1 DO YOU KNOW SOMEONE WHO might have an eating disorder?
2 A PRESENTATION FOR EATING DISORDERS AWARENESS WEEK Tasha Castor, M.S.Ed., LPC Kovacs Counseling; Columbus, Ohio
7 Statistics U.S. At some point in their lives 20 million women 10 million men? million not reported suffer from a clinically significant eating disorder. Source: Wade, T. D., Keski-Rahkonen A., & Hudson J. (2011). Epidemiology of eating disorders. In M. Tsuang and M. Tohen (Eds.), Textbook inpsychiatric Epidemiology (3rd ed.) (pp ). New York: Wiley.
8 Prevalence U.S. Anorexia Nervosa 5-9 in 1000 females 3 in 1000 males Bulimia Nervosa 1.5 in 100 females 5 in 1000 males Binge Eating Disorder 3.5 in 100 females 2 in 100 males Eating Disorders in Males -- a report from NBC's "Today" (08/20/12) Source: Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., & Kessler R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorder in the national comorbidity survey replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61,
9 Prevalence U.S. and beyond The prevalence of eating disorders is similar among Non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, African-Americans, and Asians in the United States, with the exception that anorexia nervosa is more common among Non-Hispanic Whites 1 Studies of eating attitudes indicate abnormal eating attitudes in non-western countries have been gradually increasing 2 Prevalence rates in Western (W) vs. Non-Western (NW) countries 2 (W) Anorexia nervosa: from 0.1% to 5.7% (in females) (W) Bulimia nervosa: from 0.3% to 7.3% (in females) (NW) Anorexia nervosa: from 0.002% to 0.9% (in females) (NW) Bulimia nervosa: from 0.46% to 3.2% (in females) Sources: 1. Hudson J. I., Hiripi E., Pope H. G. Jr., & Kessler R. C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, Makino M., Tsuboi K., Dennerstein L. (2004). Prevalence of eating disorders: A comparison of western and non-western countries. Med Gen Med, 6(3); 49.
10 Statistics Student Populations Of those with eating disorders, 86% report onset of eating disorder by age 20; 43% report onset between ages of 16 and % of college-aged women engage in bingeing and purging as a weight-management technique 2 In a survey of 185 female students on a college campus, 58% felt pressure to be a certain weight, and of the 83% that dieted for weight loss, 44% were of normal weight 3 Sources: 1. National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 10-year study, The Renfrew Center Foundation for Eating Disorders, Eating Disorders 101 Guide: A Summary of Issues, Statistics and Resources, Nutrition Journal. March 31, 2006.
11 Types of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height (less than 85% of normal body weight) Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight Disturbance in the way in which one s body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (absence of three consecutive menstrual cycles) Restricting Type: limits food intake in an attempt to lose weight or remain underweight Binge-eating/Purging Type: engages in binge-eating or purging behaviors (e.g., self-induced vomiting; excessive exercise; abuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas)
12 Types of Eating Disorders Recurrent episodes of binge eating Bulimia Nervosa Eating an amount of food within a discrete time period that is larger than most people would eat Feeling a lack of control over eating during this time Recurrent compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain (e.g., self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, etc.; excessive exercise) The binge eating and compensatory behaviors occur (avg) 2x/wk x 3 mos Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight Purging Type: engages in self-induced vomiting or misuses laxatives, diurectics, or enemas Nonpurging Type: compensates for binge eating through behaviors such as fasting or excessive exercise
13 Types of Eating Disorders Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) Meets all criteria for Anorexia Nervosa, except has regular menses Meets all criteria for Anorexia Nervosa, except despite significant weight loss, is still in a normal weight range Meets all criteria for Bulimia Nervosa except that binge eating and compensatory behaviors occur less than 2x/wk x 3 mo Uses compensatory behavior after eating a small amount of food and is a normal body weight Repeatedly chews and spits out food Binge eats without compensatory behavior EDNOS -- a report from ABC News' "Nightline" (11/14/12)
14 Consequences of Eating Disorders Cardiac weakening Symptoms: dizziness, lightheadedness, chest pain Gastrointestinal Symptoms: bloating, nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, heartburn, gastroparesis, esophageal erosion Dental Symptoms: enamel erosion, tooth loss Bone loss Infertility
15 Related to Eating Disorders Anxiety Depression Diabulimia Exercise Addiction Eating Disorder Orthorexia Body Dysmorphic Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Drug or Alcohol Abuse or Dependence
16 Myths about Eating Disorders Eating disorders are a choice. Reality: Eating disorders are biologically based illnesses.
17 Myths about Eating Disorders Eating disorders happen only to rich white girls. Reality: Eating disorders happen to people of all gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
18 Myths about Eating Disorders Overbearing mothers and distant fathers cause eating disorders. Reality: Parents do not cause eating disorders. However, strained relationships with parents can exacerbate eating disorder symptoms. Likewise, supportive parents can help people with eating disorders recover more quickly.
19 Myths about Eating Disorders People develop eating disorders because they want to be thin. Reality: Although weight and appearance play a part in eating disorders, being thin is usually a pleasant side effect or a measurable goal of feeling better.
20 Myths about Eating Disorders People develop eating disorders because they want control. Reality: While people with eating disorders may temporarily feel more in control, an effect which perpetuates the disease, the eating disorder is developed out of more complicated circumstances and control is always shortlived. Soon, the eating disorder controls the person.
21 Myths about Eating Disorders The media is responsible for eating disorders. Reality: Most of the media in the U.S. creates ideals of women that are impossible to achieve. While these unrealistic and oversexed representations of the female body foster an environment in which eating disorders thrive, the media is not solely responsible for this biologically based mental illness.
22 Warning Signs of Eating Disorders Adhering to diets, regardless of weight Going into the bathroom immediately after meals Hiding or hoarding food Exercising compulsively, even when injured or sick Avoiding social situations that involve food Wearing clothing that hides or emphasizes weight Withdrawing from friends and family
23 Helping Friends Who Suffer Do s Share your concern Ask them how you can best support them Listen Interact with them as you do all of your other friends Don t s Judge Fight with the eating disorder voice Be their therapist Talk negatively about your body or food
24 Helping a Friend Find Help Emergency Situations If a friend has any of the following symptoms, they need to go to a doctor or hospital immediately: Vomiting after every instance of eating or drinking Vomiting blood Complaining of severe dizziness, weakness, heart palpitations, chest pains, etc. or fainting Expressing suicidal thoughts
25 Getting Help for an Eating Disorder Talk to someone you trust immediately Make an appointment with your family physician Call your insurance company and find out about benefits for mental or behavioral health services Schedule an appointment with a therapist Enlist support from friends and/or family members
26 Community Resources Columbus State Counseling Services Nestor Hall Room 010, (614) Referrals, outpatient counseling Kovacs Counseling Easton Town Center, (614) Outpatient counseling, coordination of care Center for Balanced Living Worthington, (614) Free support groups, group counseling
27 Community Resources Nationwide Children s Hospital, Adolescent Health Columbus, (614) Hospital unit, medical care, clinic (ages < 21) OSU Medical Center/Harding Hospital Columbus, (614) Hospital unit, stabilization, referrals
28 Online Resources For more information on eating disorders, treatment options, and recovery: National Eating Disorders Association Something Fishy Website on Eating Disorders Gurze Books Eating Disorders Blogs Kovacs Counseling The Center for Balanced Living
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