ECOWAS COUNTER-TERRORISM STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Draft Dr Deo Barakamfitiye

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1 ECOWAS COUNTER-TERRORISM STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Draft Dr Deo Barakamfitiye Director, ISS Regional Office for West Africa 0

2 OUTLINE Historical Overview of Terrorism in West Africa Threats, vulnerabilities and Causes of Terrorism in West Africa National and collective Responses to Terrorism in West Africa The Draft ECOWAS Counter-Terrorism Strategy and Implementation Plan The Draft ECOWAS Political Declaration against Terrorism Role of WAPCCO, CCSS in the Implementation of the Strategy and Political Declaration 2013/04/23 1

3 TERRORISM IN WEST AFRICA Terrorism has emerged in recent years as a major threat to global peace and security No region in the world has been spared and Africa is one of the hardest hit regions - Nairobi-Dar es Salam - Somalia-Alshabab - Sahel-Aqmi - Nigeria- Boko Haram Terrorism is generally considered a recent development in West Africa but the use of terror as a strategy is not new Bilma bombing, 19 September 1989 Characteristics of Terrorism in West Africa: kidnapping, hijacking, hostage-taking, bombing, suicide attacks, murder, etc : Most deadly terrorist decade in West Africa 2013/04/23 2

4 Terrorist incidents in West Africa /04/23 Incidents 3

5 Major Terrorist Incidents in West Africa by Country Nigeria Sierra Leone Mali Niger Mauritania 2013/04/23 Attacks Kidnapping Hostage-taking 4

6 2013/04/23 5

7 2013/04/23 6

8 Terrorism in Africa in 2012 Rest of Africa, 59 West Africa, 224 Total Attacks in Africa in 2012 is 283 (as at 28 Octber 2012) 2013/04/23 7

9 Notorious Terrorist groups in West Africa Boko Haram Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta Region Al Qaeda in the land of Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) 2013/04/23 8

10 Major Factors Contributing to West African Threats and Vulnerabilities Presence of local radical Islamic groups and terrorist cells; Conflicts, political instability, collapsed states and presence of rapacious rebel groups; The vast Sahel region (with little or no law enforcement) which has become a conduit for terrorists and traffickers; 2013/04/23 9

11 Major Factors Contributing to West African Threats and Vulnerabilities Black markets for natural resources including oil and diamonds; Lack of rule of law and regulatory policies; Weak law enforcement and criminal justice institutions that are prone to chronic corruption; Poverty, inequalities and lack of dynamic government policies for disadvantaged communities; Prevalence of drugs, arms and human trafficking, piracy, organised crime and money laundering, which help to sustain funding for terrorist activities /04/23 10

12 States Responses to Terrorism: Legislative Responses Sierra Leone 1861 Malicious Damage Act; Niger Titre VI du Terrorisme et du Financement du Terrorisme (2003); Ghana Anti-Terrorism Bill (2005) and the Anti-Money Laundering Bill (2007); Senegal Loi Modifiant le Code de procedure Penale et Relative à la lutte Contre les Actes de Terrorisme (2007); Gambia Anti-Terrorism Act (amended) 2008 and the Money Laundering Act (2003); Nigeria Counter-Terrorism Bill 2010 and the Antiwww.issafrica.org 2013/04/23 Money Laundering Bill

13 Ratification of Relevant ECOWAS Instruments Protocol on Democracy: 10 states Parties Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo (EIF:4 January 2000 ) Conv. On Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters: 11 rats: Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo (EIF: 28 October 1998) Conv. on Extradition: 11 rats: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo (EIF: 8 December 2005) Protocol on Conflict Prevention: 7 rats: Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo ( EIF: upon adoption) Conv. on Small Arms: 10 rats: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo (EIF: 5 August 2009) Protocol on Corruption: 8 rats: Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo (EIF: not yet) 2013/04/23 12

14 Ratification of Relevant African Union Instruments 1999 OAU Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism: 12 rats: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Senegal, Togo. Protocol to the 1999 OAU Convention: 2 rats: Mali and Niger /04/23 13

15 Ratification of Relevant United Nations Instruments 2013/04/23 14

16 Objectives of the ECOWAS Counter- Terrorism Strategy Give effect to regional, continental and international counter-terrorism instruments and provide a common operational framework for the prevention and combating of terrorism and related criminal in West Africa; Operationalize regional and international counter-terrorism instruments in West Africa; Promote and consolidate cooperation, coordination, harmonization, and synergies in national counter-terrorism actions; Ensure adequate protection of fundamental human rights in states counterterrorism activities; Strengthen ECOWAS role including that of states, civil society organizations and media networks in the prevention and combating of terrorism I 2013/04/23 15

17 Core Principles Guiding the ECOWAS Counter-Terrorism Strategy Terrorism has emerged as a serious threat to peace, security, stability, development and social cohesion in West Africa; Primacy of prevention and the respect for human rights; Good governance and a democratic culture are prerequisites for effective counter-terrorism; Counter-terrorism requires both military and non-military strategies and tools; and Cooperation among states and technical assistance in all fields constitute a cornerstone for the successful implementation of this Strategy /04/23 16

18 The Three Pillars of the ECOWAS Counter-Terrorism Strategy 2013/04/23 17

19 PILLAR ONE: PREVENT It constitutes the central pillar of the Strategy Its goal is to prevent terrorism before it occurs It is based on the concept of DID Detect, Intercept and Deter It seeks to streamline terrorism in political, socio-economic and cultural activities in order to eliminate conditions conducive for terrorism It emphasizes the need to identify and tackle the risks of terrorism using legislative, financial, 2013/04/23 18 political, security and defence tools.

20 PILLAR TWO: PURSUE It is the second phase of actions, which seeks to ensure timely and effective responses to terrorist acts The pursue pillar is anchored on a criminal justice approach which provides for both military and nonmilitary responses to terrorism One of the key objectives of pillar two is to eliminate impunity and to ensure that all those who participate, support, finance and facilitate terrorist acts whether directly or indirectly are investigated, prosecuted and 2013/04/23 punished to the limit allowed by law.

21 PILLAR THREE: RECONSTRUCT Pillar 3 seeks to rebuild society and reassert authority of the state after a terrorist attack It purpose is to dissuade people from turning to terrorism because of backlash of a terrorist attack It deals with the social consequences of an attack It requires coordination with and involvement of social and media groups in combating terrorism 2013/04/23

22 The Basic Tenets For this strategy to work, it is anchored on regional and international cooperation Mutual legal assistance is an absolute necessity to meet the shortfall and disparity in states capabilities Cooperation in the area of intelligence, investigation, prosecution and counter-terrorism operation is a prerequisite 2013/04/23

23 Who is Responsible for the Implementation of the Strategy? Role of ECOWAS Commission National Task Force Role of GIABA, WAPCCO, CCSS, ECOWARN ECOWAS Counter-Terrorism Unit Role of Partners UN, AU, INTERPOL, Civil Society, and Development Partners 2013/04/23 22

24 The Purpose of the Implementation Plan Recommends specific actions to be undertaken at various levels to realized the goals of the Strategy Provides timeframes for accomplishing various objectives of the Strategy Identifies primary actors and responsibilities as well as partners for the implementation of different activities of the Strategy The Implementation Plan is intended to be pragmatic in terms of enforcing the Strategy 2013/04/23 23

25 The Political Declaration Against Terrorism Purpose and Importance of the Political Declaration Relationship between the Political Declaration and the Counter-Terrorism Strategy Implementation of the Political Declaration 2013/04/23 24

26 The ECOWAS Counter-Terrorism training Manual Main purpose is to develop and strengthen capacity of states in West Africa to effectively implement the ECOWAS Strategy and Political Declaration; Seeks to provide and augment specialized skills for effective intelligence gathering and sharing, investigation and prosecution of terrorist crimes; 2013/04/23 25

27 Flagship Projects 2010 Projects 2011 and Beyond Africa Prosecution Association Regional Police Training Course for SARPCCO (Malawi) Regional training course for Judges and Chief Justices in East Africa (Tanzania) National capacity building programmes, focus on S and W Africa National legislative drafting assistance Botswana, West Africa Project support to ECOWAS Niger Delta project APA The Horn of Africa SARPCCO and SADC Monographs Rule of law in Africa 2013/04/23 26

28 Partnership with ECOWAS MoU, Dakar Office (broad coop. on P&S) Development of a Counter-Terrorism Manual Preparation of a common regional strategy against terrorism Basic threat and needs assessments Support to regional meetings including relevant meetings of ECOWAS policymaking organs Provision of training and technical assistance at the national and regional levels in the areas of prosecution, police, investigation and legislation 2013/04/23 27

29 2013/04/23 28

30 2013/04/23 29

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