# Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 1 U1-Full Chapter- Algebra Chapter3 Introduction to Algebra 3.1 What is Algebra? Algebra is generalized

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1 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 1 U1-Full Chapter- Algebra Chapter3 Introduction to Algebra 3.1 What is Algebra? Algebra is generalized arithmetic operations that use letters of the alphabet to represent known or unknown quantities. We can use y to represent a company s profit or the costs of labour. The letters used to hold the places for unknown quantities are called variables, while known quantities are called constants. Variables denote a number or quantity that may vary in some circumstances. Algebra now occupies the centre of mathematics, because it could be used to solve a variety of complex problems much faster than using arithmetic methods. Many problems that mathematicians could not solve previously with arithmetic methods can now be solved with algebraic methods. As well, algebra has made it possible to apply mathematics in other areas of human endeavour such as economic planning, pharmacology, medicine, and public health. Consider this, 12 + b = 20. What is the value of b? The only quantity that can take the place of b is 8, because =20. So 8 is the true replacement value for b. What about y + y = 15? The replacement value for the first y could be any number not more than 15. However, the replacement value we pick for the first y will determine the value for the second y. If we say, for example, that the first y is 10, then the second y must be 5. As well, if the first y is 12, the second y must be 3. The reverse is also true. Try it for yourself by picking a replacement value for the second, and determine the value for first y. As we will see later, this simple example is very important for understanding the solution to equations involving two similar variables. Consider another example, 4x + 8 = 40. In this example, we are looking for a number when multiplied by 4 and added 8 to it will give 40. We can try to figure out this number through guessing and checking. Eventually we will find that 8 is the replacement for x. However, with a systematic procedure of solving equations, we can easily solve that problem without going through the throes of guessing and

2 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 2 checking. Before we start learning that procedure for solving equations, let us try to understand the meanings of like terms and unlike terms Like Terms and Unlike Terms Consider again, 12 + b = 20. A number or letter separated by the operation sign + is called a term. So 12 is a term; b too is a term. Letters of the same kind in an algebraic statement or expression are called like terms. For example, b + b + c = 2b + c. The two bs are like terms, so we can carry out the operations of addition on them. Look at more examples below. eg2 2b + 3b = 5b, whatever the value of b is. eg3 3y + 5x cannot be simplified two terms are different. eg4 10t - 4t + 12y + 6t = 6t + 6t + 12y (since 10t 4t =6t) = 12t + 12 y (since 6t + 6t = 12t) This is now fully simplified, since the two remaining terms are not like terms. eg 5 3t - 2t = t. Note: traditionally, mathematicians do not write 1t. They just write t. So, t understandably means 1t (one t). The general rule, however, for adding and subtracting like terms does not apply to multiplication or division. In fact, multiplication and division are done as is shown in the following examples. Multiplication/Division examples: eg 1 y y y = y³ eg2 x 2 x 3 = x x x x x = x 5 eg 3 t t = t² eg 4 Note: 4t 6t = (4 6) (t x t) = 24t² t is the same as 26 t yz = 30 y z 3. 48x² = 48 x x

3 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters t t = = 2, because the two t cancel themselves out x 7 = = 2x, because 7 goes into 14 two times xy, is the same as 20 x y. Again, there is no need to put the multiplication sign between 20 and x or x and y. 7. y y y x x = y³x² 8. 5n²t³ = 5 n n t t t 9. To simplify 3a 2 4a 3, first multiply the numbers together to get 12 from (3 4) 2a and then add the exponents to get a 2+ 3 = a 5 This is the same as a a a a a = a. That is, keep the base a and add the exponents. We now have 12a 2a. Divide the numbers, 12 2 = 6. Then subtract the exponents when dividing, so a 5 a 1 = a 5 4 This equals a. This is the same thing as a x a x a x a x a a = a. The final answer is 6a 10. = = note: We multiplied the top numbers to get 4 ( 2 x 2) and the number letters to get t². 11. = = note that the exponent 3 tells us the number of times the fraction should be multiplied. We multiplied the top numbers to get 1 (1 x 1 x 1) and then the bottom numbers to get 27 (3 x 3 x 3) ³ = 5 x 5 x 5 = Substitution and Formula When we put quantities in place of variables it is called substitution. Consider this, what is b + c + d, where b = 4, c= 2, d= 3? We simply substitute each variable with its corresponding quantity. b + c + d = = 9

4 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 4 Example 1 Evaluate, 6x + 8y + 3z, where x = 2, y = 3, z = 4 Example 2 =6(2) + 8(3) + 3(4) = = 48 Evaluate 12a 14b, where a =3, b= 1 Example 3 =12(3) 14 (1) =36 14 = = (dividing by 2, which is the common factor) Evaluate 2(x - 3) = 10, if x=8 Remember the distributive property! 2(x-3) = 10 2(x) - 2(3) = 10 (Distribute 2 over x and -3 in order to remove the bracket) 2x - 6 = 10 2(8) - 6 =10 (substituting 8 for x) 16-6 = 10 A formula describes how one quantity relates to one or more other quantities. A formula is a shorthand form of procedure for doing calculations. Al-Khwarazmi gave the world algebra by using letters of the alphabet to represent unknown numbers. And, then, he gave these symbols all the properties of numbers. Before this, the only way to know a procedure is to see examples of the procedure for specific numbers. For example, procedure for finding the area of a rectangle was taught by showing the procedure for calculating the area for specific rectangles. In a sense, arithmetic reasoning was more of experience rather than deductive reasoning. However, once a formula is constructed, it can be used to calculate unknown quantities. Formulas too are used to calculate quantities in businesses. A common formula is P = R -E, where P= profit, R= revenue (sales), and E = Expenses.

5 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 5 The formula says that profit is equal to revenue subtract expenses. Another common formula is E = A - L, where E = owner s equity (the capital the owner has invested in the business), A = assets (Resources such as machines, furniture, buildings, etc.), and L = liabilities are amounts owed to others. As well, when S = VC + FC, this is called the break-even point, where S =sales, VC= variable cost, and FC = fixed cost. The following are other formulas used in businesses: Net sales = Gross sales sales returns and allowances NS = GS SRA Cost of goods sold = Cost of beginning inventory + cost of purchases cost of ending inventory VC = Cost per unit x Quantities produced VC = CPU x Q Total cost = VC + FC, or TC = VQ + FC The Construction of a formula is a straight-forward process. First, you have to know the purpose for which you want to use the formula. Second, you have to understand the information you will be using to construct the formula. Third, with little knowledge of algebra, particularly substitution, you should have no problem constructing a formula. Lastly, test your formula to make sure that it works. Example 1 A technician charges a basic fee of \$40.00 for a house visit plus \$15 per hour, when repairing central heating system. Construct a formula for calculating three hours of the technician s charge. Solution Let C = charge, and n = number of hours worked. The charge is made up of a fixed cost of \$40 and \$15 times the number of hours. This translates into the following: Charge = \$30 plus \$15 times the number of hours worked. C = n

6 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 6 Note: no need to write the multiplication sign between 15 and n. To calculate the charge for three hours we substitute 3 in place of the n. C = (3) = C = C = \$75 Therefore, the charge for three hours is \$ Example 2 A window cleaner charges a fee of \$20 for visiting a house and \$10 for every window he cleans. a) Write a formula for finding the total cost, C, in dollars, when n windows are cleaned. b) Find C if n = 8 c) If the window cleaner wants to earn an income of \$220 a day, how many windows does he have to clean? Solution a) Total cost = fixed charge of \$20 plus \$10 times the number of windows cleaned. C = \$ n b) C = n C = (8) by substituting n=8 C = \$100 c) C = \$ n is the original equation we constructed. 220 = n (divide each term by 10) 22 = 2 + n 22-2 = n Therefore, the window cleaner must clean 20 windows in order to earn \$220 a day. However, this question assumes that the window cleaner will get enough cleaning job to earn the \$ Example 3. Julie earns \$ x in her first year of work with AP Films Ltd. Her salary is increased by \$650 every year. How much will she earn in a) the 4 th year? b) the 6 th year? c) the nth year?

7 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 7 Solution a) 1 st Year Salary = \$ x + \$650(n-1) (x is her earning, and n is number of years) Note that she does not get any raise in the first year that is why we have n 1. 4 th Year Salary = \$x + 650(4-1) (Remember: she gets \$650 increase every Year, excluding the first year.) = \$x (3) = \$1, b) 6 th Year Salary = x (6-1) = x + 650(5) = x + 3,250 c) 10th Year Salary = x (10-1) Example 4 = x (9) = x + 5,850 The cost of framing a photograph is calculated using the formula, C =0.55 ( l + b) Where l = length in centimetres b = width in centimetres C = cost in dollars a) Find the cost of framing a photograph whose dimensions are 12cm by 16 cm. b) A photograph with length twice the width was framed for \$ How much were the length and the width of the photograph? a) The formula is C = 0.55 (l + b) = 0.55 ( ) = 0.55(28) = \$15.40 It costs \$15.40 to frame the photograph. b) Let y represent the width and 2y represent the length, since the length is 2 times the width. The formula is C = 0.55 (l + b)

8 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 8 By substitution, we get 33 =0.55 (y + 2y) 33 = 0.55 (3y) (since 2y and y add up to 3y) 33 = 1.65y = y 20 = y Therefore, the width is 20 cm. The length is 40cm or 20 x 2. Note that once we have a formula we can use it for evaluating any values we want. However, you should always remember that constructing a formula involves three steps. First, read the information you are going to use to construct the formula carefully. Second, use letters of the alphabet in constructing the formula, bearing in mind its purpose. Finally, test the formula to make sure that it works for the purpose for which you constructed it. 3.4 Equations An equation is a mathematical statement or expression in which two quantities are equal. Similar to formulas, equations also use numbers, letters of the alphabets and operational symbols (+, -., ). In fact, formulas are special form of equations. Example 1 Do you know that, = 7 is an equation? The equality sign (=) separates the statement into left side and right side. The sum of the left side is 2+5 = 7. This is equal to the number on the right side. Example 2 Solve for N if N + 15 = 25. This is an example of an equation, because it is separated by the equality sign (=) and there is a left side and a right side. The equation means a certain number N, plus 15 equals 25. The replacement value for N must be such that when added to 15, it will be equal to 25. By inspection or guessing and checking, you will know that N

9 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 9 must be 10. So, = 25. However, in some cases, the replacement value for a variable may not be as simple as in this example. Accordingly, mathematicians have developed a more sophisticated procedure for solving an equation. Solve for N: N+ 15 = 25. When we subtract 15 from both sides of the equation, N = Note that = 0, because they are inverse of each other. This procedure helps to isolate the N on the left side of the equation. The right side becomes 10. So we are left with, N =10 as we figured out before. This procedure leads to the following rule: When the same number is added to or subtracted from both sides of an equation, the equation does not change. Example 3 Solve for x, if 2x + 3 = 15. The above equation reads 2 times a certain number plus 3 equals (or the same as, or equivalent to) 15. The x as a variable is a placeholder. Also, remember that there is no need to write the multiplication sign ( ) between 2 and x. To solve 2x + 3 = 15, our aim is to isolate the variable on the left side of the equation. So we subtract 3 from both sides of the equation. 2x = x + 0 = 12 We now have, 2x = 12. Again, this means 2 times a certain number equals 12. Certainly, we can guess and check to find that 6 is the replacement value for x. However, if we divide both sides of the equation by 2 we have the following situation. = So, x = = 6.

10 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 10 This leads us to the next rule of equation. It says that when both sides of an equation is divided or multiplied by the same number the equation does not change. Note that we can check to make sure that 6 is truly the replacement value for x. 2x + 3 = 15 which is the original equation 2(6) + 3 =15 substitute x with 6 (Remember substitution?) =15 Multiply 2 and 6 15 = 15 Add 12 and 3 to get 15. Now you see that 15 equals 15. That means we are right that the replacement value for x is 6. Example 4 Solve for x, 4x 3 +2x = 8x -3 x 6x 3 = 7x -3 We simplified the left side by adding 4x and 2x 6x = 7x x = 7x together to get 6x. We also simplified the right side by adding (8x) and (-x) to get 7x. The basic rule of integer is that when we have a large number that is positive, we always take small negative number from it. We added +3 to both sides. Do you remember the first rule of equation? An equation is like a scale. What you do to one side, you do the same to the other side. This is the result after we added +3 to both sides 6x-7x = 7x -7x We subtract -7x from both sides to isolate x. -x = 0 After subtracting -7x from both sides. -x -1 = 0-1 We multiplied each side by -1, so that we get x. x = 0 Now we are done; x is equal to 0 Let us check that the replacement value for x is 0.

11 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 11 4x x = 8x -3 x was the original equation. 4(0) 3 + 2(0) =8 (0) 3 0 ( We substituted 0 in the place of x) = is the result after multiplying. -3 = -3. Since the left side and right side are equal, the replacement value this verifies that x=0 is the correct answer. 3.5 Using Equations to Solve Problems Equations are a powerful tool used to solve many problems in accounting management, marketing, and the sciences. However, before we use this tool, we have to be familiar with its language. The following table will help you to become familiar with algebraic language. Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Equality The sum of Less than Times divides Equals Plus/total Decreased by Multiplied by Divided by Is/was/are Increased by Subtracted from The product of Divides into The result More than Difference between Twice/two times Exceeds Diminished by Double(two times) Expands Take away Triple (three times) per Quotient Half of What is left What remains The same as Greater than Reduced by Half times Quarter of Gives/giving Gain/profit Less/minus Third of Makes Longer Loss Leaves Heavier Wider Taller Added to Lower shrinks Smaller than slower

12 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 12 Apart from learning to understand algebra language in terms of addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication, students also have to learn how to change English sentences to algebraic expressions. Since this is not entirely an algebra course, we will provide only a few simple examples of how to change English phrases into algebraic expressions. Essentially, the skills you learn in this section are what you need for both an elementary and an intermediate algebra course. Study the examples below carefully, so that you can spot these English phrases when used in framing problems. As soon as you spot them, then you have to think about how to convert them into algebraic expressions. English Phrases Eight more than five times a number Ten times the sum of a number and 5 A number subtracted from 50 Four less than a number One-half of a number Five more than twice a number Six less than two-thirds of a number Three-fourths of the sum of a number and 12 Algebraic Expressions 8 + 5n, where n is the unknown. 10 ( y + 5), where y is the unknown 50 x, where x is the unknown number. n 4, where n is the unknown n, where n is the unknown number x n - 6 ( y + 12) Fifty subtracted from three times a number 3z - 50 Now is the time to use equations to solve problems. The first thing we need to do is to read the given information carefully. Second, we have to use a variable to represent the unknowns and then represent one unknown in terms of another. After that, we set up an equation and solve the equation to find the unknown(s). Nine worked examples are provided below to illustrate the power of equations in solving problems.

13 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 13 Example 1 Gabby s gross monthly income is 2.5 times that of Maggie income. The sum of their gross monthly income is \$7,000. What is each person s gross monthly income? Solution Let y be Maggie s income and 2.5y be Gabby s income. Together their income equals \$7,000. So, y +2.5y = 7000 Adding the like terms on the left side 3.5y =7,000 Dividing both sides by 3.5, y = = 2,000 So Maggie s income is \$2,000. and Gabby s income is \$5,000.(2.5 x 2,000). Check the accuracy of the answer by substituting the values in the original equation in the following way: y + 2.5y = 700 is the original equation 2, (2000) = 7000 Since the value of y is 2000, we substitute it in the place of y. Remember that y is a variable or a placeholder for , ,000 = 7,000 We multiplied 2.5 by 2,000 to get 5,000. 7,000 = 7,000 We added 2,000 and 5,000 to get 7,000. The left side and the right side is the same amount, indicating that our solution is right. In fact, if we calculate 2.5 of \$7000 we get \$5,000. Again, it shows that our answer is right. So whatever way we check our answer, it indicates that we are right. You must develop this skill of checking the accuracy of your answer after solving an equation. Example 2 A commuter train has four double decker cars and five regular ones. Each double decker has 68 seats more than a regular one. The total number of seats on the train is a) What is the number of seats on each type of car? b) What is the total seats in each type of cars?

14 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 14 Solution Let x be the number of seats on a regular car. Then let x + 68 be the number of seats on a double decker. (Note: This is logical since there are 68 seats more on a double decker than a regular car). Since there 4 double decker cars, there must be a total of 4 (x + 68) seats Similarly, since there are 5 regular cars, there must be a total of 5x seats. The given information says that there are a total of 1118 seats on the train The following relationship is given: a) (#of double decker cars) (# of seats on a double decker car) + (# of regular cars) (# of seats on a regular car) = the total # of seats on the commuter train. In terms of algebraic expression, we have the following: 4(x +68) + 5x = x x = x + 5x = x = x = 846 x = = 94 Therefore the number of seats in a regular car is 94. The number of cars in a double decker car is 162 ( ) b) The total seats in the regular cars = 5 (94), since there are 5 regular cars, each with 94 seats. The total number of seats on the four double decker trains = 4(94 +68) =648 Total seats on the commuter train: = The difference is 68 (162-94), indicating that our answer is right. Do you have any other ways to check the answer? Please, note that we could also check the accuracy of our answer by writing 94 in the place of the x and solving the equation. Try this yourself. Example 3 Mr. Martins owns a specialty store. He purchased an equal number of two types of designer phones for a total of \$7,200. The top quality phone costs \$120 each and the plastic phones costs \$80 each.

15 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 15 a) How many of each type of phones were purchased? b) What was the total value of each type of phone? Solution a) Let x be the quantity of top quality phones purchased. x can also represent the number of plastic phones purchased. This is the case because the same quantity of each type of phones was purchased. The following relationship is true: (# of top-quality phones) x (the price) + (# of plastic phones) x (the price)= \$7200 x \$ x 80 = \$ x + 80x = 7, x = 7,200 x = = 36 So, 36 quantities of each phone were purchased. We can check the accuracy of our answer by substituting 36 in the place of x and evaluating as we did in substitution. Try that yourself as a practice. b) The dollar value of the Top-Quality phone = Quantity purchased x unit price = 36 x 120 =\$4, The dollar value of plastic phones = Quantities purchased x unit price = 36 x 80 = \$2,880 Thus, \$4,320 + \$2,880 = \$7,200. This proves the accuracy of our calculations. Example 4 Focus Day Care Centre has 28 children and 7 care-givers. Two of the care-givers work part-time. Children enrolled under 4 years old are 8 more than those over 4 years old. How many children under 4 years old are enrolled in the centre?

16 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 16 Solution Let n represent the number of children over 4 years old. Let n + 8 represent the number of children under 4 years old. This so because the number of children under 4 years old are 8 more than those over 4 years old. This relationship is true: (# of children over 4 years old) + (# of children under 4 years old) = 28 n + n + 8 = 28 2n +8 = 28 2n =28-8 = n = 10 The number of children over 4 years old is 10. Thus, the number of children under 4 years old = n + 8 = = 18 Note that we could interpret the above problem in this way. Since there are 8 more children under 4 years old than over 4 years old, we can say that there are 8 less children over 4 years old than under 4 years old. So let n-8 be the number of children over 4 years old, then n can represent those under 4 years old. This will give us the following equation: n + n-8 = 28 Try to solve the above equation for n and compare your answer to the above solution. Did you get the same result? If not, you should check over your work.

17 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 17 Example 5 Industrialized nations have 2,017 radios per thousand people. This is about six times the number of radios per thousand in developing nations. What is the number of radios per thousand in developing countries? (Round off to the nearest whole number). Solution Let r represent the number of radios per thousand in developing countries. The following relationship is given in the question: # of radios in developing countries per thousand x 6 =2017 6r =2017 = r= r = 336 (to the nearest whole) So there are 336 radios per thousand in developing countries. We can check the accuracy of our answer in this way: 6r = 2017, then 6 (336.17) = Though this question could be solved using other methods, we used an equation to solve it to show that an equation can be used to solve any question. Its power is limitless! Example 6 Forty acres of land were sold for \$810,000. Some were sold for \$24,000 per acre and the rest for \$18,000 per acre. How much was sold at each price? Solution The unknowns are the number of acres sold at \$24,000 per acre and the number of acres sold at \$18,000 per acre. Let L represent the number of acres sold at \$24,000, then 40- L represent the rest sold at \$18,000 per acre.

18 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 18 Note the following relationship is implied in the given information. (# of acres sold) x (24,000 per acre) + (# of acres sold) x (18,000 per acre) = \$810,000 (L) x (24,000) + (40- L) x (18,000) = 810, L L = ,000L = L = L = = L = 15 Therefore, 15 acres of the land were sold at \$24,000. And 25 acres (40-15) were sold at \$18,000 per acre. Check the accuracy of the answer by substituting the two values the original equation. Example 7 A bank pays the following interest on an account. Month interest 1 \$30 2 \$50 3 \$70 4 \$90 a) Write a formula or equation relating the month to the amount of interest paid. b) How much interest will the bank pay on the 10 th month? Solution a) We have to examine the table for any patterns. If we subtract the first month interest of \$30 from the second month interest of \$50, we get \$20. Again, if we subtract the second month interest of \$50 from third month interest of \$70, we get \$20. If seems that this pattern is true in the table- there is a constant difference of

19 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 19 \$20. Further, if we multiply the constant difference of \$20 by the month and add 10 we get the amount of interest. Let us try this and see if it works. Month x = interest 1 x =30 first month interest 2 x =50 second month interest Therefore, let m represent the month and i the interest. We can write a formula based on the above relationship. 20m + 10 = i b) For the 10 th week, the bank will pay, 20m + 10=i 20 (10) + 10 = = \$210 The bank will pay \$ Example 8 Modern Restaurant sells pizza, meat pies, and chicken wings. The chart below shows the price of chicken wings. Wings Price 5 wings \$ wings \$ wings \$5.99 a) Based on the information in the above table write a formula to show the relationship between the price and the number of chicken wings. b) How much will 50 chicken wings cost?

20 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 20 Solution a) Let s examine the pattern in the table. Though the difference between \$3.99 and \$1.99 is \$2, the pattern does not look like example 7. This is because if we multiply the number of wings by 2 we get 10, the price is far greater than \$1.99. This is mainly because the numbers in the left column are not consecutive integers. So, let s divide 1.99 by 5. We get Let s try if this works x 5 = We need to subtract 0.01 from \$2 to get \$1.99. Let w represent the number of wings, and C the total cost. Therefore, the formula becomes, \$0.40w 0.01 = C. Let s test this How much will 15 wings cost? 0.40w (15) 0.01 = C = \$5.99, this is the correct price in the chart. b) 50 wings cost, 0.40w 0.01 =C 0.40 (50) 0.01 =C (substitute 50 for w) =\$ wings cost \$19.99 formula. Example 9 A company s annual profit of \$8,400,000 was allocated to reserve fund, dividend distribution, and operation expansion. The amount allocated to dividend distribution was twice the amount allocated to the reserve fund. The amount allocated to operation expansion was \$400,000 more than the amount allocated to dividend distribution. Find the amount of each allocation.

21 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 21 Solution The first step is to identify the unknowns. These are the amounts allocated to reserve fund, dividend distribution, and operation expansion. However, we are told that the amount for dividend distribution was twice that of reserve fund, and operation expansion allocation is 400,000 more than dividend amount. Therefore, we can let A represent the amount for the reserve fund, 2A can represent dividend amount, and 2A + 400,000 for operation amount. The following relationship is given: (Reserve fund) + (dividend distribution) + (operation expansion) = 8,400,000 A + 2A + 2A + 400,000 = 8,400,000 5A + 400,000 =8,400,000 5A + 400, ,000 = 8,400, ,000 5A = 8,000,000 = A = 1,600,000 Thus, \$1,600,000 was allocated to reserve fund. Dividend distribution: 2A= 2 (1,600,000) =\$3,200,000 Operation expansion: 2A + 400,000 = 2 (1,600,000) + 400,000 = \$3,200,000 + \$400,000 = \$3,600,000. Check the allocation: \$1,600,000 + \$3,200,000 + \$3,600,000 = \$8,400,000.

22 Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters The Concept of Break-Even Point Break-even point occurs when revenue equals expenses or cost. At that point, a business organization does not make any profit or loss. That is, sales = Fixed expenses + variable expenses. In this case, sales are just enough to cover expenses without incurring a loss. The data below illustrates the concept of break-even. May June July Sales \$25,000 \$85,000 \$125,000 Less: Variable cost 10,000 75, ,000 contribution 15,000 10,000 10,000 Less: fixed costs 10,000 10,000 10,000 Net profit \$5,000 \$0 \$0 From the above table, you will see that the company broke even the month of June and July- it did not make any profit or loss; Sales were just enough to cover variable costs and fixed costs. The calculation of the break-even point is very important for at least two reasons: a) It helps business owners or entrepreneurs to plan for profit or analyze loss. b) It helps business owners to set prices at which they will sell their products. c) It can also be used to predict profit or loss in any business ventures. To calculate the break-even point, we have to be familiar with certain terms, which are defined below: Variable costs or expenses are the costs of labour, utilities, raw materials and any other expenses directly traced to production of goods or services. An important characteristic of variable cost is that it increases as production increases and decreases as production decreases. However, the nature of a business organization will determine what will constitute its variable cost. For example, produce grocery business s variable cost will consist of the cost produce, shipping, storage, spoilage, and wages of cashiers.

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