Studies of the radon progeny particle size distributions in the domestic environment. Epidemiological and dosimetric dose estimates


 Calvin Bradley
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 NUKLEONIKA 2012;57(3): ORIGINAL PAPER Studies of the rdon progeny prticle size distributions in the domestic environment. Epidemiologicl nd dosimetric dose estimtes Klin MmontCieśl, Olg Stwrz Abstrct. Mesurements of the shortlived rdon progeny prticle size distributions were performed under relistic nturl conditions in 54 dwellings in 6 regions of Polnd by mens of the Rdon Progeny Prticle Size Spectrometer (RPPSS). The RPPSS comprises one open fce stge, 4stge diffusion bttery nd 3stge multihole inertil impctor. It ws mnufctured t the ARPNSA (Melbourne, Austrli), under supervision of Dr S. B. Solomon nd supplied with his softwre. While using the continuous mode, the progrmme provides nlysis of the potentil lph energy concentrtion on ech stge, prticle size distributions nd weighted dose conversion fctors bsed on the ICRP humn respirtory trct model (HRTM) s implemented in the computer code RADEP (rdon dose evlution progrm). The unttched frction indoors rnges from c. 0 to 53% with n rithmetic men nd medin of 17%. The equilibrium fctor F ws observed in the rnge from 7 to 64% with n rithmetic men of 32% nd medin of 29%. The nnul effective doses from rdon progeny for the generl popultion were estimted ccording to two models: epidemiologicl nd dosimetric. The men vlues of the rtios of the dosimetric to epidemiologicl dose estimtes for the generl popultion (brething rte 0.78 m 3 /h) nd workers (brething rte 1.2 m 3 /h) re 1.0 nd 1.4, respectively. The epidemiologicl dose estimtes for the generl popultion re smller in comprison with the dosimetric estimtes for the unttched frction f p greter thn 17%. It ws shown tht the dependence of the rtio of the doses estimted on the bsis of two models on the unttched frction f p is well described by liner eqution. Key words: rdon progeny prticle size distribution (RPPSD) weighted dose conversion fctors dosimetric/epidemiologicl effective dose estimte conversion convention unttched frction (f p ) rdon dose evlution progrm (RADEP) Introduction K. MmontCieśl, O. Stwrz Centrl Lbortory for Rdiologicl Protection, 7 Konwliow Str., Wrsw, Polnd, Tel.: , Fx: , Emil: Received: 5 Mrch 2012 Accepted: 12 June 2012 Atoms of the rdon dughters immeditely fter the rdioctive decy of rdon toms hve tendency to ttch to condenstion nuclei producing rdioctive erosols. Aerosols of size below 10 nm, composed of unttched ions or neutrl toms nd moleculr clusters ssocited with rdon progeny toms, re trditionlly clled unttched frction. Aerosols bove 10 nm up to greter thn 1000 nm, with predominnt size between 50 nd 500 nm, re clled ttched frction. It is estimted tht equivlent dose to the lung from rdon gs is only bout one hundredth of tht from its shortlived dughters which constitute the min helth hzrd to the humn respirtory trct in the rdon environment. The effective dose, mesure of this hzrd, is clculted s product of the potentil lph energy concentrtion (PAEC) in the ir nd dose conversion fctor (DCF) or dose per unit intke. There re two pproches to the estimtion of DCF. One of them, recommended by the Interntionl Rdition Protection Committee Publiction 65 [5] introduces
2 412 K. MmontCieśl, O. Stwrz two single conversion fctors, clled rdon progeny conversion convention, 1425 msv/(j h/m 3 ) for the occuptionl hzrd nd 1100 msv/(j h/m 3 ) for the generl popultion. The conversion fctors re determined from the epidemiologicl studies of urnium miners. A second, biokinetic nd dosimetric pproch is bsed on the ICRP Publiction 66 [6] which strongly recommends the usge of the humn respirtory trct model (HRTM) for inhltion of irborne rdionuclides. The dosimetric models revel tht the dose per the unit of intke of rdon progeny depends on the rdon progeny erosol chrcteristics, in prticulr, on the size nd frction of the ultrfine toms nd clusters (unttched frction) nd the physiologicl prmeters such s the brething rte. The site of the erosol deposition in the respirtory trct strongly depends on the prticle size distribution. Becuse diffusion is the dominting mechnism of the erosol deposition in the lung, the most diffusive frction, mostly the first rdon progeny 218 Po, constitutes the biggest cncer risk. Therefore, it is prticulrly importnt for the estimtion of the rdon effective dose to mesure the prticle size distribution. The dosimetric pproch uses the weighted dose conversion fctor which combines the rdon progeny size distribution in prticulr exposure loction with the prticlesize dependent dose conversion fctors derived from ICRP Publiction 66. The dosimetric models dopt the ssigned frction of the tissue weighting fctor w T for the lung nd the rdition weighting fctor w R for lph rdition. Some uthors [13, 18] indicte tht prticulrly in the domestic environment in well ventilted homes where the unttched frction of potentil lph energy cn be reltively high, on the contrry to mines, the rdon dose estimtions using two models my significntly differ. The min objective of this pper ws to mesure the rdon progeny prticle size distributions nd potentil lph energy concentrtions in the relistic domestic environment in vrious nturl rdon nd erosol conditions nd to estimte the nnul effective doses to inhbitnts of the investigted houses by mens of two pproches: epidemiologicl nd dosimetric. In the studied houses the rdon concentrtions were simultneously mesured to clculte the equilibrium fctor F. Methods nd mterils nnoying lbortory in their houses. The mesurements were lsting t lest 5 h. In some cses it ws possible to mke longer mesurements. The sme mesurements were plnned to be performed outdoors nerby the house. In ech cse, simultneously with the mesurements of the PAEC nd the rdon dughter size distributions, the rdon concentrtion ws mesured by n AlphGUARD monitor, mnufctured by Genitron (Germny) to estimte the equilibrium fctor F. The PAEC nd size distribution of the rdioctive erosols were mesured by mens of unique instrument rdon progeny prticle size spectrometer, mnufctured in the ARPNSA (Melbourne, Austrli) [14] supplied with softwre developed by Dr S. B. Solomon nd distributed by ACJ&Assocites, Inc. USA. Description of the Rdon Progeny Prticle Size Spectrometer [14] The Rdon Progeny Prticle Size Spectrometer Mk2 (RPPSS) in the configurtion for the field mesurements in the continuous mode comprises the following min components: the 8stge smpling hed (one open fce stge, 4stge wire screen diffusion bttery nd 3single stge multihole inertil impctor system), the power supply/12chnnel counter unit, the oilfree vcuum pump, the notebook. The schemtic modulr digrm nd smpling configurtion of the RPPSS re drwn in Fig. 1. The smpling hed consists of one open fce stge, four stge wire screen diffusion bttery system, three single stge multihole inertil impctor system nd smpling mnifold comprising eight inlets nd one outlet. All eight stges operte in prllel nd simultneously. Ech stge uses detector housing with PIP CAM 400 detector of the surfce of 450 mm 2 (24 mm di.) nd n luminum holder to suit 47 mm di. membrne filter or impction plte. In the first stge, with n open filter, the totl ctivity collected from the ir flown through is mesured. In the four consecutive stges the filters collect only these prticles which were not stopped by sets of wire screens preceding them in the strem of the mesured ir. In the lst three stges thin luminized mylr foils re positioned in plce of the filters which ply role of the impction surfces of the multihole inertil impctor. The lph prticles emitted by erosols impcted onto the impctor surfces pss through the mylr to the detector. The chrcteristics of the Mesurements indoors nd outdoors The mesurements were performed in the buildings selected ccidentlly in six regions of Polnd: in the mountins in the vicinity of Jeleni Gór nd Szczwno Zdrój, in the rurl res ner Biłystok, in the flt res ner Leżjsk nd Leszno Wielkopolskie nd in towns: Wrszw nd Włbrzych. The mesurements were mde in vrious sesons of the yer, during dytime nd in night, in houses of smokers, in well ventilted houses, in the conditions of the high (from frying nd boiling of mels) nd low levels of erosols. Selection of houses ws csul nd depended on getting permission of the inhbitnts for instlling big nd Fig. 1. Digrm of the RPPSS configurtion for field mesurements.
3 Studies of the rdon progeny prticle size distributions in the domestic environment 413 Tble 1. Chrcteristics of the diffusion bttery stges in the RPPSS No. of stge #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 Type of screen A A A B Number of screens Mesh numbers Screen dimeter (cm) Wire dimeter (μm) Wire thickness (μm) Solid frction of screen (%) Dp50 (nm) Counting efficiency (%) Flow rte (lpm) RPPSS Rdon Progeny Prticie Size Spectrometer. Tble 2. Chrcteristics of the impctor stges in the RPPSS No. of stge #6 #7 #8 Number of holes Dp50 (nm) Dp50 lower bound (nm) Dp50 upper bound (nm) Function slope Function intercept Counting efficiency (%) Flow rte (lpm) RPPSS Rdon Progeny Prticie Size Spectrometer. diffusion bttery nd impctor re given in Tbles 1 nd 2, respectively. The smpling hed lso comprises smpling mnifold with five inlets contining criticl orifices to set the flow t c. 4 lpm (in the first five stges) nd three inlets contining criticl orifices to set the flow t c. 3 lpm. Every time before series of the field mesurements the flow rte t ech stge is checked nd my be corrected in the progrm, if needed. The field mesurements re performed in the continuous mode of work which is controlled by PCbsed progrm. It is designed to collect dt from ll eight stges simultneously. It integrtes the full α prticle energy spectrum for ech stge to provide grosslph counts over set time intervl. The integrted counts re converted to the rdon progeny potentil α energy concentrtion using the effective energy rdon progeny of 7.2 MeV ( nj) nd tking into ccount the flow rte, detector efficiency, bckground nd time of counting. Thus, the concentrtion of the rdon progeny is clculted by the following formul: PAEC = k N, where PAEC is the potentil α energy concentrtion in nj/m 3, N re the counts per unit of time in cpm, k is the conversion fctor in nj min/m 3 clculted s: k = 1.152/(ν eff) where ν is the flow rte in l/min, eff is the α counting efficiency of the detector. The systemtic uncertinties ssocited with the conversion of gross lph counts to PAEC re usully less thn 5% if the PAEC levels re bout stble, but the conversion is less ccurte when the PAEC is vrying rpidly [14]. Uncertinty of the conversion fctor k is usully less thn 5%. The low level of detection (LLD) for PAEC is c. 25 nj/m 3 with uncertinty of 30% t c. 95% confidence level. As it ws sid bove, the first stge with bre filter delivers dt on the totl PAEC, crried out by both ttched nd unttched rdon dughters. The progrm corrects for plteout of ultrfine rdon dughters in the inlet tube to the first stge. There is no correction for possible thoron dughter contribution. The progrm clcultes the dependence of the prticle penetrtion efficiency on the size of prticles ccording to the fnfiltrtion theory of Y. S. Cheng nd H. C. Yeh [4] nd Y. S. Cheng et l. [3] for the screen type diffussion bttery. For the impctor stges, the theory developed for cscde impctors by V. A. Mrple nd K. L. Rubow [10] ws modified nd pplied. The progrm clcultes the penetrtion mtrix for 43 equilogspced size intervls between 0.6 nm nd 2494 nm. Equivlent diffusion (thermodynmic) dimeters re used for the wire screen stges nd equivlent impction (erodynmic) dimeters re used for the impctor stges. The ltter re mtched to the thermodynmic dimeters using prticle density dependent function. For the vlue of the unit density, the dimeters re the sme. The derived PAEC vlues for ech stge re used s input vlues to two independent deconvolution lgorithms, one developed by S. Twomey [17] (TWOMEY) nd nother one clled Expecttion Mximiztion (EMAX) by E. F. Mher nd N. M. Lird [9]. The deconvolution nlysis results in the rdon progeny prticle size distribution. It derives for ech mode: the geometric men dimeter (ctivity medin erodynmic dimeteramad in nm), geometric stndrd devition nd the percentge contribution to the potentil lph energy concentrtion. In order to clculte the sizeweighted DCF for the obtined prticle size distribution in the smpled ir the progrm pplies the ICRP 66 Respirtory Trct Model implemented in the computer progrm RADEP (rdon dose evlution progrm) by A. Birchll nd A. C. Jmes [1]. The dependence of the DCF for n dult mle with brething rtes of 1.2 m 3 /h (hrd working) nd 0.78 m 3 /h (generl popultion) on the prticle dimeter pplied in this progrm is shown in Fig. 2. It ws ssumed tht the representtive ctivity concentrtion rtios for 218 Po: 214 Pb: 214 Bi is 0.8:0.02:0.0 nd 0.8:0.4:0.2, for prticle sizes < 20 nm nd 20 nm, respectively. Figure 2 shows tht the dose per unit exposure (DCF) is bout fctor of 25 times higher for the prticle size of c. 1 nm (the unttched frction) thn for the prticle size in the rnge nm (the ttched frction). The RADEPderived DCF vlues re normlized by fctor of 0.3 [8] to provide consistency with the results
4 414 K. MmontCieśl, O. Stwrz Fig. 2. The dependence of the DCF on the prticle dimeter dp for monodispersed prticles. Assumptions: rtio of ctivity concentrtion: 218 Po: 214 Pb: 214 Bi of 0.8:0.02:0.0 for dp < 20 nm nd of 0.8:0.4:0.2 for dp 20 nm. derived from the epidemiologicl risk estimte with the use of the ICRP 65 conversion convention. This fctor ws chosen to mtch the RADEPderived DCF vlues to the ICRP 65 conversion convention for the urnium mine erosol conditions. It will be discussed in section Summry of this pper. The progrm pplies the collection efficiency curves for the eight stges, in the dimeter rnge from 0.6 to 2496 nm which re shown in Fig. 3. Before nd fter ech series of mesurements the flow rte nd counting efficiency t ech of eight stges were checked. The counting efficiency stbility ws verified by mens of control Pu239 source plced insted of the filter in the diffusion bttery (DB) stges nd the mylr foil in the impctors. In Tbles 1 nd 2 chrcteristics of ll stges nd typicl vlues of the flow rte re presented. The mesurements performed in Centrl Lbortory for Rdiologicl Protection (CLOR, Wrsw, Fig. 3. The collection efficiency curves for ll 8 stges in the RPPSS. Polnd) rdon chmber in two kinds of erosol conditions: low erosols (< 200 CN/cm 3 ) nd high erosols (c CN/cm 3 ), (CN condenstion nuclei), reveled good consistency between results obtined by mens of two lgorithms: TWOMEY nd EMAX. Comprison of the DCF nd the prticle size distributions clculted by two lgorithms for the low nd high erosol conditions in the CLOR rdon chmber re given in Tble 3. According to the estimtion mde by S. B. Solomon [13, 14] the uncertinty of the DCFs for the polidispersion size distribution reches ± 10% for workers nd ± 20% for the generl popultion. The nnul effective doses from rdon progeny During the mesurements, the progrm every hour delivers PAEC vlues nd two vlues of the DCF for ech of two lgorithms: DCF Env for the generl popultion nd DCF Occ for hrd working men. To ssess the n Tble 3. Comprison of the DCFs nd the prticle size distributions delivered by two lgorithms EMAX nd TWOMEY for low (< 200 CN/cm 3 ) nd high (c CN/cm 3 ) erosol conditions in the CLOR rdon chmber < 200 CN/cm 3 Generl popultion Workers EMAX DCF TWOMEY DCF Mode #1 Mode #2 Mode #3 EMAX GMD b (nm) Contribution (%) TWOMEY GMD (nm) Contribution (%) CN/cm 3 Generl popultion Workers EMAX DCF TWOMEY DCF Mode #1 Mode #2 Mode #3 EMAX GMD b (nm) Contribution (%) TWOMEY GMD (nm) Contribution (%) CN condenstion nuclei. b GMD geometric medin dimeter.
5 Studies of the rdon progeny prticle size distributions in the domestic environment 415 Tble 4. The prticle size distributions indoors Nme of plce Mode #1 Mode #2 Mode #3 GMD (nm) GSD b U c (%) GMD (nm) GSD U (%) GMD (nm) GSD U (%) BukGj4K 0.7; BukGj4K b 0.8; BukGj4P BukGj4P b BukGj3K BukGj3K b BukGj3 S Kurosiówk Kurosiówk b SzlrskP Borowice Grodzisko Leszno Gierym Leszno Olsz Lipno Osieczn Poniec Dom Poniec wr Rokosowo Michłów Michłów Studzinki Studzinki Studzinki 2b Studzinki Studzinki 3b Giedlrow Grodzisko Grodzisko b Gielershof Leżjsk Rynek Włbrzych Włbrzych Włbrzych 2b Włbrzych Szczwno Jnowice Jnowice 1b Jnowice Jnowice 2b Syt Wilnów Wilnów b Służew Służew b Wesoł Wesoł b Bemowo Bemowo b Ochot Ochot b Śródmieście Śródmieście b Żerń Żerń b Arithmetic men GMD geometric men dimeter. b GSD geometric stndrd devition. c U percentge contribution.
6 416 K. MmontCieśl, O. Stwrz Fig. 4. Histogrms of the rdon concentrtions C Rn, PAEC, unttched frctions f p, equilibrium fctors F, dosimetric doses: HE Env nd HE Occ nd rtios of the dosimetric to epidemiologicl dose for the generl public nd hrd working men, indoors.
7 Studies of the rdon progeny prticle size distributions in the domestic environment 417 nul effective doses in the tested rooms the EMAX DCF vlues were used. Although the min objective of this pper is indoor doses to the generl popultion, there re lso clculted doses to the hrd working dult men in the sme rdon nd erosol conditions to compre the differences between dosimetric nd epidemiologicl dose estimtes in the two cohorts. The doses estimted for two models were clculted ccording to the following formule: for the dosimetric model: HE Occ = PAEC DCF Occ t nd HE Env = PAEC DCF Env t for the epidemiologicl model: D Occ = PAEC 1425 t nd D Env = PAEC 1100 t where: HE Occ, HE Env, D Occ nd D Env re in msv/y, PAEC in nj/m 3, DCF Occ nd DCF Env in msv/(j h/m 3 ) nd t = 8760 h/y. Results nd discussion Altogether in six regions of Polnd there were gthered results in 54 houses nd only four results in the outdoor tmosphere becuse in the most of the outdoor mesurements the sttistics ws too low to deliver relible results. In Tble 4 there re given the following chrcteristics of the prticle size distributions indoors: the geometric men dimeter (GMD), the geometric stndrd devition (GSD) nd the percentge contribution (U) of ech mode to the distribution for ech mesurement site. In the mjority of cses three modes pper: mode #1, corresponding to the unttched frction f p, of GMD in the rnge: nm, mode #2, corresponding to the dominting mbient frction in the distribution, of GMD in the rnge from 98 to 208 nm nd mode #3, corresponding to the biggest prticles, of GMD in the rnge from 631 to 1532 nm. The mode #2 with rithmetic mens of the GMD, GSD nd U equl to 152 nm, 1.6 nd 78% nd mode #3 with rithmetic mens of the GMD, GSD nd U equl to 874 nm, 1.4 nd 6% mke the ttched frction. Only in three sites ppered two modes #1 nd #2 nd in one site mode #2 nd mode #3. Vlues of the GSD of the dimeters for ll three modes rnge from 1 to 2 in the mjority of cses. In only 5 cses they slightly exceed 2. In Fig. 4 there re frequency distributions of the obtined results of the rdon concentrtion C Rn, potentil lph energy concentrtion PAEC, equilibrium coefficient F, unttched frction f p, dosimetric doses: HE Env nd HE Occ nd rtios of the effective nnul doses ssessed by mens of two models: dosimetric nd epidemiologicl for the generl popultion nd hrd working men. In the tested houses the rdon concentrtions rnges from 19 to 1668 Bq/m 3 with n rithmethic men of 300 Bq/m 3 (geometric men of 140 Bq/m 3, medin of 103 Bq/m 3 ). In five houses rdon concentrtion exceeds 1000 Bq/m 3, in eight houses it flls in the limits of 400 to 1000 Bq/m 3 nd in forty three houses it is below 400 Bq/m 3 the upper limit recommended by the Europen Union in older dwellings. The vlues of the PAEC rnge from 64 to 3805 nj/m 3. The frction of the unttched frction f p chnges from below the detection limit of 0.2 to 53% with n rithmethic men of 17% (geometric men of 12% nd medin of 17%). The highest vlues, bove 30%, were detected in four rurl houses well ventilted during bsence of nybody in the room. The equilibrium fctor F rnges from 8 to 64% with n rithmetic men of 32% (geometric men of 27% nd medin of 29%). A. Reineking nd J. Porstendorfer found close men vlue of 30% for F nd bit less of c. 10% for f p in their studies [12]. Although the observed rnge of the fctor F is rther wide but the rithmetic men of 32% is in pretty good greement with the vlue of 40% recommended in the routine estimtions of the PAEC on the bsis of the rdon concentrtion mesurements [2, 19]. The highest vlues of the fctor F, bove 60%, were mesured in seven cses in the conditions of boiling, frying or smoking cigrettes. Thus, normlly the high vlues of the fctor F re not permnent, they correspond rther to shortlived ctivities. The differences between the vlues of the doses estimted by the two models depend on the frction of the unttched frction f p. According to the dosimetric models, the dose conversion fctors increse nerly linerly with the unttched frction f p. Therefore, the dependence of the rtios of the dosimetric to epidemiologicl doses on the vlue of f p, shown in Fig. 5, is lso well described s liner. The rtios fll in the limits between 0.6 nd 1.7 with n rithmetic, geometric men nd medin equl to 1.0 for the generl popultion nd of 0.8 to 2.6 with n rithmetic, geometric men nd medin equl to 1.4 for the hrd working dult mle. In Fig. 5 it cn be seen tht the epidemiologicl doses re underestimted compred to the dosimetric doses up to 1.7 times for the generl popultion nd up to 2.6 times in cse of the hrd working men. S. B. Solomon received similr results for guides in Firy Cve in Austrli [15]. He estimted tht the rdon dose to which the guides re exposed during work, if clculted s n epidemiologicl dose, is underestimted c. two times compred to dosimetric one. It is worthy of underling tht the vlue of the brething rte dmitted in the clcultion is of significnt influence on the resulting dose. There re suggestions tht for the hrd working men the brething rte vlue of 1.7 m 3 /h should be dmitted rther thn 1.2 m 3 /h [19]. In Fig. 6 the courses in time of C Rn, PAEC, F, f p, HE Occ, HE Env doses, HE Occ/D Occ nd HE Env/D Env 3 2 HE/D 1 0 y = 0,03x + 0,82 R 2 = 0,91 HE Env/D1.1 HE Occ/D1.4 y = 0,02x + 0,64 R 2 = 0, fp [%] Fig. 5. Rtios of the dosimetric to epidemiologicl dose estimtes vs. the unttched frction f p.
8 418 K. MmontCieśl, O. Stwrz Fig. 6. Courses in time of C Rn, PAEC, F, f p, HE Occ, HE Env nd rtios of HE/D in house in Wrsw. At c. 19:00 cigrette ws smoked. rtios during longer mesurement in Wrsw house re plotted. It cn be seen tht t c. 19:00 inhbitnts smoked cigrettes wht cused n increse in the PAEC from 100 nj/m 3 to 400 nj/m 3, in the equilibrium fctor F from 10 to 58% nd in the nnul dose from c. 200 msv to c. 450 msv (for popultion) nd drop in the f p from 48 to 15% nd in the rtio of the two dose estimtes from 1.8 to 1 (for popultion). Outdoors It ws plnned to mke mesurements lso nerby ll the investigted houses. But only in four sites, ll in the Sudety region, the counting sttistics ws high enough to deliver relible results. In Tble 5 there re modes in the prticle size distributions outdoors. In three cses there re just two modes with men of the GMD of 0.8 nm for the unttched frction nd 175 nm for the ttched frction. In the fourth cse the ttched frction hs two modes: 138 nm (79%) nd 814 nm (9%). The men contribution of the unttched frction (mode #1) is 19%. In Tble 6 there re results of f p, PAEC, C Rn, both kinds of doses HE Env nd D Env, HE Occ nd D Occ nd the rtios of the dosimetric to the epidemiologicl dose for the hrd working nd generl popultion. Vlues of the f p nd F rnge from 12 to 31% nd from 6 to 33%, respectively. The men rtio of the two doses for the generl popultion nd hrd working men is equl to 1.0 nd 1.4, respectively, the sme s for the indoor results. Tble 5. The prticle size distributions outdoors Nme of plce Mode #1 Mode #2 Mode #3 GMD (nm) GSD b U c (%) GMD (nm) GSD U (%) GMD (nm) GSD U (%) Przesiek Borowice Kurosiówk Jnowice Wlk Arithmetic men GMD geometric men dimeter. b GSD geometric stndrd devition. c U percentge contribution.
9 Studies of the rdon progeny prticle size distributions in the domestic environment 419 Tble 6. Results of the mesurements nd clcultions in four outdoors sites Nme of plce f p (%) F (%) PAEC (nj/m 3 ) C Rn (Bq/m 3 ) HE Env (msv/y) D Env (msv/y) HE Env/ D Env HE Occ (msv/y) D Occ (msv/y) HE Occ/ D Occ Przesiek Borowice Kurosiówk Jnowice Wlk Arithmetic men Conclusions The experimentl mteril collected during the mesurements in 56 dwellings in vrious conditions of the rdon nd erosol concentrtions leds to the following conclusions: The unttched frction f p nd equilibrium fctor F sty in brod rnges from nerly 0 to 53% with men of 18% nd 8 to 64% with men of 32%, respectively nd re influenced by the behviour of the inhbitnts, such s, e.g. cooking or smoking cigrettes (Fig. 6). When cigrette ws lit in the Wrsw F [%] fp [%] Fig. 7. The reltions: F vs. f p for the indoor nd outdoor results. Fig. 8. The equilibrium fctor F vs. the unttched frction f p, in the CLOR rdon chmber. house the PAEC, the equilibrium fctor F nd the nnul dose incresed four, six nd two nd hlf times, respectively. The unttched frction f p nd the rtio of the two dose estimtes decresed c. 3 nd c. 2 times, respectively. The highest vlues of the fctor F were found during cooking or smoking. In nturl domestic conditions negtive correltion between the equilibrium fctor F nd the unttched frction f p corresponding to mny vrious houses is not observed, s it is illustrted in Fig. 7, on the contrry to the rtificil conditions in the rdon chmber (Fig. 8). The difference cn result from the different conditions of deposition nd ventiltion in vrious nturl domestic environment, while they re stble in the chmber. Since ccording to the dosimetric models the dose conversion fctors increse nerly linerly with the unttched frction f p, the dependence of the rtios of the dosimetric to epidemiologicl doses on the unttched frction is lso well described by liner eqution, s it is shown in Fig. 5. An rithmetic men of the rtios of the dosimetric to epidemiologicl dose estimtes for the generl popultion is 1.0 nd for the working men is 1.4. Summry In generl, there is quite good greement between vlues of the effective doses estimted by mens of so rdiclly different pproches, but we should remember tht ll vlues of the dosimetric dose estimtes in the bove clcultions were obtined with the use of fctor of 0.3 to mtch the RADEPderived DCF vlues to the ICRP 65 conversion convention [5]. Thus, question rises if the two different pproches cn be reconciled. J. Stther [16] exmined the min fctors underlying the discrepncy between the two pproches nd he indicted tht the tissue nd rdition weighting fctors, dmitted s w T = 0.12 nd w R = 20, my substntilly influence this discrepncy. However, the 2007 ICRP new recommendtions (Publiction 103) [7] mintined the sme vlues for w T nd w R. On the bsis of the more recent miner epidemiologicl studies on the risks t low levels of the rdon exposure Publiction 103 provides updted vlues of detriment per unit effective dose for low level exposure: /msv for workers nd / msv for the generl public [11]. Using these vlues together with the revised risk coefficient of / WLM the new vlues of the rdon progeny conversion WLM (working level month) is trditionl unit of exposure to rdon dughters. 1 WLM = J. s. m 3.
10 420 K. MmontCieśl, O. Stwrz convention, re recommended. They re 9 msv/wlm (c msv/(j h m 3 )) insted of 4 msv/wlm for members of the public nd 12 msv/wlm (c msv/ (J h m 3 )) insted of 5 msv/wlm (1425 msv/(j h m 3 )) for workers. The new vlues of the conversion conventions re c. 2.3 times higher thn the previous ones wht mkes the results of the two pproches remrkbly closer. Acknowledgment. This work ws supported by the Ministry of Science nd Informtiztion within the frme of the project no. 5 T07E References 1. Birchll A, Jmes AC (1994) Uncertinty nlysis of the effective dose per unit exposure from rdon progeny nd implictions for ICRP riskweighting fctor. Rdit Prot Dosim 53;1/4: Cvllo A (2000) The rdon equilibrium fctor nd comprtive dosimetry in homes nd mines. Rdit Prot Dosim 92;4: Cheng YS, Keting JA, Knpilly GM (1980) Theory nd clibrtion of screen type diffusion bttery. J Aerosol Sci 11: Cheng YS, Yeh HC (1980) Theory of screen type diffusion bttery. J Aerosol Sci 11: Interntionl Commission on Rdiologicl Protection (1993) Protection ginst Rdon222 t home nd t work. ICRP Publiction 65, Ann ICRP 23(2) 6. Interntionl Commission on Rdiologicl Protection (1994) Humn respirtory trct model for rdiologicl protection. ICRP Publiction 66, Ann ICRP 24(1 3) 7. Interntionl Commission on Rdiologicl Protection (2007) The 2007 recommendtions of the Interntionl Commission on Rdiologicl Protection. ICRP Publiction 103, Ann ICRP 37(2 4) 8. Jmes AC, Birchll A (1995) New ICRP lung dosimetry nd its risk implictions for lph emitters. Rdit Prot Dosim 60;4: Mher EF, Lird NM (1985) Algorithm reconstruction of prticle size distributions from diffusion bttery dt. J Aerosol Sci 16: Mrple VA, Rubow KL (1986) Theory nd design guidelines, cscde impctors: Smpling of dt. Chpter 4. In: Lodge JP, Chn TL (eds) Cscde impctor: smplying nd dt nlysis. Americn Industril Hygiene Assocition, Akron, OH 11. Mrsh JW, Hrrison JD, Lurier D, Blnchrdon E, Pquet F, Tirmrch M (2010) Dose conversion fctors for rdon: recent developments. Helth Phys 99;4: Reineking A, Porstendorfer J (1990) Unttched frction of shortlived Rn decy products in indoor nd outdoor environments: n improved singlescreen method nd results. Helth Phys 58;6: Solomon SB (1997) A rdon progeny smpler for the determintion of effective dose. Rdit Prot Dosim 72: Solomon SB (1999) Mnul for Rdon Progeny Prticle Size Spectrometer (RPPSS) Mk2. ARPANSA, Yllmbie, Austrli 15. Solomon SB (2001) Field tests of rdon progeny smpler for the determintion of effective dose. Sci Totl Environ 272: Stther JW (2004) Dosimetric nd epidemiologicl pproches to ssessing rdon doses cn the differences be reconciled. Rdit Prot Dosim 112;4: Twomey S (1975) Comprison of constrined liner inversion nd itertive lgorithm ppllied to the indirect estimtion of the prticle size distribution. J Comput Phys 18: Wąsiołek PT, Hopke PK, Jmes AC (1992) Assessment of exposure to rdon decy products in relistic living conditions. J Exposure Anl Environ Epidemiol 2;3: Zock C, Porstendorfer J, Reineking A (1996) The influence of biologicl nd erosol prmeters of inhled shortlived rdon decy products on humn lung dose. Rdit Prot Dosim 63;3:
Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3.
The nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) Although the ttest is one of the most commonly used sttisticl hypothesis tests, it hs limittions. The mjor limittion is tht the ttest cn be used to compre the mens of only
More informationGraphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper
0CH_PHClter_TMSETE_ 3//00 :3 PM Pge Grphs on Logrithmic nd Semilogrithmic Pper OBJECTIVES When ou hve completed this chpter, ou should be ble to: Mke grphs on logrithmic nd semilogrithmic pper. Grph empiricl
More informationHelicopter Theme and Variations
Helicopter Theme nd Vritions Or, Some Experimentl Designs Employing Pper Helicopters Some possible explntory vribles re: Who drops the helicopter The length of the rotor bldes The height from which the
More informationTITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COINTAP METHOD OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
TITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COINTAP METHOD OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING Sung Joon Kim*, DongChul Che Kore Aerospce Reserch Institute, 45 EoeunDong, YouseongGu, Dejeon, 35333, Kore Phone : 824286231 FAX
More informationPolynomial Functions. Polynomial functions in one variable can be written in expanded form as ( )
Polynomil Functions Polynomil functions in one vrible cn be written in expnded form s n n 1 n 2 2 f x = x + x + x + + x + x+ n n 1 n 2 2 1 0 Exmples of polynomils in expnded form re nd 3 8 7 4 = 5 4 +
More informationExperiment 6: Friction
Experiment 6: Friction In previous lbs we studied Newton s lws in n idel setting, tht is, one where friction nd ir resistnce were ignored. However, from our everydy experience with motion, we know tht
More information9 CONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTIONS
9 CONTINUOUS DISTIBUTIONS A rndom vrible whose vlue my fll nywhere in rnge of vlues is continuous rndom vrible nd will be ssocited with some continuous distribution. Continuous distributions re to discrete
More informationDistributions. (corresponding to the cumulative distribution function for the discrete case).
Distributions Recll tht n integrble function f : R [,] such tht R f()d = is clled probbility density function (pdf). The distribution function for the pdf is given by F() = (corresponding to the cumultive
More informationLecture 3 Gaussian Probability Distribution
Lecture 3 Gussin Probbility Distribution Introduction l Gussin probbility distribution is perhps the most used distribution in ll of science. u lso clled bell shped curve or norml distribution l Unlike
More information** Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Modelling nd Simultion of hemicl Processes in Multi Pulse TP Experiment P. Phnwdee* S.O. Shekhtmn +. Jrungmnorom** J.T. Gleves ++ * Dpt. hemicl Engineering, Ksetsrt University, Bngkok 10900, Thilnd + Dpt.hemicl
More informationEconomics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15. macroeconomists. a b, Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen. Received 11 December 1998; accepted 12 May 1999
Economics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15 Estimting dynmic pnel dt models: guide for q mcroeconomists b, * Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen Federl Reserve Bord of Governors, 0th & C Sts., N.W. Wshington, D.C. 0551,
More informationBasic Analysis of Autarky and Free Trade Models
Bsic Anlysis of Autrky nd Free Trde Models AUTARKY Autrky condition in prticulr commodity mrket refers to sitution in which country does not engge in ny trde in tht commodity with other countries. Consequently
More informationUse Geometry Expressions to create a more complex locus of points. Find evidence for equivalence using Geometry Expressions.
Lerning Objectives Loci nd Conics Lesson 3: The Ellipse Level: Preclculus Time required: 120 minutes In this lesson, students will generlize their knowledge of the circle to the ellipse. The prmetric nd
More informationFDIC Study of Bank Overdraft Programs
FDIC Study of Bnk Overdrft Progrms Federl Deposit Insurnce Corportion November 2008 Executive Summry In 2006, the Federl Deposit Insurnce Corportion (FDIC) initited twoprt study to gther empiricl dt on
More informationThe Velocity Factor of an Insulated TwoWire Transmission Line
The Velocity Fctor of n Insulted TwoWire Trnsmission Line Problem Kirk T. McDonld Joseph Henry Lbortories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 Mrch 7, 008 Estimte the velocity fctor F = v/c nd the
More informationFactoring Polynomials
Fctoring Polynomils Some definitions (not necessrily ll for secondry school mthemtics): A polynomil is the sum of one or more terms, in which ech term consists of product of constnt nd one or more vribles
More informationExample 27.1 Draw a Venn diagram to show the relationship between counting numbers, whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers.
2 Rtionl Numbers Integers such s 5 were importnt when solving the eqution x+5 = 0. In similr wy, frctions re importnt for solving equtions like 2x = 1. Wht bout equtions like 2x + 1 = 0? Equtions of this
More informationEQUATIONS OF LINES AND PLANES
EQUATIONS OF LINES AND PLANES MATH 195, SECTION 59 (VIPUL NAIK) Corresponding mteril in the ook: Section 12.5. Wht students should definitely get: Prmetric eqution of line given in pointdirection nd twopoint
More informationAn Undergraduate Curriculum Evaluation with the Analytic Hierarchy Process
An Undergrdute Curriculum Evlution with the Anlytic Hierrchy Process Les Frir Jessic O. Mtson Jck E. Mtson Deprtment of Industril Engineering P.O. Box 870288 University of Albm Tuscloos, AL. 35487 Abstrct
More informationReasoning to Solve Equations and Inequalities
Lesson4 Resoning to Solve Equtions nd Inequlities In erlier work in this unit, you modeled situtions with severl vriles nd equtions. For exmple, suppose you were given usiness plns for concert showing
More informationSmall Business Cloud Services
Smll Business Cloud Services Summry. We re thick in the midst of historic sechnge in computing. Like the emergence of personl computers, grphicl user interfces, nd mobile devices, the cloud is lredy profoundly
More informationSpace Vector Pulse Width Modulation Based Induction Motor with V/F Control
Interntionl Journl of Science nd Reserch (IJSR) Spce Vector Pulse Width Modultion Bsed Induction Motor with V/F Control Vikrmrjn Jmbulingm Electricl nd Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Indi Abstrct:
More informationProject 6 Aircraft static stability and control
Project 6 Aircrft sttic stbility nd control The min objective of the project No. 6 is to compute the chrcteristics of the ircrft sttic stbility nd control chrcteristics in the pitch nd roll chnnel. The
More information2015 EDITION. AVMA Report on Veterinary Compensation
2015 EDITION AVMA Report on Veterinry Compenstion AVMA Report on Veterinry Compenstion 2015 EDITION Copyright 2015 by the All rights reserved. ISBN13: 9781882691319 AVMA Report on Veterinry Compenstion
More informationSmall Businesses Decisions to Offer Health Insurance to Employees
Smll Businesses Decisions to Offer Helth Insurnce to Employees Ctherine McLughlin nd Adm Swinurn, June 2014 Employersponsored helth insurnce (ESI) is the dominnt source of coverge for nonelderly dults
More informationClearPeaks Customer Care Guide. Business as Usual (BaU) Services Peace of mind for your BI Investment
ClerPeks Customer Cre Guide Business s Usul (BU) Services Pece of mind for your BI Investment ClerPeks Customer Cre Business s Usul Services Tble of Contents 1. Overview...3 Benefits of Choosing ClerPeks
More informationSimulation of operation modes of isochronous cyclotron by a new interative method
NUKLEONIKA 27;52(1):29 34 ORIGINAL PAPER Simultion of opertion modes of isochronous cyclotron y new intertive method Ryszrd Trszkiewicz, Mrek Tlch, Jcek Sulikowski, Henryk Doruch, Tdeusz Norys, Artur Srok,
More informationUnit 29: Inference for TwoWay Tables
Unit 29: Inference for TwoWy Tbles Prerequisites Unit 13, TwoWy Tbles is prerequisite for this unit. In ddition, students need some bckground in significnce tests, which ws introduced in Unit 25. Additionl
More informationOperations with Polynomials
38 Chpter P Prerequisites P.4 Opertions with Polynomils Wht you should lern: Write polynomils in stndrd form nd identify the leding coefficients nd degrees of polynomils Add nd subtrct polynomils Multiply
More informationBinary Representation of Numbers Autar Kaw
Binry Representtion of Numbers Autr Kw After reding this chpter, you should be ble to: 1. convert bse rel number to its binry representtion,. convert binry number to n equivlent bse number. In everydy
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology
More informationPHY 222 Lab 8 MOTION OF ELECTRONS IN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
PHY 222 Lb 8 MOTION OF ELECTRONS IN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Nme: Prtners: INTRODUCTION Before coming to lb, plese red this pcket nd do the prelb on pge 13 of this hndout. From previous experiments,
More informationSPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORIZATION
MODULE  Specil Products nd Fctoriztion 4 SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORIZATION In n erlier lesson you hve lernt multipliction of lgebric epressions, prticulrly polynomils. In the study of lgebr, we come
More informationThe International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Release on the Ionization Constant of H 2 O
The Interntionl Assocition for the Properties of Wter nd Stem Lucerne, Sitzerlnd August 7 Relese on the Ioniztion Constnt of H O 7 The Interntionl Assocition for the Properties of Wter nd Stem Publiction
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology
More informationPhysics 43 Homework Set 9 Chapter 40 Key
Physics 43 Homework Set 9 Chpter 4 Key. The wve function for n electron tht is confined to x nm is. Find the normliztion constnt. b. Wht is the probbility of finding the electron in. nmwide region t x
More information5.2. LINE INTEGRALS 265. Let us quickly review the kind of integrals we have studied so far before we introduce a new one.
5.2. LINE INTEGRALS 265 5.2 Line Integrls 5.2.1 Introduction Let us quickly review the kind of integrls we hve studied so fr before we introduce new one. 1. Definite integrl. Given continuous relvlued
More informationStraight pipe model. Orifice model. * Please refer to Page 3~7 Reference Material for the theoretical formulas used here. Qa/Qw=(ηw/ηa) (P1+P2)/(2 P2)
Air lek test equivlent to IX7nd IX8 In order to perform quntittive tests Fig. shows the reltionship between ir lek mount nd wter lek mount. Wter lek mount cn be converted into ir lek mount. By performing
More informationUnderstanding Life Cycle Costs How a Northern Pump Saves You Money
Understnding Life Cycle Costs How Nrn Pump Sves You Money Reference: Hydrulic Institute (www.s.g) Introduction Wht Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Clculting Totl LCC LCC Components Wht Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle
More informationDlNBVRGH + Sickness Absence Monitoring Report. Executive of the Council. Purpose of report
DlNBVRGH + + THE CITY OF EDINBURGH COUNCIL Sickness Absence Monitoring Report Executive of the Council 8fh My 4 I.I...3 Purpose of report This report quntifies the mount of working time lost s result of
More informationChapter 8  Practice Problems 1
Chpter 8  Prctice Problems 1 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one lterntive tht best completes the sttement or nswers the question. A hypothesis test is to be performed. Determine the null nd lterntive hypotheses.
More informationAll pay auctions with certain and uncertain prizes a comment
CENTER FOR RESEARC IN ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT CREAM Publiction No. 12015 All py uctions with certin nd uncertin prizes comment Christin Riis All py uctions with certin nd uncertin prizes comment Christin
More informationEcon 4721 Money and Banking Problem Set 2 Answer Key
Econ 472 Money nd Bnking Problem Set 2 Answer Key Problem (35 points) Consider n overlpping genertions model in which consumers live for two periods. The number of people born in ech genertion grows in
More informationQuality Evaluation of Entrepreneur Education on Graduate Students Based on AHPfuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Approach ZhongXiaojun 1, WangYunfeng 2
Interntionl Journl of Engineering Reserch & Science (IJOER) ISSN [23956992] [Vol2, Issue1, Jnury 2016] Qulity Evlution of Entrepreneur Eduction on Grdute Students Bsed on AHPfuzzy Comprehensive Evlution
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology
More informationModule 2. Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Module Anlysis of Stticlly Indeterminte Structures by the Mtrix Force Method Version CE IIT, Khrgpur esson 9 The Force Method of Anlysis: Bems (Continued) Version CE IIT, Khrgpur Instructionl Objectives
More informationRate and Activation Energy of the Iodination of Acetone
nd Activtion Energ of the Iodintion of Acetone rl N. eer Dte of Eperiment: //00 Florence F. Ls (prtner) Abstrct: The rte, rte lw nd ctivtion energ of the iodintion of cetone re detered b observing the
More informationSTATUS OF LANDBASED WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN GERMANY
Yer STATUS OF LANDBASED WIND ENERGY Deutsche WindGurd GmbH  Oldenburger Strße 6526316 Vrel  Germny +49 (4451)/9515  info@windgurd.de  www.windgurd.com Annul Added Cpcity [MW] Cumultive Cpcity [MW]
More informationRotating DC Motors Part II
Rotting Motors rt II II.1 Motor Equivlent Circuit The next step in our consiertion of motors is to evelop n equivlent circuit which cn be use to better unerstn motor opertion. The rmtures in rel motors
More informationNOTES. Cohasset Associates, Inc. 2015 Managing Electronic Records Conference 8.1
Cohsset Assocites, Inc. Expnding Your Skill Set: How to Apply the Right Serch Methods to Your Big Dt Problems Juli L. Brickell H5 Generl Counsel MER Conference My 18, 2015 H5 POWERING YOUR DISCOVERY GLOBALLY
More informationANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT WITH THE CFX CODE
ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT WITH THE CFX CODE Ildikó Boros, Dr. Attil Aszódi Budpest University of Technology nd Economics, Institute of Nucler Techniques Abstrct The therml
More informationExponential and Logarithmic Functions
Nme Chpter Eponentil nd Logrithmic Functions Section. Eponentil Functions nd Their Grphs Objective: In this lesson ou lerned how to recognize, evlute, nd grph eponentil functions. Importnt Vocbulr Define
More informationAnswer, Key Homework 10 David McIntyre 1
Answer, Key Homework 10 Dvid McIntyre 1 This printout should hve 22 questions, check tht it is complete. Multiplechoice questions my continue on the next column or pge: find ll choices efore mking your
More informationg(y(a), y(b)) = o, B a y(a)+b b y(b)=c, Boundary Value Problems Lecture Notes to Accompany
Lecture Notes to Accompny Scientific Computing An Introductory Survey Second Edition by Michel T Heth Boundry Vlue Problems Side conditions prescribing solution or derivtive vlues t specified points required
More informationComparison of Environment and Mice in Static and Mechanically Ventilated Isolator Cages with Different Air Velocities and Ventilation Designs
Comprison of Environment nd Mice in Sttic nd Mechniclly Ventilted Isoltor Cges with Different Air Velocities nd Ventiltion Designs FARHAD MEMARZADEH, PHD, PE, 1 PAUL C. HARRISON, PHD, 2* GERALD L. RISKOWSKI,
More informationModule Summary Sheets. C3, Methods for Advanced Mathematics (Version B reference to new book) Topic 2: Natural Logarithms and Exponentials
MEI Mthemtics in Ection nd Instry Topic : Proof MEI Structured Mthemtics Mole Summry Sheets C, Methods for Anced Mthemtics (Version B reference to new book) Topic : Nturl Logrithms nd Eponentils Topic
More informationMathematics. Vectors. hsn.uk.net. Higher. Contents. Vectors 128 HSN23100
hsn.uk.net Higher Mthemtics UNIT 3 OUTCOME 1 Vectors Contents Vectors 18 1 Vectors nd Sclrs 18 Components 18 3 Mgnitude 130 4 Equl Vectors 131 5 Addition nd Subtrction of Vectors 13 6 Multipliction by
More informationimproved (2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11). Some of the
8 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 963 EVALUATING SPRAY EQUIPMENT FOR FLORIDA CITRUS R. F. Brooks, W. L. Thompson nd P. T. Jutrs Florid Citrus Experiment Sttion Lke Alfred The first successful, lrge,
More informationAssuming all values are initially zero, what are the values of A and B after executing this Verilog code inside an always block? C=1; A <= C; B = C;
B26 Appendix B The Bsics of Logic Design Check Yourself ALU n [Arthritic Logic Unit or (rre) Arithmetic Logic Unit] A rndomnumer genertor supplied s stndrd with ll computer systems Stn KellyBootle,
More information9.3. The Scalar Product. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes
The Sclr Product 9.3 Introduction There re two kinds of multipliction involving vectors. The first is known s the sclr product or dot product. This is soclled becuse when the sclr product of two vectors
More informationApplication of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Technique To Evaluate and Selecting Suppliers in an Effective Supply Chain
Appliction of Anlyticl Hierrchy Process (AHP) Technique To Evlute nd Selecting Suppliers in n Effective Supply Chin Shhroodi 1*, Kmbiz, Industril Mngement Deprtment, Islmic Azd University (Rsht Brnch),
More informationc. Values in statements are broken down by fiscal years; many projects are
Lecture 18: Finncil Mngement (Continued)/Csh Flow CEE 498 Construction Project Mngement L Schedules A. Schedule.of Contrcts Completed See Attchment # 1 ll. 1. Revenues Erned 2. Cost of Revenues 3. Gross
More informationDouble Integrals over General Regions
Double Integrls over Generl egions. Let be the region in the plne bounded b the lines, x, nd x. Evlute the double integrl x dx d. Solution. We cn either slice the region verticll or horizontll. ( x x Slicing
More informationDecision Rule Extraction from Trained Neural Networks Using Rough Sets
Decision Rule Extrction from Trined Neurl Networks Using Rough Sets Alin Lzr nd Ishwr K. Sethi Vision nd Neurl Networks Lbortory Deprtment of Computer Science Wyne Stte University Detroit, MI 48 ABSTRACT
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology
More informationAN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE IT SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONS
AN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE IT SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONS Spiros Vsilkos (), Chrysostomos D. Stylios (),(b), John Groflkis (c) () Dept. of Telemtics Center, Computer Technology
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology
More informationWarmup for Differential Calculus
Summer Assignment Wrmup for Differentil Clculus Who should complete this pcket? Students who hve completed Functions or Honors Functions nd will be tking Differentil Clculus in the fll of 015. Due Dte:
More informationHomework #4: Answers. 1. Draw the array of world outputs that free trade allows by making use of each country s transformation schedule.
Text questions, Chpter 5, problems 15: Homework #4: Answers 1. Drw the rry of world outputs tht free trde llows by mking use of ech country s trnsformtion schedule.. Drw it. This digrm is constructed
More informationWhy is the NSW prison population falling?
NSW Bureu of Crime Sttistics nd Reserch Bureu Brief Issue pper no. 80 September 2012 Why is the NSW prison popultion flling? Jcqueline Fitzgerld & Simon Corben 1 Aim: After stedily incresing for more thn
More informationWeek 11  Inductance
Week  Inductnce November 6, 202 Exercise.: Discussion Questions ) A trnsformer consists bsiclly of two coils in close proximity but not in electricl contct. A current in one coil mgneticlly induces n
More informationCOMPARISON OF SOME METHODS TO FIT A MULTIPLICATIVE TARIFF STRUCTURE TO OBSERVED RISK DATA BY B. AJNE. Skandza, Stockholm ABSTRACT
COMPARISON OF SOME METHODS TO FIT A MULTIPLICATIVE TARIFF STRUCTURE TO OBSERVED RISK DATA BY B. AJNE Skndz, Stockholm ABSTRACT Three methods for fitting multiplictive models to observed, crossclssified
More informationVectors 2. 1. Recap of vectors
Vectors 2. Recp of vectors Vectors re directed line segments  they cn be represented in component form or by direction nd mgnitude. We cn use trigonometry nd Pythgors theorem to switch between the forms
More informationpersons withdrawing from addiction is given by summarizing over individuals with different ages and numbers of years of addiction remaining:
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF NARCOTIC ADDICTION TREATMENT PROGRAMS with Specil Reference to Age Irving Leveson,l New York City Plnning Commission Introduction Efforts to del with consequences of poverty,
More informationCOMPONENTS: COMBINED LOADING
LECTURE COMPONENTS: COMBINED LOADING Third Edition A. J. Clrk School of Engineering Deprtment of Civil nd Environmentl Engineering 24 Chpter 8.4 by Dr. Ibrhim A. Asskkf SPRING 2003 ENES 220 Mechnics of
More informationUnderstanding Basic Analog Ideal Op Amps
Appliction Report SLAA068A  April 2000 Understnding Bsic Anlog Idel Op Amps Ron Mncini Mixed Signl Products ABSTRACT This ppliction report develops the equtions for the idel opertionl mplifier (op mp).
More informationPlotting and Graphing
Plotting nd Grphing Much of the dt nd informtion used by engineers is presented in the form of grphs. The vlues to be plotted cn come from theoreticl or empiricl (observed) reltionships, or from mesured
More information2006 IPCC Software for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Application and use for India
2006 IPCC Softwre for Ntionl Greenhouse Gs Inventories: Appliction nd use for Indi Presenttion for NGGIP Side Event Bonn, June 8, 2013 Prof. Amit Grg (mitgrg@iimhd.ernet.in), INDIA GHG Inventory Softwre
More informationContextualizing NSSE Effect Sizes: Empirical Analysis and Interpretation of Benchmark Comparisons
Contextulizing NSSE Effect Sizes: Empiricl Anlysis nd Interprettion of Benchmrk Comprisons NSSE stff re frequently sked to help interpret effect sizes. Is.3 smll effect size? Is.5 relly lrge effect size?
More information1. In the Bohr model, compare the magnitudes of the electron s kinetic and potential energies in orbit. What does this imply?
Assignment 3: Bohr s model nd lser fundmentls 1. In the Bohr model, compre the mgnitudes of the electron s kinetic nd potentil energies in orit. Wht does this imply? When n electron moves in n orit, the
More informationPerformance analysis model for big data applications in cloud computing
Butist Villlpndo et l. Journl of Cloud Computing: Advnces, Systems nd Applictions 2014, 3:19 RESEARCH Performnce nlysis model for big dt pplictions in cloud computing Luis Edurdo Butist Villlpndo 1,2,
More informationPROBLEMS 13  APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES Page 1
PROBLEMS  APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES Pge ( ) Wter seeps out of conicl filter t the constnt rte of 5 cc / sec. When the height of wter level in the cone is 5 cm, find the rte t which the height decreses.
More informationIntegration. 148 Chapter 7 Integration
48 Chpter 7 Integrtion 7 Integrtion t ech, by supposing tht during ech tenth of second the object is going t constnt speed Since the object initilly hs speed, we gin suppose it mintins this speed, but
More informationP.3 Polynomials and Factoring. P.3 an 1. Polynomial STUDY TIP. Example 1 Writing Polynomials in Standard Form. What you should learn
33337_0P03.qp 2/27/06 24 9:3 AM Chpter P Pge 24 Prerequisites P.3 Polynomils nd Fctoring Wht you should lern Polynomils An lgeric epression is collection of vriles nd rel numers. The most common type of
More informationCost Functions for Assessment of Vehicle Dynamics
Cost Functions for Assessment of Vehicle Dynmics Dzmitry Svitski Automotive Engineering Deprtment Ilmenu University of Technology Ilmenu, Germny dzmitry.svitski@tuilmenu.de Pvel Nedom, Jroslv Mchn Skod
More informationResearch Notes. RatSWD. Research Note No. 11. Population Aging and Trends in the Provision of Continued Education
RtSWD Reserch Notes Reserch Note No. 11 Previously relesed s RtSWD Working Pper No. 15 Popultion Aging nd Trends in the Provision of Continued Eduction Regin T. Riphhn, Prvti Trübswetter 2007 Reserch Notes
More informationGAO IRS AUDIT RATES. Rate for Individual Taxpayers Has Declined But Effect on Compliance Is Unknown
GAO United Sttes Generl Accounting Office Report to the Chirmn, Subcommittee on Oversight, Committee on Wys nd Mens, House of Representtives April 2001 IRS AUDIT RATES Rte for Individul Txpyers Hs Declined
More informationTrade liberalization and per capita income convergence: a differenceindifferences analysis
Journl of Interntionl Economics 55 (2001) 203 228 www.elsevier.nl/ locte/ econbse Trde liberliztion nd per cpit income convergence: differenceindifferences nlysis Mtthew J. Slughter* Drtmouth College
More informationMath Review 1. , where α (alpha) is a constant between 0 and 1, is one specific functional form for the general production function.
Mth Review Vribles, Constnts nd Functions A vrible is mthemticl bbrevition for concept For emple in economics, the vrible Y usully represents the level of output of firm or the GDP of n economy, while
More informationHealth insurance exchanges What to expect in 2014
Helth insurnce exchnges Wht to expect in 2014 33096CAEENABC 02/13 The bsics of exchnges As prt of the Affordble Cre Act (ACA or helth cre reform lw), strting in 2014 ALL Americns must hve minimum mount
More informationTHE PARAMETERS OF TRAPS IN KFELDSPARS AND THE TL BLEACHING EFFICIENCY
GEOCHRONOMETRIA Vol. 2, pp 152, 21 Journl on Methods nd Applictions of Asolute Chronology THE PARAMETERS OF TRAPS IN KFELDSPARS AND THE TL BLEACHING EFFICIENCY ALICJA CHRUŒCIÑSKA 1, HUBERT L. OCZKOWSKI
More informationEnterprise Risk Management Software Buyer s Guide
Enterprise Risk Mngement Softwre Buyer s Guide 1. Wht is Enterprise Risk Mngement? 2. Gols of n ERM Progrm 3. Why Implement ERM 4. Steps to Implementing Successful ERM Progrm 5. Key Performnce Indictors
More informationUplift Capacity of KSeries Open Web Steel Joist Seats. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; email: psgreen@ce.ufl.edu
Uplift Cpcity of KSeries Open Web Steel Joist Sets Perry S. Green, Ph.D, M.ASCE 1 nd Thoms Sputo, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE 2 1 Assistnt Professor, Deprtment of Civil nd Costl Engineering, University of Florid,
More informationSection 74 Translation of Axes
62 7 ADDITIONAL TOPICS IN ANALYTIC GEOMETRY Section 74 Trnsltion of Aes Trnsltion of Aes Stndrd Equtions of Trnslted Conics Grphing Equtions of the Form A 2 C 2 D E F 0 Finding Equtions of Conics In the
More informationLECTURE #05. Learning Objectives. How does atomic packing factor change with different atom types? How do you calculate the density of a material?
LECTURE #05 Chpter : Pcking Densities nd Coordintion Lerning Objectives es How does tomic pcking fctor chnge with different tom types? How do you clculte the density of mteril? 2 Relevnt Reding for this
More informationNational greenhouse gas inventory data for the period 1990 2010
United Ntions FCCC/SBI/2012/31 Distr.: Generl 16 November 2012 Originl: English Subsidiry Body for Implementtion Thirtyseventh session Doh, 26 November to 1 December 2012 Item 3(b) of the provisionl gend
More informationAlgebra Review. How well do you remember your algebra?
Algebr Review How well do you remember your lgebr? 1 The Order of Opertions Wht do we men when we write + 4? If we multiply we get 6 nd dding 4 gives 10. But, if we dd + 4 = 7 first, then multiply by then
More informationEstimating Exchange Rate Exposures:
Estimting Exchnge Rte Exposures: Issues in Model Structure * Gordon M. Bodnr ** Pul H. Nitze School of Advnced Interntionl Studies, The Johns Hopkins University 1740 Msschusetts Avenue NW Wshington, DC
More information