Measurement of fetal scalp lactate to determine fetal well being in labour

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1 Measurement of fetal scalp lactate to determine fetal well being in labour Clinical question Among women at term in labour is the measurement of fetal scalp lactate superior to fetal scalp ph in predicting adverse fetal/newborn outcomes and successful acquisition of a usable sample? Population: Intervention: Comparison: : Secondary Outcomes: Women at term in labour Fetal assessment using fetal scalp lactate Fetal assessment using fetal scalp ph Apgar scores at 5 minutes Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy Admission to NICU Umbilical cord arterial ph < 7 Umbilical cord arterial base deficit > 12 Search strategy Time period: Search terms: fetal, scalp, lactate, ph, labour. Inclusions: meta-analysis, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, Databases searched: CINAHL; MEDLINE (Ovid SP and PubMed); EMBASE; Cochrane CDSR, CENTRAL, & DARE, Google Scholar. Titles reviewed 250; abstracts reviewed 39; papers reviewed 14; papers meeting eligibility for inclusion 12 JANUARY JANUARY PAGE 1 OF 9

2 Synthesis of the evidence Randomized controlled trials of fetal scalp lactate vs. fetal scalp ph for assessment of fetal well-being in labour indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in Apgar scores at five minutes, admission to a NICU, or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. There are no statistically significant differences in rates of umbilical artery cord ph < 7 or base deficit > 12 mmol/l. There were significantly higher sampling success rates for scalp lactate samples compared to sampling for scalp ph testing. One trial reported significantly less time required for the procedure for fetal scalp lactate vs. fetal ph sampling. Prospective cohort studies examining correlations between fetal scalp lactate samples and cord blood report significant correlations with lactate, ph, and base deficit in umbilical cord arterial and venous blood, and with scalp ph. Limitations There is no universally accepted level of fetal scalp lactate which is denoted as abnormal. Studies have reported values ranging from mmol/l as optimizing prediction of adverse neonatal outcomes. Research to date on fetal scalp lactate testing has primarily involved the Lactate Pro device which is no longer available. Health Canada has recently approved the Statstrip Lactate (Nova Biomedical) for point of care testing of scalp lactate but clinical cut-offs for the Statstrip Lactate have yet to be determined. Conclusions Measurement of fetal scalp lactate is equivalent to fetal scalp ph for clinical decisionmaking to avoid adverse neonatal outcomes. Fetal scalp lactate sampling requires less time and is associated with fewer failed sampling attempts. Further research is needed to determine optimal values to indicate risk for neonatal morbidity. JANUARY PAGE 2 OF 9

3 Meta-analysis Inclusion Intervention Findings Comments East CE, Leader LR, Sheehan P, Henshall NE, & Colditz PB. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, ;(3):CD Intrapartum fetal scalp lactate sampling for fetal assessment in the presence of a nonreassuring fetal heart rate trace. 2 RCTs Westgren 1998 Wiberg-Itzel 2008 n = 3348 Randomized to either fetal scalp lactate or ph assessment in labour. s No statistically significant differences for fetal scalp lactate vs. ph: Neonatal encephalopathy RR 1.0 ( ) Neonatal death RR 0.14 ( ) Secondary Outcomes Low Apgar score at five minutes with testing done within 30 minutes of delivery RR 0.99 ( ) Admission to NICU RR 1.02 ( ) Umbilical arterial ph <7, sample within 60 minutes of delivery RR 0.68 ( ). Metabolic academia (UA ph< base deficit >12 mmol/l) sampled within 60 minutes of delivery RR 0.93 ( ). There was a statistically higher success rate for lactate sample collection compared with scalp ph risk ratio 1.10 (1.08 to 1.12) JANUARY PAGE 3 OF 9

4 Randomized controlled trials Holzmann M, Cnattingius S, & Nordstrom L. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 2011;39(5): University Hospital Outcome of severe intrapartum acidemia diagnosed with fetal scalp blood sampling Inclusion Intervention Outcomes Comments Scalp lactate (n =89) Scalp ph (n=65) Singleton pregnancy Cephalic presentation Gestational age 34 weeks Non-reassuring fetal heart rate trace ph. s No differences in outcomes Cord artery ph < 7.00, scalp lactate vs. ph, 9.4% vs. 5.8%, p=0.41 Apgar < 7 at 1 min, 32.9% vs. 44.9%, p=0.93 NICU admission, 29.4% vs. 26.1%, p=0.65 HIE 2.4% vs. 2.9%, p = Delivery was expedited more rapidly in the ph management group (median 16 vs. 21 min; p = 0.01). The authors state that in view of similar neonatal outcomes in the two groups, the findings of longer time interval between fetal scalp lactate vs. ph sampling and delivery lend support to the opinion that lactate analysis is an earlier marker than ph in the hypoxic process. Wiberg-Itzel E, Lipponer C, Norman M, Hansson A, Bryngelsson AL, Christoffsson M, Sennstrom M, Wennerholm UB, Nordstrom L, BMJ, 2008;336(7656): Ten labour wards in participated between Scalp ph (n = 1496) Scalp lactate (n = 1496) Singleton fetus Cephalic presentation Gestational age 34 weeks Non-reassuring fetal heart rate trace scalp ph. s No significant difference in the rate of metabolic acidemia. defined as ph < 7.2 and lactate > 4.8 mmol/l, RR 0.91 ( ). Cord artery ph < 7.00 RR ( ). Secondary Outcomes Apgar < 7 at five minutes, RR 1.15 ( ) CS for fetal distress RR 1.02 ( ) Determination of ph or lactate in fetal scalp blood in management of intrapartum fetal distress: randomized controlled multicentre trial Significantly higher failure rate with ph determination 10.4% vs. 1.2% (lactate). JANUARY PAGE 4 OF 9

5 Randomized controlled trials Westgren M, Kruger K, Ek S, Grunevald C, Kublickas M, Naka K, Wolff K, Persson B. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1998; 105(1): Collected at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm Lactate compared with ph analysis at fetal scalp blood sampling: a prospective randomized study Inclusion Intervention Outcomes Comments ph group (n = 169) Lactate group (n = 172) Ominous fetal heart rate patterns ph. s (lactate vs. ph) - no significant differences Apgar < 7 at 1 min: 26% vs. 28% Apgar < 7 at 5 min: 4% vs. 4% NICU admissions: 18% vs. 16% Cesarean Section: 20% vs. 17% Umbilical artery ph <6.98: 4% vs. 8% Umbilical artery base deficit < 19.2: 1% vs.3% Secondary Outcomes Fetal scalp incisions per sampling attempt: median 1 vs. 2 Time required for sampling procedure median 120s vs. 230s Fetal blood sampling failures (ph vs. lactate) 42% vs. 2%; OR 16.1 ( ) Maternity ward where study was conducted was a referral unit for high risk pregnancies. Prospective cohort Inclusion Intervention Outcomes Comments Borruto F, Comparetto C, Treisser A. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2008; 278: Italy n = 188 Inclusion criteria not stated Comparison of fetal scalp lactate and lactate in umbilical artery cord blood. Scalp lactate correlated significantly with umbilical artery lactate (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), but with neither Apgar score at 1 min (r = 0.21, ns) nor at 5 min (r = 0.11, ns). Prevention of cerebral palsy during labour: role of foetal lactate JANUARY PAGE 5 OF 9

6 Prospective cohort Inclusion Intervention Outcomes Comments Kruger K, Kublickas M, Westgren M Obstetrics & Gynecology 1998;92: University Hospital Lactate in Scalp and Cord Blood From Fetuses With Ominous Fetal Heart Rate Patterns n = 103 Ominous fetal heart rate patterns Fetal scalp lactate sampled within 60 minutes of delivery, compared to lactate in the umbilical artery and venous lactate, ph and base excess. Fetal scalp lactate significantly correlated to lactate levels in the umbilical arterial blood (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and venous blood (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). Fetal scalp lactate significantly correlated with ph in arterial (r=0.28, p<0.01) and venous (r=-0.46, p<0.001) cord blood. Fetal scalp lactate significantly correlated with base excess in arterial (r=0.26, p<0.01) and venous (43, p<0.001) cord blood. Authors conclude that high correlations of lactate in scalp blood with arterial and venous cord blood confirm that fetal scalp blood lactate values reflect levels in central fetal circulation. Nordstrom L, Ingmarsson I, Kublickas M, Persson B, Shimojo M, Westgren, M. BJOG:1995;102: Fetal scalp lactate (n = 269), ph (n = 285) Abnormal intrapartum cardiotocography trace fetal scalp ph, cord artery lactate. Scalp lactate significantly correlated with fetal scalp ph (p < 0.001) and umbilical artery lactate (p < 0.01). Within subject comparisons. Labour wards at University Hospitals of Huddinge and Lund and County Hospital of Ostersund, Scalp blood lactate: A new test strip method for monitoring fetal wellbeing in labour JANUARY PAGE 6 OF 9

7 Prospective cohort Inclusion Intervention Outcomes Comments Allen R, Bowling F, Oats J. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,2004; 44: Australia Mater Mothers Hospital, Brisbane, Determining the fetal scalp lactate level that indicates the need for intervention in labour n = 140 Suspicious or pathological cardiotocography trace Establish the scalp lactate level in the first stage of labour that indicates the need for intervention. Optimal sensitivity and specificity for fetal scalp lactate to predict adverse fetal outcomes. To predict an Apgar of < 7 at 1 min, the scalp lactate level was 4.1 mmol/l. To predict an arterial cord ph of < 7.20, the scalp lactate level was 4.2 mmol/l. The predictive scalp lactate level for meconium stained liquor was 4.1 mmol/l Using receiver operating characteristic curves for sensitivity/ specificity fetal scalp lactate of 4.2 mmol/l was considered a reasonable predictor of adverse outcomes. Ramanah R, Martin A, Clement MC, Maillet R, Riethmuller D. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 2010;27: France Conducted from in the Labour ward of Besancon University Medical Centre, n = 358 (450 fetal scalp blood samples) Single fetus Cephalic presentation 37 weeks gestation Abnormal fetal heart rate patterns fetal cord blood gas parameters Scalp lactate correlated significantly with the following: scalp ph (r = -0.56, p = 0.001) umbilical artery ph (r = -0.39, p = 0.03) umbilical artery base deficit (r = 0.48, p = 0.01) However, Apgar scores did not correlate to scalp lactate samples. Using receiver operating characteristic curves a scalp lactate cutoff of 5 mmol/l was determined to have maximum sensitivity and specificity for neonatal asphyxia. Fetal scalp lactate microsampling for nonreassuring fetal status during labour: a prospective observational study JANUARY PAGE 7 OF 9

8 Prospective cohort Inclusion Intervention Outcomes Comments Ramanah R, Martin A, Riethmuller D, Maillet R, Schaal J. Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité 2005 ;33: France Collected from at Maternity Hospital of Besancon Value of fetal scalp lactate sampling during labour: a comparative study with scalp ph n = 129 Fetal heart rate abnormalities To compare scalp lactate vs. scalp ph, neonatal cord blood gas, and Apgar score. Scalp lactate correlated significantly with: Scalp ph (r = -0.54, p = 0.001) UA cord ph (r = -0.46, p = 0.01) UA cord lactate (r = 0.49, p = 0.01) Scalp lactate and ph was not significantly correlated with: Apgar score < 7 at 1 min (r = -0.21, ns) Apgar score < 7 at 5 min (r = -0.11, ns) Scalp lactate failure was 1% vs. 8% for scalp ph, as more blood was required for ph testing. The cutoff of > 5 mmol/l for scalp lactate was comparable to scalp PH < 7.20 for predicting acidosis in the umbilical cord artery or lactate > 6.35 mmol/l. The specificity of the scalp lactate was 92.1% for predicting UA ph < 7.10 and 95.4% for predicting UA > 6.35 mmol/l. Retrospective cohort Inclusion Intervention Outcomes Comments Kruger K, Hallberg B, Blennow M, Kublickas M, Westgren M. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 1999;181: Collected between from Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, n = 814 All patients with ominous fetal heart rate patterns To compare the ability of fetal scalp lactate vs. ph to predict Apgar scores < 4 at 5 min, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) Using a cutoff of 4.8 mmol/l scalp lactate was more sensitive than scalp ph in predicting Apgar of < 4 at 5 min (58.3 vs. 30.0%) and HIE (66.7 vs. 50.0%). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were significantly higher for the lactate concentration than for the ph value: Apgar score <4 at 5 minutes (p = 0.033) and moderate to severe HIE (p = 0.015). Predictive value of fetal scalp blood lactate concentration and ph as markers of neurologic disability JANUARY PAGE 8 OF 9

9 Retrospective cohort Inclusion Intervention Outcomes Comments Heinis A, Spaanderman M, Klein Gunnewiek J, Lotgering F. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica (2011);90: Stockholm, Conducted in the labour ward of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Scalp blood lactate for intra-partum assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis n = 486 >34 weeks GA Singleton fetus Vertex presentation Correlation of fetal scalp blood lactate during labor with fetal scalp ph and base deficit, and metabolic acidosis at birth. To determine lactate cut-off values to serve as indicators for immediate intervention. s Fetal scalp lactate correlated better with metabolic acidosis (UA ph <7.05 and base deficit > 12mmol/l) than fetal scalp ph or base deficit. Fetal scalp lactate concentration correlated with: UA Cord ph (r = -0.50, p < 0.001) UA Cord base deficit (r = 0.48, p<0.001) Cutoffs for fetal scalp lactate: < 5.4 mmol/l indicated reassuring fetal status lactate 6.6 mmol/l indicated metabolic acidosis. Authors note that these lactate cut-off values were estimated in the absence of standard calibration techniques between laboratories and devices, their absolute values are valid only with the Rapidlab-860. JANUARY PAGE 9 OF 9

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