /14/2004 W F /14/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /18/2004 B M /14/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /18/2004 B M /14/2004 W F /3/2004 W M /31/2004 W F /31/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /2/2005 B F /3/2004 W F /18/2004 B F /31/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /14/2004 W F ,2 8/14/2004 W M ,2 Code Descriptions: 1. Holding Hands 2. Walking Side by Side 3. Walking with Cane 4. In Wheelchair Operated by Hand (Rider) 5. Motorized Wheelchair 6. Overweight/Obese 7. Running 8. Limping 9. Wearing High Heels 10. Pushed in Wheelchair 11. Pulling Rolling Suitcase/Briefcase

14 12 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL TABLE 1 - Individual Walking Speed Measurements (Continued) Date Race Sex Age Time Dist. ft/sec mph Date Race Sex Age Time Dist. ft/sec mph 12/12/2004 A F /31/2004 A F /31/2004 A F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /31/2004 B F /2/2005 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /12/2004 B F /12/2004 B F /12/2004 B F /14/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /3/2004 B F /12/2004 B F /27/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /3/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /2/2005 B F /3/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /3/2004 B F /18/2004 B F /14/2004 B M /3/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /5/2004 B M /12/2004 B M /12/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /28/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /14/2004 B M /3/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /3/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /31/2004 B M /3/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /14/2004 B M /3/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /31/2004 B M /2/2005 B M /3/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /2/2005 B M /28/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /12/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /14/2004 B M /14/2004 B M /27/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /18/2004 B M /31/2004 B M /2/2005 H M /2/2005 H M /2/2005 W F /31/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /2/2005 W F /3/2004 W F /2/2005 W F /28/2004 W F /28/2004 W F /28/2004 W F /27/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /2/2005 W F /28/2004 W F /28/2004 W F

15 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, TABLE 1 - Individual Walking Speed Measurements (Continued) Date Race Sex Age Time Dist. ft/sec mph Date Race Sex Age Time Dist. ft/sec mph 9/3/2004 W F /18/2004 W F /27/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /14/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /2/2005 W F /2/2005 W F /2/2005 W F /3/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /27/2004 W F /27/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /2/2005 W F /2/2005 W F /2/2005 W F /28/2004 W F /27/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /27/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /2/2005 W F /12/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /2/2005 W F /28/2004 W F /28/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /12/2004 W F /27/2004 W F /31/2004 W F /27/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /28/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /3/2004 W F /2/2005 W F /2/2005 W M /3/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /14/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /3/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /27/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /28/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /14/2004 W M

16 14 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL TABLE 1 - Individual Walking Speed Measurements (Continued) Date Race Sex Age Time Dist. ft/sec mph 8/28/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /5/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /27/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /28/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /14/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /3/2004 W M Date Race Sex Age Time Dist. ft/sec mph 9/27/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /3/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /12/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /3/2004 W M /3/2004 W M /18/2004 W M /14/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /28/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /31/2004 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /2/2005 W M /28/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /28/2004 W M /27/2004 W M /28/2004 W M Average

17 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, Expert and EMS provider. Ages of pedestrians were estimates, based on the training and experience of the author. ANALYSIS Three hundred ninety-one measurements were taken. They are compiled in Table One. The average speed of all 391 tests was 4.28 ft/ sec or 2.92 mph. As expected, the were no appreciable differences in the data when grouped by ethnicity. Gender did not appear to be a factor either, with virtually identical speeds observed for both males and females. Age did appear to affect speed. Children younger than 11 generally moved slower than 4 ft/sec. Pedestrians in their late teens walked the fastest of any age group, clocking in at an average of 4.7 ft/ sec. Adults whose age estimates ranged from 21 to 50 collectively averaged almost exactly 4.0 ft/sec. Pedestrians in the 51 to 65 age range had an average walking speed of 3.3 ft/sec, as did those estimated to be 66 years of age or older. (The latter group excluded two elderly pedestrians walking with the aid of a cane.) There were eleven special instances, such as limping or walking in high heels, documented in this study. The only code groups that applied to more than 3 pedestrians were #1 and #2, 'holding hands' and 'walking side by side' respectively. The presence of these two activities did not appear to cause pedestrian speeds to deviate significantly from the norms. REFERENCES 1. Montufar, J., J. Arango, M. Porter and S. Nakagawa, "Pedestrians' Normal Walking Speed and Speed When Crossing a Street," Accident Reconstruction Journal, May/June, Fitzpatrick, K., M. A. Brewer, and S. M. Turner. "Another Look at Pedestrian Walking Speed." In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1982, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2006, pp Smith, S. L., "Pedestrian Velocity Trials," Accident Reconstruction Journal, January/February, Knoblauch, R., M. Pietrucha, and M. Nitzburg. "Field Studies of Pedestrian Walking Speed and Start-Up Time." In Transportation Research Record 1538, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp Idaho State Police, "Pedestrian Walking and Running Velocity Study," Accident Reconstruction Journal, March/April, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. CD-ROM, FHWA, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2003, pp. 4E-l to 4E-9. Frank Carson is a reconstructionist with the Prince Georges County (Maryland) Police fatal accident investigation unit. Victor Craig, ARJ editor, contributed to the data analysis and write-up of this article. WEDDING DEEP-SIX D Following an argument between a couple who had been partners for seven years, future wedding plans have been sunk along with the prospective groom s clothes, CDs, DVDs, and van. Police in Whitehaven, England, arrested the former bride-to-be for aggravated vehicle-taking without consent, reports The Associated Press, after she packed her partner s possessions into his van, drove to the harbor and released the handbrake. The ex-groom was left only with the clothes he was wearing. - Road and Track

18 16 THE CMF CLEARINGHOUSE: A HANDY SAFETY TOOL by Katy Jones, Karen Yunk, and Daniel Carter ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), State departments of transportation (DOTs), and other stakeholders continue to make progress in reducing highway fatalities across the Nation, with deaths per vehicle mile traveled (VMT) falling every year except 1 over the last 15 years. In 1994 and 1995, for instance, there were 1.73 fatalities per 100 million VMT, but that number dropped to 1.25 deaths per 100 VMT in 2008, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Continuing to achieve further reductions in traffic fatalities will require even more effective, data-driven investment decisions. Practitioners now have many resources and tools available to help them identify potential safety improvements and decide which ones to implement. One such resource is crash modification factors (CMFs), multiplicative factors used to compute the expected number of crashes that might occur after implementing a given countermeasure at a specific site. The concept is not new, as efforts can be traced back to the 1970s to develop tabular summaries of accident reduction factors, or ARFs, as they were called at that time. Over the years, researchers have developed thousands of CMFs to estimate the expected safety improvement associated with implementation of various countermeasures. The CMF represents a valuable piece of information for safety professionals. A CMF of less than 1.00 indicates an expected decrease in the number of crashes, while a CMF greater than 1.00 indicates an expected increase in crashes. For example, imagine that an intersection is experiencing 20 angle crashes and 40 rear-end crashes per year. If a DOT implements automated red light running enforcement cameras, which have a CMF of 0.67 for angle crashes, the agency might expect to see 13 angle crashes (20 x 0.67 = 13) per year after implementation. If the same countermeasure also has a CMF of 1.45 for rear-end crashes, the DOT might expect to see 58 rear-end crashes (40 x 1.45 = 58) per year. By performing these calculations, engineers can weigh the relative costs and benefits of installing various countermeasures and inform decisionmakers about the solution(s) most likely to improve overall safety at a given location. Research continuously identifies new CMFs, but they are useful only if easily available to practitioners. Recognizing the growing need for a centralized location to store and provide easy access to the CMFs, FHWA recently launched the Web-based Crash Modification Factors Clearinghouse (www.cmfclearinghouse.org). As of August 2010, the clearinghouse provides access to more than 2,500 CMFs for over 700 countermeasures, as well as guidance to help transportation professionals use CMFs to improve their decisions about road safety. The site also features information on training and cost-benefit analyses. "The Crash Modification Factors Clearinghouse provides an easy way for practitioners to use the latest knowledge as they make important safety improvement decisions on their roadways," says FHWA Executive Director Jeff Paniati. "It also provides links to other important safety resources, such as the new [American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)] Highway Safety Manual." Building the Clearinghouse In November 2008, FHWA began developing the CMF Clearinghouse. The agency worked with a variety of potential users, such as State DOT personnel and local engineers, to develop the content, design, and functionality of the Web site. Based on this indepth user feedback, FHWA structured the clearinghouse to include several key features. First, the site includes a rating system to inform users of the reliability of CMFs. Second, the site lists both CMFs and crash reduction factors (or CRFs), which are estimates of the percentage reduction in crashes. Plus, the site is home to assorted educational materials that are updated regularly. The clearinghouse also coordinates closely with information covered in AASHTO's Highway Safety Manual, which is a key document practitioners use to facilitate roadway design and operational decisions based on explicit consideration of their safety consequences. The initial collection of CMFs in the clearinghouse came from several sources: research conducted to develop AASHTO's Highway Safety Manual, FHWA's Desktop Reference for Crash Reduction Factors, and studies identified at the 2009 Transportation Research Board annual meeting. After drawing on existing compilations of CMFs to populate the clearinghouse upfront, FHWA now updates the site quarterly as new CMFs become available. Studies have shown that providing continuous milled-in shoulder rumble strips (with a CMF of 0.21) like those shown here can lead to a 79 percent reduction in crashes. FHWA identifies additional CMFs for the updates through literature searches and user submissions, and then reviews all potential new CMFs to determine their applicability for the clearinghouse. The review process has two parts. First, a preliminary review identifies and records key information about studies with potential relevance to the clearinghouse. This step records information such as the study title and publication date, countermeasures investigated, study methodology, sample size, and locations used for data collection. Second, a critical review then evaluates each CMF and determines an appropriate quality rating. After FHWA assigns a rating, the CMF goes live on the clearinghouse Web site. Rating CMF Quality The CMF Clearinghouse includes all documented CMFs, which can vary widely in quality and reliability depending on the study design, number of sites included in the analysis, and other factors. For this reason, the potential users who were consulted requested that the clearinghouse include a system to indicate the dependability of each CMF. In response, FHWA developed a quality rating system utilizing stars -- the more stars, the better the quality of the CMF. FHWA bases the quality rating on a CMF's performance (that is, the quality of the study that developed the CMF) in five categories: study design, sample size, standard error, potential bias, and data source. The performance in each category is rated as excellent, fair, or poor. For example, a study that employed a statistically rigorous design with a reference group, such as empirical Bayes (a method by which predicted crashes are compared to actual crashes to determine the safety effect of the countermeasure), would receive a rating of excellent for study design. If the study employed a simple before/after design, it would receive a lower rating relative to study design. However, study design is only one category. If the study also had a large sample size or widespread data source, it would receive high scores for those categories. Scores across all five categories are combined to produce the star quality rating for the CMF. The quality rating system applies criteria that are intended to be as objective as possible, but ratings still entail a degree of subjectivity and judgment. "Users of the clearinghouse should take into account all the information presented for a CMF and should not substitute the star quality rating for sound engineering judgment," says Ray Krammes, technical director, FHWA Office of Safety Research and Development. Although the star quality rating provides Continued on page 64

19 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2010

20 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION JOURNAL

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