Wireless Network Security. Pat Wilbur Wireless Networks March 30, 2007

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1 Wireless Network Security Pat Wilbur Wireless Networks March 30, 2007

2 Types of Attacks Intrusion gain unauthorized access to a network in order to use the network or Internet connection

3 Types of Attacks Intrusion gain unauthorized access to a network in order to use the network or Internet connection Capturing spy on packets being sent over wireless network in order to obtain sensitive information about a system, network, or user

4 Common Types of Attacks Intrusion gain unauthorized access to a network in order to use the network or Internet connection Capturing spy on packets being sent over wireless network in order to obtain sensitive information about a system, network, or user Denial of Service debilitate the wireless network to disrupt user activity

5 Why Secure A Wireless Network? Protect sensitive data

6 Why Secure A Wireless Network? Protect sensitive data Reduce unnecessary bandwidth consumption

7 Why Secure A Wireless Network? Protect sensitive data Reduce unnecessary bandwidth consumption Liability (and accountability)

8 Open Access Points The only way to keep communication truly secure is to use end to end encryption.

9 Open Access Points The only way to keep communication truly secure is to use end to end encryption. If having services like file shares and printers, it is advisable to have other security in place.

10 Open Access Points The only way to keep communication truly secure is to use end to end encryption. If having services like file shares and printers, it is advisable to have other security in place. One should never assume that the private network is inaccessible from the outside.

11 Open Access Points The only way to keep communication truly secure is to use end to end encryption. If having services like file shares and printers, it is advisable to have other security in place. One should never assume that the private network is inaccessible from the outside. It is common to pay a fixed rate for the Internet connection, and the extra traffic will not hurt.

12 Securing Wireless Networks MAC Address Filtering

13 Securing Wireless Networks MAC Address Filtering Encryption

14 Securing Wireless Networks MAC Address Filtering Encryption Access Point Encryption

15 Securing Wireless Networks MAC Address Filtering Encryption Access Point Encryption End to end Encryption

16 Securing Wireless Networks MAC Address Filtering Encryption Access Point Encryption End to end Encryption VPN Tunneling

17 Securing Wireless Networks MAC Address Filtering Encryption Access Point Encryption End to end Encryption VPN Tunneling Handshake Authentication

18 Access Point Encryption WEP Wired Equivalence Privacy 64 bit (40 bit key) or 128 bit (104 bit key) Uses a key concatenated with an Initialization Vector Due to limit in IV length, not long before IVs are repeated, thus relatively easy to crack Shared key system: no protection from legitimate clients Readily available toolkits for cracking (aircrack ng) WEP2 boasted larger IVs and enforced 128 bit encryption, but same vulnerabilities existed only slowed attackers

19 Access Point Encryption WPA Wi Fi Protected Access WPA was rushed to replace WEP Based on passphrase used to generate a key WPA2 implements the full i standard Dynamically changed keys instead of static like WEP Much more robust error checking which is less likely to be faked, so harder to inject packets like in WEP PSK mode is vulnerable to passphrase cracking when weak passphrases are used

20 Access Point Encryption WPA Enterprise An authentication server is required RADIUS server often used Each new session gets its own unique key for increased security

21 Weaknesses in AP Encryption WEP 64 bit keys may be cracked in a matter of minutes through sniffing and injection (aircrack and aireplay) For more information on how frames are injected: ng.org/doku.php?id=aireplay ng&dokuw

22 Weaknesses in AP Encryption WEP 64 bit keys may be cracked in a matter of minutes through sniffing and injection (aircrack and aireplay) For more information on how frames are injected: ng.org/doku.php?id=aireplay ng&dokuw WPA PSK Vulnerable to dictionary attacks

23 Weaknesses in AP Encryption WEP 64 bit keys may be cracked in a matter of minutes through sniffing and injection (aircrack and aireplay) For more information on how frames are injected: ng.org/doku.php?id=aireplay ng&dokuw WPA PSK Vulnerable to dictionary attacks WPA Enterprise Less vulnerable due to unique keys per session

24 References Fi_Protected_Access

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