1 BUS312A/612A Financial Reporting I Homework & Receivables Chapter 7
2 Chapter 7- You should be able to: Identify elements of cash Identify the types of receivables Explain accounting for discounts Account for bad debts using both a balance sheet approach and an income statement approach Account for dispositions of accounts receivable, including collection, pledging as collateral, and factoring (selling) Extract and interpret information on receivables from the financial statements
3 Current Asset Classification A current asset is defined as any asset that is intended to be converted into cash within one year or the company s operating cycle, whichever is longer. i.e., Cash, Marketable Securities, Accounts Receivable, Inventory, Supplies, Prepaids
4 Proper Cash Management Restrictions placed on a company s access to its cash are typically imposed by creditors to help ensure future interest and principal payments, i.e., loan or debt covenants. Compensating balances are sometimes required Control Record over cash, i.e., bank reconciliation Physical Control over cash, i.e., petty cash, signatures on checks
5 Cash & Cash Equivalents Exercise Checking account balance $925,000 Certificate of Deposit $1,400,000 Cash Advance to subsidiary $980,000 Utility deposit paid to gas company $ Checking account balance $600,000 Overdraft in account at same bank $17,000 Cash held in bond sinking fund $200,000 Petty cash fund $300 Coins and currency on hand $1, Checking account balance $590,000 Postdated check from customer $11,000 Cash restricted from compensating balance $100,000 Certified check from customer $9,800 Postage stamps $620
6 Cash & Cash Equivalents Exercise Checking account balance $42,000 Money market (with checking privileges) $48,000 NSF check from customer $ Checking account balance $700,000 Cash restricted for plant expansion $500,000 Short-term treasury bills $180,000 Cash advance from customer $900 Cash advance to company executive $7,000 (payable on demand) Refundable deposit to government $26,000 (to guarantee performance on contract)
7 Classification of Cash, Cash Equivalent and Noncash Items Item Classification Comment Cash Cash If unrestricted, report as cash. If restricted, identify and classify as current and noncurrent assets. Petty cash and change funds Cash Report as cash. Short-term paper Cash equivalents Investments with maturity of less than three months, often combined with cash. Short-term paper Temporary investments Investments with maturity of 3 to 12 months. Postdated checks and IOU s Receivables Assumed to be collectible. Travel advances Receivables Assumed to be collected from employees or deducted from their salaries. Postage on hand (as stamps or in postage meters) Prepaid expenses May also be classified as office supplies inventory. Bank overdrafts Current liability If right of offset exists, reduce cash. Compensating balances 1. Legally restricted Cash separately classified as a deposit maintained as compensating balance 2. Arrangement without legal restriction Cash with note disclosure Classify as current or noncurrent in the balance sheet. Disclose separately in notes details of the arrangement.
8 Accounts Receivable Accounts receivable arise from selling goods or services to customers on account. Recorded at face amount to be collected. However, we must also reflect the fact that a portion of A/R may not be collected. Net Realizable Value Reasons for lack of collection: 1. sales discounts (cash discounts) 2. sales returns 3. sales allowances 4. uncollectible A/R (bad debts, doubtful accounts)
9 Cash/Sales Discounts Offered to encourage early payment Examples 2/10, net 30 2/10, EOM Accounting approaches Gross Method - records discounts when taken by customers Net Method - records discounts not taken by customers
10 Accounts Receivable Exercise 7-4: During first year of business Collections from customers $198,000 Merchandise purchased 320,000 Ending merchandise inventory 90,000 Goods are marked to sell at 40% above cost Reported Accounts Receivable balance 82,000 Did you pay for her new car?
11 Accounts Receivable Valuation Current Cash Equivalent for Measuring Liquidity Net Realizable Value for Balance Sheet Presentation
12 Direct Write-off Method for AR Used primarily in Cash Basis Accounting Income tax filings No adjusting journal entry Write-off entry Recovery entry
13 Account Anatomy-Direct Writeoff
14 Uncollectibles/Doubtful Accounts/Bad Debts Allowance method IFRS and US GAAP Two approaches % of Sales (determines expense) or % of Outstanding Receivables (determines balance in allowance account)
15 Uncollectibles Terminology Specific write off (when the company decides the debt won t be paid transaction) Provision for doubtful accounts or bad debt expense or (adjustment) Allowance for doubtful or uncollectible accounts (amount of outstanding A/R balance expected to go bad but you don t yet know who)
16 Allowance for Doubtful Accts. (T-account) Allowance for Doubtful Accts. Write-off of accounts receivable Beginning Balance AJE estimates bad debt expense Accounts Receivable Beginning Bal. Credit sales Recover write off Ending Bal. Recover write-off Ending Balance Customer pays AR Write-off AJE estimates bad debt expense Bad Debts Expense The AJE to record the estimate of uncollectibles. Aging calculates the expense amount necessary to achieve the desired ending balance in the allowance account. OR % of Sales is the Expense and then compute EB in Allowance account.
17 Accounting for Bad Debts Specific Write-off or Allowance Method? Specific Write-off Method: Recognize Bad Debts Expense when individual accounts are determined to be uncollectible Allowance Method: Estimate Bad Debts Expense each year and reduce Accounts Receivable using a contra account. Move the reduction from the contra to the Accounts Receivable account when a specific account is known to be uncollectible Entry: Bad Debts Exp. Accounts Rec. xx xx % of Sales Method Recognize Bad Debts Expense for the amount of bad debts expected to result from the current year s sales, using a percent of sales Which method is used to estimate bad debts expense? % of Accounts Receivable Method Recognize Bad Debts Expense for the amount that will cause the contra account balance to equal the % of year-end accounts receivable not expected to be collected. Aging of Accounts Receivable Method Same as the % of Accounts Receivable Method except it uses different percentages for accounts based on their age -- higher % for older accounts. Journal Entries for Allowance Method on next slide
18 Journal Entries for Allowance method of Accounting for Bad Debts To record bad debts expense: Bad Debts Expense Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts xxx xxx To write off bad accounts: Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts Accounts Receivable xxx xxx
19 Recovery of Bad Debts If a receivable is collected after it has been written off, it should be restored by making the reverse of the entry that was made to write it off: Allowance Method Accounts Receivable Allowance for Bad Debts Direct/Specific Write-Off Method Accounts Receivable Bad Debts Expense xxx xxx xxx xxx The collection of the receivable is then recorded in the usual fashion: Cash Accounts Receivable xxx xxx
20 E7-10 (Bad Debt Reporting) The chief accountant for Dickinson Corporation provides you with the following list of accounts receivable written off in the current year. Date Customer Amount March 31 E.L Masters Company $7,800 June 30 Hocking Associates 9,700 September 30 Amy Lowell s Dress Shop 7,000 December 31 R. Frost, Inc. 9,830 Dickinson debits Bad Debt Expense as accounts are written off. The chief accountant maintains that this procedure is appropriate for financial statement purposes because the Internal Revenue Service will not accept other methods for recognizing bad debts. All of Dickinson s sales are on a 30-day credit basis. Sales for the current year total $2,200,000, and bad debt losses approximate 2% of sales. (a) Do you agree with Dickinson s policy for recognizing bad debt expense? Why? (b) By what amount would Net Income differ if bad debt expense was computed using the % of sales approach?
21 Balance Sheet Presentation Classification Valuation accounts contra to receivables Disclose Assignment or pledging Loss contingencies Significant credit risk
22 Eli Lilly: Net Sales in Financial Statements NIKE
23 Accounts Receivables in the Financial Statements Income Statement Bad Debts Expense is typically included in Selling Expense, which is often combined with General and Administrative Expense (SG&A) Balance Sheet Accounts Receivable may be shown in any one of the following ways: WALMART:
24 NIKE Balance Sheet and footnote: WALMART footnote: Eli Lilly footnote:
25 Coca Cola Balance Sheet disclosures for 2011 and 2010: Excerpt from Coca Cola s K is a typical footnote disclosure of the activity in the Allowance for Doubtful Accounts:
26 Cash Flow Statement (Indirect Method) may be shown as an adjustment to net income for the change in Accounts Receivable, Net, such as with Eli Lilly below:
27 Or as a separate adjustment for the Provision for Bad Debts and the remaining change in Accounts Receivable:
28 E7-3 (Financial Statement Presentation of Receivables) Jim Carrie Company shows a balance of $181,140 in the Accounts Receivable account on December 31, The balance consists of the following. Installment accounts due in 2014 $23,000 Installment accounts due after ,000 Overpayments to creditors 2,640 Due from regular customers, of which $40,000 represents accounts pledged as security for a bank loan 79,000 Advances to employees 1,500 Advance to subsidiary company (due in 2015) 81,000. How would the information above be shown on Jim Carrie s balance sheet on December 31, 2013?
29 Disposition Sale or Factoring without recourse with recourse
30 Factoring Example On 5/1, Dexter, Inc. factored $800,000 of A/R with Quick Finance without recourse. Under the arrangement, Dexter was to handle disputes concerning service, and Quick Finance was to make the collections, handle the sales discounts, and absorb the credit losses. Quick Finance assessed a 6% finance charge and retained 2% to cover sales discounts. 1. Dexter s JE on May 1?. 2. Quick Finance s JE on May 1? 3. If Dexter factors the $800,000 of A/R with Quick Finance with recourse, and the recourse provision has a fair value of $14,000, what is Dexter s JE on May 1?
31 E7-12 Presented below is information related to James Garfield Corp. July 1 Garfield sold Harding merchandise having a sales price of $80,000 at 2/10, net/60. Garfield records its sales and receivable net. 5 Accounts receivable of $9,000 (gross) are factored with Jackson Credit Corp. Without recourse at a finance charge of 9%. Cash is received for the proceeds; collections are handled by the finance company. (all past the discount period). 9 Specific accounts receivable of $9,000 (gross) are pledged to Landon Credit Corp. as security for a loan of $6,000 at a finance charge of 6% of the amount of the loan. The finance company will make the collections. (All past the discount period).. Dec. 29 Harding notifies Garfield that it is bankrupt and will pay only 10%.
32 Case 7-1: (a) Deficiencies of direct write-off method? (b) Two allowance methods, and justification for each: (c) How should Simms account for the collection of the specific accounts previously written off as uncollectible?
33 P7-3 (Bad Debt Reporting-Aging) Manilow Corporation operates in an industry with high rates of bad debts. Before any year-end adjustments, the Accounts Receivable account was $555,000 and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts had a credit balance of $40,000. The year-end balance reported in the balance sheet for the Allowance account will be based on the aging schedule shown here: Days Account Outstanding Amount Probability of Collection Less than 16 days $300, Between days $100, Between days $ 80, Between days $ 40, Between days $ 20, Over 75 days $ 15, a. What is the appropriate balance for Allowance for Doubtful Accounts at year-end? b. Show how accounts receivable would be presented on the balance sheet. c. What is the dollar effect of the year-end bad debt adjustment on the before-tax income?
BUS312A/612A Financial Reporting I Homework 10.8.2014 Receivables Chapter 7 E7-3 (Financial Statement Presentation of Receivables) Jim Carrie Company shows a balance of $181,140 in the Accounts Receivable
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