A Blind Watermarking Algorithm

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1 Internationa Research Journa of Engineering Technoogy (IRJET) e-issn: Voume: 04 Issue: 01 Jan ISSN: A Bind Watermarking Agorithm Yu-Wen Chang Det. of Eectronic Communication Engineering, Nationa Kaohsiung Marine University, Taiwan *** Abstract - In this aer, a bind watermarking agorithm is roosed to exore the infuence of DCT coefficients in watermarking mechanism. Each two DCT coeffieients are seected comared from the same DCT bock. And, the coefficient of the ower frequency region is used as the basis for comarison. Then, the watermark bit wi be embedded extracted with this reation of the coefficients in the same bock the watermark rue. The characteristics of the DCT coefficients in the ower frequency region are not easiy changed, thus the reation of the coefficients can be more reativey stabe. Moreover, the quaity of the retrieved watermark the robustness of the watermaking wi be raised u. And, the roosed method is designed as bind, which the host image origina watermark are not needed in the extracting rocess. Key Words: digita watermarking, bind, reation of the coefficients. 1.INTRODUCTION Digita watermarking technique was first roosed in The totem or ogo used to be the reresentation of the ega owner is embeded into the media in this scheme based on the character of the digita media can be distored. With such technoogy, the identity of the egitimate owner of the mutimedia can be caimed in order to achieve the urose of rotecting inteectua roerty rights. Because the digita media can be easiy downoaded, transmitted or even coied without restriction via web ages or the internet, the coyright the inteectua roerty rights are greaty threatened. Moreover, many information security robems such as fake transactions, theft, tamering... so on wi be yieded. Therefore, digita watermarking technoogy [1] is more more imortant urgent. Unti now, many digita watermrking technoogies have been introduced have more effective for different aications. A robust ossess data hiding method using the custering statistica quantity histogram is showed in [2-3]. However, the retrieved data wi be wrong under the ossy comression rom noise. A watermarking scheme using the codebook exansion based on the vector quantization (VQ) is deveoed in [4-5]. Though these technoogies are designed as sime effective; but the embedded watermark is not robust. A sharing-based watermarking mechanism is roosed to resist the attack as croing coage [6]. However, the arge scae tamering of the watermarked image wi not be detected. In recent years, the agorithms using the soft comuting are derived to otimize the armeters inteigenty for trading off the quaities between the host image the retrieved watermark [7-8]. Nevertheess, these schemes are not designed as bind. A hybrid watermark technique using Genetic Agorithm (GA) Partice Swarm Otimization (PSO) is showed in [9]. Athough two comementary watermarks are hid simutaneousy for higher detection resonse, each watermark coud against a secific cass of attacks. A watermark method using Discrete Waveet Transform (DWT) Singuar Vaue Decomosition (SVD) is designed as robust for various attacks [10]. But, the watermark is visua. Unti the corresondence between the communication the data hiding is introduced, the digita watermarking method is regarded as a communication robem. Therefore, the error correcting codes (ECC) are used to enhance the robustness of the watermark [11-14]. Besides, some schemes are designed to rotect the coor image [15-16]. These methods utiized the bock-edgeattern or the error correcting coding. However, the redundancy quantities woud be increased after the ECC technique. For the robustness reason, most of watermarking techniques [17-20], the watermark wi be hid in the frequency domain instead of the satia domain. Each two DCT coefficients are seected from the different DCT bocks modified using the embedding rue the information of the watermark. In this aer, we woud ike to exore the resuts of that each two DCT coefficients are seected modified from the same DCT bock. The coefficient of the ower frequency region is used as the basis for comarison. Since, the characteristics of the DCT coefficients in the ower frequency region are not easiy changed, the reation of the coefficients can be reativey stabe. Thus, the roosed agorithm can used to raise the quaity of the retrieved watermark to enhance the robustness of the watermaking. The remainder of this aer is organized as foows. In section 2, the concet of image is briefy resented. The framework detais of the roosed technique are 2016, IRJET Imact Factor vaue: 4.45 ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journa Page 1

2 Internationa Research Journa of Engineering Technoogy (IRJET) e-issn: Voume: 04 Issue: 01 Jan ISSN: described in section 3. The section 4 is about the resuts the concusion. 2. THE CONCEPT OF IMAGE In most cases, the characteristics of the neighboring bocks in the image are simiar. Therefore, the vaues of each two DCT coefficients which are seected from the same osition of the different bocks are aso simiar. The other h, the watermark is embedded into the frequency domain for the robustness reason. According to the theory of data hiding, the DCT coefficients wi be used to comare modify in order to embed the watermark. For the quaity of the host image, the affect of the modification of the DCT coefficients in the high-frequency region is a itte. However, the watermark woud be erased easiy due to signa rocessing. Though the watermark is hid in the ow-frequency region can avoid attacks. But the quaity of the host image woud be damaged seriousy. Consequenty, the watermark had been chosen mosty to embed into the medium-frequency region. To reserve the quaity of the host image, the modification of DCT coefficient shoud be as sma as ossibe. Thence, the watermark bit wi be give u sometimes. In other word, if the difference of each two bock is too arge, the watermark bit wi be thorwing away to maintain a better quaity of the watermarked image. However, it wi cause the decrease in the quaity of the retrieved watermark. 3. THE PROPOSED TECHNIQUE The roosed watermarking scheme is used to imrove the question discussed above section. Each two DCT coefficients are seected from the same bock in order to achieve the urose for watermarking agorithm. The rocess of the embedding the watermark into the host image is shown in Fig. 1. Host Image (DCT) Sieve Out Ste 1: watermark scrambed The ixe of the watermark w of size L L is scrambed with the chaos maing function. Let T denotes the ermutation matrix w means the ermuted watermark, resectivey. Ste 2: DCT transformed The host image f of size is erformed bock transform by DCT. Let F denotes the bock transform of f is given by F { F( u, v) 0 u, v 255}. And these bock are be sequentiay abeed as C, for Ste 3: coefficients seected modified The coefficients are seected from the ower-frequency the midde frequency regions. Then, to modify these coefficients according the watermark information rue 1 as foows. Rue 1: (a) If ( / Q( w 1, then C ( C ( j 8) (b) If ( / Q( w 1, k If round C ( / Q( Q( C ( j 8) then C ( j 8) ( / Q( Q( j 8) ese C ( C ( j 8), (c) If ( / Q( w 0, If C ( round C ( / Q( 1 Q( j 8) then C ( j 8) round C ( / Q( 1 Q( j 8), ese C ( C ( j 8) (d) If ( / Q( w 0, then C ( C ( j 8) for 1, 2,, 1023, j 0,1 8 Image Watermark Scrambe Modify (IDCT) Fig -1: The rocess of the watermark embedding Reace where C ( (res. ( j 8) ) denotes the ower frequency C (res. the midde frequency) coefficient; w denotes the scrambed watermark bit wi be embedded into the bock C ; Q ( Q ( j 8) denote the quantifications of corresonding to the quantization tabe in JPEG stard. The, indicate the contro scaing arameters are used to contro the vaue of the DCT coefficient. Ste 4: reaced the coefficients 2017, IRJET Imact Factor vaue: ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journa Page 2

3 Internationa Research Journa of Engineering Technoogy (IRJET) e-issn: Voume: 04 Issue: 01 Jan ISSN: The coefficients of the midde frequency is adjusted by ste 3 is restored to the host image. Ste 5: IDCT transformed Imement the IDCT to obtain a watermarking image g. The watermarking technique is designed as obivious. Therefore, the origina host image watermark are a not be needed in the extracting rocedure which is given in Fig. 2. Image Retrieved Watermark (DCT) DeScrambe Fig -2: The rocess of the watermark extracting Ste 1: DCT transformed Sieve Out Reconstruct Perform the bock transform of the watermarked image g of size using DCT. Ste 2: coefficients seected reconstructed Coect the midde frequency coefficients B ( which are the same as ste 3 in the embedding method. Ste 3: ermuted watermark recovered Retrieve the ermuted watermark according the rue 2. Rue 2: (a) If round B ( / Q( round B w 1 then In the exerimenta resuts, the eak signa noise rate (PSNR) is aied to estimate the quaity between the origina image the watermarked image, which denote as f g, resectivey. The formua of PSNR is defined as 2 PSNR 10 og10(255 / MSE) (1) where the mean square error (MSE) is described as foows N 1 N MSE ( f ( x, y) g( x, y) ) / N (2) x 0 y 0 The simiarity between the origina watermark w the retrieved watermark w is measured using the bit error rate (BER). Tabe 1 (res. Tabe 2) shows the quaity of the watermarked images retrieved watermarks in which different host images are used for the roosed watermarking scheme (res. the conventiona watermarking scheme). From the tabe 1, it can be found that the quaities (PSNR) of the watermarked image with resect to the host image are more than 32dB in average. And the retrieved watermarks can be recovered. Tabe -1: Quaity of watermarked images retrieved watermark in which different host image are used in the roosed agorithm image The roosed agorithm MSE PSNR(dB) Retrieved watermark BER(%) (b) If round B ( / Q( round B w 0 then Ste 4: watermark de-scrambed Reverse the ermutation oeration using chaos ma function to obtain the retrieved watermark w. r 4. SIMULATIONAL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS In this section, the roosed scheme descibed in section 3 wi be demonstrate the robustness. The host images of size are 8-bit gray eve images the watermarks is a binary image. And, one watermark three host images (i.e., Peer, Lena F16) are used to test From the tabe 1 2, it is obviousy that the quaities of the watermarked images for the roosed agorithm are better about 0.2 to 1.1dB than that of the conventiona watermarking agorithm based on the frequency domain. 2017, IRJET Imact Factor vaue: ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journa Page 3

4 Internationa Research Journa of Engineering Technoogy (IRJET) e-issn: Voume: 04 Issue: 01 Jan ISSN: Further, the retrieved watermarks can be recognized in ower BER. Therefore, the resuts of the each two DCT coefficients used to seect modify from the same DCT bock are resented in this roosed technique. And, the origina image watermark are not necessitated in the extracting rocess. Tabe -2: Quaity of watermarked images retrieved watermark in which different host image are used in the conventiona watermarking agorithm image REFERENCES The conventiona watermarking agorithm MSE PSNR(dB) Retrieved watermark BER(%) [1] I. J. Cox, M. L. Mier, J. A. Boom, Digita Watermarking. Academic Press, A Harcourt Science Technoogy Comany, [2] L. An, X. Gao, Y. Yuan, D. Tao, Robust Lossess Data Hiding using Custering Statistica Quantity Histogram, Neurocomuting, 2012, [3] X. Gao, L. An, Y. Yuan, D. Tao, X. Li, Lossess Data Embedding using Generaized Statistica Quantity Histogram, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techno. 21, 2011, [4] H. C. Wu C. C. Chang, A Nove Digita Image Watermarking Scheme Based on the Vector Quantization Technique, Comuters Security, 2005, [5] Z. M. Lu, J. S. Pan, S. H. Sun, VQ-Based Digita Image Watermarking Method, IEE Eectronic Letters, 2000, [6] Y. J. Chang, R. Z. Wang, J. C. Lin, A Sharing-Based Fragie Watermarking Method for Authentication Sef-Recovery of Image Tamering, EURASIP Journa on Advances in Signa Processing, Artice ID , [7] H. Harrak, T. D. Hien, Y. Nagata, Z. Nakao, DCT Watermarking Otimization by Genetic Programming, Advances in Soft Comuting, 2006, [8] A. Khan, S. F. Tahir, A. Mahid, T. S. Choi, Machine Learning Based Adative Watermark Decoding in View of Anticiated Attack, The Journa of the Pattern Recognition Society, 2008, [9] Z. J. Lee, S. W. Lin, S. F. Su, C. Y. Lin, A hybrid watermarking technique aied to digita images, Aied Soft Comuting, 2008, [10] N. Wang C. H. Kim, Tamer Detection a Sef- Recovery Agorithm of Coor Image Based on Robust Embedding of Dua Visua Watermarks using DWT- SVD, 9 th Internationa Symosium on Communications Information Technoogy, 2009, [11] L. Chen Z. Yao, A Nove Watermarking Extraction Based on Error Correction Code Evidence Theory, Fourth Internationa Conference on Natura Comutation, 2008, [12] J. Antonio, M. Noriega, B. M. Kurkoski, M. N. Miyatake, H. P. Meana, Image Authentication Recovery using BCH Error-Correcting Codes, Internationa Journa of Comuters, Issue 1, Vo. 5, [13] C. Qin, Q. Mao, X. Zhang, Image Watermarking Scheme with Unequa Protection Caabiity Based on Error Correcting Codes, Journa of Mutimedia, Vo. 5, No. 5, 2010, [14] I. Usman S. Khan, BCH Coding Inteigent Watermark Embedding: Emoying both Frequency Strength Seection, Aied Soft Comuting, 2010, [15] C. H. Chen, Y. L. Tang, W. S. Hsieh, Coor Image Authentication Recovery via Adative Encoding, 2014 Intrnationa Symosium on Comuter, Consumer Contro, 2014, [16] K. C. Liu, Coor Image Watermarking for Tamer Proofing Pattern-Based Recovery, IET Image Process., Vo. 6, No. 5, 2012, [17] C. C. Chang, P. Y. Lin, J. S. Yeh, Preserving Robustness Removabiity for Digita Watermarks using Subsaming Difference Correation, Information Sciences, 2009, [18] C. M. Kung, J. H. Jeng, T. K. Troung, Watermark Technique using Frequency Domain, Proc. of the 14th IEEE Internationa Conference on Digita Signa Processing, Juy 2002, [19] C. M. Kung, J. H. Jeng, C. H. Kung, Watermarking Based on Bock Proerty, 16 th IPPR Conference on Comuter Vision, Grahics Image Processing, Aug. 2003, [20] H. C. Chen, Y. W. Chang, R. C. Hwang, Watermarking Technique for Mutimedia Communication, rd Internationa Symosium on Business Socia Sciences, Juy 2014, , IRJET Imact Factor vaue: ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journa Page 4

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