Teaching as a design science: developing reliable knowledge of learning technology. Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education

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1 Teaching as a design science: developing reliable knowledge of learning technology Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education

2 Teachers as an innovative professional learning community Reconceptualising teaching as a design science Teachers building on the designs of others Ar8cula8ng their pedagogy Adop8ng, adap8ng, tes8ng, improving learning designs Co- crea8ng and sharing learning designs à A computa8onal representa8on of pedagogic design

3 Should learning design be supported computationally? It s difficult, but it s worth a try, because Teachers need much more support than they get to make the most of learning technologies If they can learn together, collaborate, build on the work of others, they can build this knowledge Not in just in staff development courses, not from books, not through exhorta8on, but in the same way as other designers learn That s why we built à

4 The Learning Designer A TLRP-TEL project To help teachers Articulate their effective teaching ideas for others to adopt Adopt pedagogical patterns of good teaching and open resources Model pedagogical and logistical benefits/disadvantages By developing design tools A pedagogical patterns collector for capturing and articulating good pedagogy A learning design support tool for teachers to find, adopt, adapt, analyse, experiment, trial in practice, redesign, and share designs https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/home

5 Capturing pedagogy as design plans Short descrip8on Learning outcome Categorised teaching- learning ac8vi8es Colour- coded content Black text ar8culates the teacher s pedagogy Timings

6 A computational representation

7 The Pedagogical Patterns Collector A library of palerns to inspect, both generic and specific versions Black text captures pedagogy design Colour- coded text iden8fies content parameters

8 Adopt/Adapt a teaching pattern Add link to an OER, e.g. a digital tool for prac8ce Read, Watch, Listen Investigate Discuss Practice Share Produce Represent the teacher as present or not Export to Word [Moodle] Check the feedback on the overall distribu8on of learning ac8vity Adjust the type of learning ac8vity. Edit the instruc8ons. Adopt Adapt Import resources- Test and re-design - Export

9 Comments on the PPC [The pie- chart] is one of the most useful features it gives a good overview of the balance between different learning experiences I rarely consider how the students' Ame is apporaoned it's good to be made to think about this. Seeing how the sessions are shaping up in such a visual medium. would probably make me think more carefully about providing a mix of acaviaes

10 The Learning Designer A TLRP-TEL project To help teachers Articulate their effective teaching ideas for others to adopt Adopt pedagogical patterns of good teaching and open resources Model pedagogical and logistical benefits/disadvantages By developing design tools A Pedagogical Pattern Collector for capturing and articulating good pedagogy The Learning Designer for teachers to find, adopt, adapt, analyse, experiment, trial in practice, redesign, and share designs https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/home

11 The Learning Designer overview Timeline: Analysis: Properties: The start screen: Select Charts Credit Import teaching- of hours or the Create overall learning Student activities, experience numbers Define Learning types what of outcomes learning, they do in and Description activity of experience of personal, Define Designer timing social reflection of or each whole Student one, class feedback group sizes, teacher sequencing workload for initial design and for reuse

12 A theory-based framework of the learner learning Acquiring Talk, Teacher book, video, concepts Web Inquiring Learner L L concepts C C Modulate Generate Learner L L practice P P Learning through acquisition, instruction Learning through inquiry

13 A theory-based framework of the learner learning Teacher concepts Learner L L concepts C C Modulate Generate Lab, Learning Game, environment Simula8on Task/Feedback Actions Modulate Generate Learner L L practice P P Learning through practice with meaningful intrinsic feedback

14 A theory-based framework of the learner learning Acquiring Ideas, questions Teacher concepts Learner L L concepts C C Peer concepts Inquiring Ideas, questions Generate Modulate Modulate Generate Generate Modulate Outputs Learning environment Practising Learner L L practice P P Peer prac8ce Outputs Instructivism - Social constructivism Experiential learning Inquiry learning - Constructionism Collaborative learning (Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford )

15 The Conversational Framework Teacher concepts Teacher communication cycle Learner L L concepts C C Peer communication cycle Peer concepts Generate Modulate Teacher practice cycle Modulate Generate Peer practice cycle Generate Modulate Learning environment Teacher modelling cycle Learner L L practice P P Peer modelling cycle Peer prac8ce Instructivism Social constructivism Experiential learning Inquiry learning Constructionism Collaborative learning Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné, Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford

16 A theory-based framework of the learner learning Acquiring Teacher concepts Inquiring Learner L L concepts C C Discussing Peer concepts Producing Generate Modulate Modulate Generate Generate Modulate Learning environment Practising Learner L L practice P P Collaborating Peer prac8ce Instructivism - Social constructivism Experiential learning Inquiry learning - Constructionism Collaborative learning (Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford )

17 Learning with technology Acquiring Podcasts Teacher concepts Web Inquiring resources Learner L L concepts C C Webinar, Discussing Forum Peer concepts Generate Modulate Producing Designs Produc8ons Modulate Generate Learning environment Skills Prac8sing Prac8ce Tools Learner L L practice P P Collabora8on Collabora8ng tools Peer prac8ce

18 Co-creating new pedagogies Import exis8ng learning designs Use advice and guidance Consider alterna8ve designs Adapt the design to own context Analyse the designs Re- design test improve - share

19 Co-creating new pedagogies Import an exis8ng learning design Adapt an exis8ng learning design Consider advice and guidance on adapta8on Consider alterna8ve learning ac8vi8es

20 Analysing the design Interpreted in terms of the Conversa8onal Framework Contras8ng teacher workload for own design and reuse

21 Re-designing Use drop- down menu to change teaching- learning ac8vi8es and analyse effect on learning experience and teacher 8me

22 Sharing Once tested and evaluated with students, export (with metadata) to shared folder, website, community library, open repository

23 Comments on the approach Teachers respond posi8vely to the Learning Designer tools and see this as a way of improving teaching, and poten8ally of saving 8me The Learning Designer concepts of sharing designs, reuse, adaptaaon, advice on TEL, analysis of the learning experience, suggesaons of design alternaaves, and categorisaaon of designs, were all welcomed by teachers Teachers commented on the added value of the detailed descrip8ons of pedagogy, which enable them to have a more in- depth conversa8on about their prac8ce and what makes a learning design more effec8ve

24 From 20 th C to 21 st C teacher? th C 21st C Teachers activities shift increase shift from from class in activity individual teaching to improve design to more to the personalised co-design learning experience of teaching learning

25 Modelling learning experience and teacher workload How can we estimate the effects of the decisions we make as we plan a course? We select the set of teaching and learning activities we intend to use These have consequences for the pedagogical benefits, and the comparative costs in terms of teachers workload The next slide shows how the intervening assumptions join up the decisions and consequences

26 Select Teaching- Learning Ac8vi8es (TLAs): wiki, simula8on, e- pordolio Define the type of learning each TLA offers Decide group size for each TLA Decide Teacher Time needed to prepare and present each TLA Distribu8on of Inquiry learner 8me across types Discussion of Prac8ce learning experienced Acquisi8on Produc8on Distribute learning hours across the selected TLAs Input total credit hours, size of cohort Teacher 8me for: Design and prepara8on Class and online presenta8on Marking and learner support

27 Comparison of pedagogical benefits, and costs in terms of teachers workload Conventional Blended More ac8ve learning Acquisi8on Acquisi8on Inquiry Inquiry Discussion Prac8ce Produc8on Discussion Prac8ce Produc8on Student numbers Teacher hrs per student Yr 1 Yr 2 Typical Yr 1 Yr 2 Typical Lower per capita costs in a typical year for large numbers But who funds the up-front design and development costs?

28 Modelling the costs for increasing student cohort size Teacher days per student Conven8onal Open Mode Cohort size What does this mean for the business model for MOOCs?

29 What issues must the Learning Designer also address? Complexity It s very overwhelming there s a lot going on and to think about. I m not sure what all the terms mean. I mean I don t My only understand worry is the that difference it [the Learning between Designer] produc8on turns and into prac8ce. an insatuaonal Let s have requisite a look rather [ ] Yes than OK an opaon. I get it. It Yes becomes I see a the measurement difference. Probably we need a bit more help here with I think it's cute tool, have rather pie than charts, a useful it's neat organisaaonal [...] I would tool go explana8ons that allows some and criacal examples. self But reflecaon once you on pracace. get into the I know tool it back isn t that My the problem and squidge so difficult goal is with my the the stuff, laler, tool but is reorganise that somware, the pedagogy my 8me because once out is there, neutral I can of would become the topic know so while that seducave the it approach would be to gather to a good informaaon teaching thing and to for have learning a mix of all of these things (i.e. forms of learning). But that's departments, because policy requires I think makers, a topic it's a good etc, approach thing. and the and If I didn't informaaon this tool doesn t believe that that is this produced help with was a is probably this approach good thing, ONLY then useful you would for individual show me teachers, a pie chart not that educaaon was ministers, 90% of one etc thing I would s8ll think it's ok Poten8ally a tool of management control Interpretability of analysis The need for a topic- oriented focus

30 Teachers as innovative cocreators of technology-based pedagogies Features of teaching as a design science : Teachers adop8ng, adap8ng, tes8ng, improving, sharing learning designs Teaching as collabora8ve learning, supported by online collabora8ve design tools and repositories A theory- based computa8onal representa8on of pedagogic design and teacher workload that migrates across subjects

31 Further details Teaching as a Design Science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology(routledge, 2012)

32 The LDSE project team Oxford Liz Masterman (CoPI) Marion Manton (CoPI) Joanna Wild (RF) LondonMet Tom Boyle (CoPI) IOE/LKL Brock Craft (RF) Diana Laurillard (PI) Dejan Ljubojevic (RF) LSE Steve Ryan (CoPI) Ed Whitley Roser Pujadas (PhD Student) Birkbeck/LKL George Magooulas (CoPI) Patricia Charlton Dionisis Dimakopoulos RVC Kim Whittlestone (CoPI) Stephen May Carrie Roder (PhD Student)

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