Newborn outcomes after cesarean section for fetal distress in BC

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1 Newborn outcomes after cesarean section for fetal distress in BC Patricia Janssen, PhD, UBC School of Population and Public Health Scientist, Child and Family Research Institute Kevin Jenniskens, MSc, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

2 Disclaimer: All inferences, opinions, and conclusions drawn in this publication are those of the authors, and do not reflect the opinions or policies of Perinatal Services BC.

3 CS rates by Province/Territory % 30% 25% 20% 21.1% 21.7% 22.1% 23.4% 24.5% 26.8% 27.0% 27.6% 28.6% 29.4% 29.7% 32.9% 15% 12.8% 10% 5% 0% Source: Statcan.ca

4 CS Rates in BC % Data Source: Perinatal Services BC Source: Statcan.ca

5 Indications for CS in BC 1. Repeat cesarean section 2. Dystocia 3. Fetal distress 4. Malpresentation 5. Pre-existing maternal conditions 6. Maternal conditions arising during pregnancy Placenta previa Placenta abruption Placenta accreta Uterine rupture Pre-eclampsia

6 Mother Infection Thrombosis Hemorrhage Surgical injury Complications related to anesthetics Placentation problems in subsequent pregnancy Fetus Respiratory distress Surgical injury

7 Costs due to cesarean section The cesarean section Prolonged hospital stay Further surgery after delivery Re-admission to hospital Admission to ICU

8 Fetal Distress Non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the fetus is compromised

9 Introduction Heart rate Accelerations Decelerations Movement Contractions Fetal distress?? Long-term adverse neonatal outcomes

10 Aims To describe rates of low Apgar (<7) and abnormal umbilical cord ph and base excess among neonates delivered by emergency CS for fetal distress To describe the accuracy of Apgar scores and umbilical cord gases for the prediction of severe neonatal morbidity To investigate the incidence of severe morbidity in neonates delivered by cesarean section for non-reassuring fetal status

11 Study design Descriptive study Sample: n=8466 Births in BC, Singleton pregnancy Term gestation Delivered by emergency cesarean section for the primary indication of non-reassuring fetal status

12 Outcomes Hypoxic Ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) Neonatal intensive care unit level III stay of 2 days Ventilatory support Composite measure of above and neonatal death

13 Analysis Measured rates of Apgar scores <7 at 1 and 5 minutes, umbilical cord arterial ph and base excess. Calculated the predictive accuracy of Apgar scores and umbilical cord blood gasses using sensitivity and specificity and the area under the receiving operator curve, to predict severe neonatal morbidity. Assessed rates of severe neonatal morbidity indicators individually and as a composite among newborns delivered by emergency CS.

14 Results Neonates delivered for fetal distress Apgar < 7 at 1 minute 19.9% 1685 / 8463 neonates Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

15 Neonates delivered for fetal distress Apgar < 7 at 5 minutes 3.9% 330 / 8458 neonates Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

16 Data Source: Perinatal Services BC Neonates delivered for fetal distress

17 Neonates delivered for fetal distress ph < 7.20 ph < % 23.7% 1705 / 7193 neonates Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

18 Neonates delivered for fetal distress ph < % 907 / 7193 neonates Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

19 Neonates delivered for fetal distress ph < % 468 / 7193 neonates Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

20 Data Source: Perinatal Services BC Neonates delivered for fetal distress

21 Neonates delivered for fetal distress BE < % 701 / 6516 neonates Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

22 Neonates delivered for fetal distress BE < % 189 / 6516 neonates Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

23 Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (n = 35) Sensitivity Specificity AUC Apgar 1 minute < 7 89% 80% 0.92 ( ) Apgar 5 minutes < 7 77% 96% 0.94 ( ) Umbilical cord ph < % 94% 0.91 ( ) Base excess < - 12 mmol / L 62% 97% 0.94 ( ) Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

24 NICU level III stay 2 days (n = 62) Sensitivity Specificity AUC Apgar 1 minute < 7 57% 80% 0.72 ( ) Apgar 5 minutes < 7 32% 96% 0.73 ( ) Umbilical cord ph < % 94% 0.74 ( ) Base excess < - 12 mmol / L 20% 97% 0.75 ( ) Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

25 Ventilatory support (n = 126) Sensitivity Specificity AUC Apgar 1 minute < 7 89% 81% 0.91 ( ) Apgar 5 minutes < 7 65% 97% 0.91 ( ) Umbilical cord ph < % 94% 0.75 ( ) Base excess < - 12 mmol / L 31% 98% 0.78 ( ) Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

26 Composite long-term adverse outcome Hypoxic Ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) OR Neonatal intensive care unit stay of 2 days OR Ventilatory support OR Neonatal death

27 Composite long-term adverse outcome (n = 167) Sensitivity Specificity AUC Apgar 1 minute < 7 80% 81% 0.87 ( ) Apgar 5 minutes < 7 54% 97% 0.86 ( ) Umbilical cord ph < % 94% 0.76 ( ) Base excess < - 12 mmol / L 28% 98% 0.78 ( ) Data Source: Perinatal Services BC

28 Discussion The majority of neonates delivered by emergency CS for NRFS in BC do not have abnormal Apgar scores or umbilical cord gas values. Apgar and ph scores obtained after cesarean section for fetal distress are consistent with current reports in literature - Apgar < 7 at 1 minute 19.9% vs 27% - Apgar < 7 at 5 minutes 3.9% vs 4%, 15% - Umbilical cord ph < % vs 6% - Base excess < %

29 Discussion The best overall predictor for our composite outcome was Apgar < 7 at one minute. Overall, Apgar scores were better predictors than cord gases for severe neonatal morbidity. Predictors had lowest sensitivity for NICU stay -

30 Discussion Alternatives to (or in conjunction with) EFM: Scalp ph, scalp lactate - Correlate with umbilical cord ph and lactate - Correlate poorly with Apgar scores Source 1: Julkunen, 2012

31 Some questions With better (than EFM) screening/diagnostic tools for non-reassuring fetal status can we safely reduce the number of CS? Are practitioners adhering to SOGC guidelines for use of EFM in diagnosing NRFS? Should SOGC (similar to NICE guidelines in the UK) decide that CS should not be undertaken on the basis of EFM alone?

32 Conclusions The incidence of abnormal Apgar scores and umbilical cord gas values is very low among neonates deivered by emergancy cesarean csection for non-reassuring fetal status in BC. EFM remains therefore a non-specific screening tool for NRFS after implementation of 2007 SOGC guidelines One minute Apgar score <7 is the most sensitive predictor of severe neonatal morbidity

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