Software Production and Lifecycle Models

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1 Software Production and Lifecycle Models 1 Problem Definition Change Architectural Design Verification Personnel Basic Phases Potential Difficulties, Verification, and Testing Implementation and Integration Testing Operation Revalidation

2 Problems: Essence and Accidents 2 Software is conceptual (intangible) Essence: difficulties inherent in the intrinsic nature of software Accidents: difficulties encountered today, but not inherent in software production Accidents are amenable to research breakthroughs Essence constitutes those problems that are unsolvable complexity conformity changeability invisibility No Silver Bullet!

3 Software Production Personnel 3 Client individual or organization that want product to be developed Developer(s) (members of) organization producing product User person on whose behalf client has commissioned developer, person(s) who will utilize software in operation internal software development: client = developer contract software development: client developer

4 QUALITY PRODUCTS THROUGH PROCESS 4 Quality Software Products developed through systematic software processes with explicit product quality requirements Effective testing and analysis must be included incremental analysis activities to complement synthesis activities Powerful tools and processes are essential to assure effectiveness Process Models Processes

5 What is a Process? 5 Device for producing a product (getting job done) Indirect nature Process description (program) created to describe wide class of instances Humans create process descriptions (models or programs) to solve classes of problems Software Processes: devices for creating and evolving software products

6 The Lifecycle Approach 6 Phasing promotes manageability and provides organization Reviews assure ultimate satisfaction of requirements Intermediate products promote visibility and assure continuity between phases Major Components of a Lifecycle Model: Phases Reviews Intermediate Products

7 Intermediate Software Products Objectives: Demarcate end of phases Enable effective reviews Specify requirements for next phase Form: Rigorous Machine processible Content: s Tests Documentation 7

8 Phases of a SW Lifecycle Model 8 Change Analysis + Design Verification Implementation and Integration Testing Operation and Maintenance Revalidation

9 Analysis and Problem Definition > determine exactly what client (and user) wants and process constraints develop a contract with client what task the product is to do Difficulties client asks for wrong product client is computer/software illiterate specifications may be ambiguous, inconsistent, incomplete extensive specification reviews to check that requirements specification satisfies client needs look for ambiguity, consistency, incompleteness check for feasibility, testability develop system/acceptance test plan 9

10 Design 10 > Design develop architectural design (system structure): decompose software into modules with module interfaces develop detailed design (module specifications): select algorithms and data structures maintain record of design decisions and traceability how the product is to do its task Difficulties miscommunication between module designers design may be inconsistent, incomplete, ambiguous Verification extensive design reviews (inspections with checklists) to determine that design conforms to requirements check module interactions develop integration test plan

11 Implementation and Integration 11 Design > Implementation implement modules and verify they meet their specifications combine modules according to architectural design how the product does its task Difficulties module interaction errors order of integration has a critical influence on product quality and productivity Verification and Testing extensive code reviews (inspections with checklists) to determine that implementation conforms to requirements and design develop and test on unit/module test plan: focus on individual module functionality test on integration test plan: focus on module interfaces test on system test plan: focus on requirements and determine whether product as a whole functions correctly

12 Operation and Maintenance 12 Operation > Change maintain software after (and during) user operation integral part of process determine whether product as a whole still functions correctly Difficulties design not extensible lack of up-to-date documentation personnel turnover Verification and Testing extensive review to determine that change is made correctly and all documentation updated test to determine that change is correctly implemented test to determine that no inadvertent changes were made to compromise system functionality (check that no affected software has regressed)

13 Lifecycle Models 13 Over time different lifecycle models were developed, e.g., build-and-fix model waterfall model prototyping model incremental model spiral model... Different lifecycle models decompose software engineering activities in different ways No "right" or "wrong" lifecycle model

14 Build and Fix Approach 14 Build entire product; deliver to client who requires changes; change until client feels software can be used productively Build First Version Modified Product (until client is satisfied) Development Operation Intermediate Product Maintenance

15 Stagewise Development Software developed in successive stages (lifecycle phases) 15 Problem Definition Change Architectural Design Ve rifica tio n Detailed Design Verification Phases Im plem entation Unit/Module Te sting Software Development Reviews Integration Integration and System Testing Interm ediate Product V & V Maintenance Operation Revalidation

16 Waterfall Model [Royce,1970] Includes feedback confined between successive phase to minimize impact 16 Problem Definition Change Architectural Design Verification Detailed Design Verification Phases Implementation Unit/Module Te sting Software Development Reviews Integration Integration and System Testing Feedback Intermediate Product V&V Maintenance Operation Revalidation

17 17 Test Development Develop Test Plans in conjunction with each lifecycle phase Problem Definition System/ Acceptance Te st P la n Architectural Design Verifica tion Inte gration Te st P la n Detailed Design Verification Module Interface Te st P lan Implementation Unit/Module Te sting Unit Te st P lan Software Development Reviews Integration In te rm ed iate Product Verification Test Use Test Development Te st P lan Integration and System Testing Operation Revalidation

18 Exploratory Programming Develop outline specification because full requirements are not known, build system and expose to user review, modify system until performance is adequate 18 Develop Outline Specificaiton Build Software System Use Development Intermediate Product Maintenance Operation

19 Prototyping Model 19 Develop prototype implementation to establish requirements, then follow traditional lifecycle (could also have feedback) Rapid Prototype R equirements Change Architectural Design Verifica tion Detailed Design Verification Implementation Unit/Module Testing Software Development Reviews Integration Integration and System Testing Intermediate Product V&V Maintenance Operation Revalidation

20 Evolutionary/Incremental Model 20 Develop first implementation, develop successive increments of an operational product until complete, direction of evolution determined by operational experience (development process should use waterfall model) Develop First Build Te s t Develop Increment Integrate and Test Development Intermediate Product Maintenance Operation

21 Transformation Model 21 Develop formal specification,transform into implementation using correctness-preserving transformations Problem Definition Change Formal Verification Transformation and Optimization Verification Software Development Integration Te sting Intermediate Product V&V Maintenance Operation Revalidation

22 Simplistic View of Spiral Model Include risk analysis with each development phase 22 Risk Analysis Rapid Prototype Risk Analysis Change Risk Analysis Risk Analysis Design Verification Risk Analysis Implementation and Integration Software Development Testin g Reviews Risk Analysis Intermediate Product V&V Maintenance Operation Revalidation

23 The Spiral Model [Boehm,1988] Cumulative cost 23 Commit Review partition Determine objectives, alternatives, constraints (OAC) Concrete OAC Abstract Specifcation OAC OAC Plan Risk Assessment Concept of Operation Progress through steps Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Risk Control Risk Item Set Risk Management Plan Risk Control Evaluate alternatives, identify, resolve risks Risk Control Abstract Plan Concrete Plan Abstract Abstract Concrete Plan next phases Software Development Plan Concrete and Verification Develop, verify next-level product

24 Capability Maturity Model (CMM) [Watts Humphrey,1989] 24 CMM is not a software lifecycle model Strategy for improving the software process regardless of the process model followed Basic premise: the use of new software methods alone will not improve productivity and quality, but rather software management is in part the cause of problems CMM assists organizations in providing the infrastructure required for achieving a disciplined and mature process Includes both, technical and managerial aspects of software production

25 Capability Maturity Model Five maturity levels 1. initial ad hoc process 2. repeatable process basic project management 3. defined process process modeling and definition 4. managed process process measurement 5. optimizing process process control and dynamic improvement to aid in maturation, the SEI has a series of questionnaires and conducts process assessments that highlight current shortcomings

26 ISO Further attempt to improve software quality based on International Standards Organization (ISO) ISO 9000 = series of five related standards within ISO 9000 standard series ISO focuses on software and software development Basic features: stress on documenting the process in both words and pictures requires management commitment to quality requires intensive training of workers emphasizes measurement Adopted by over 60 countries (e.g., USA, Japan, European Union,...) Company needs to be certified that its process complies with the ISO 9000 standard

27 Lifecycle Model 27

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