Wandering Pond Snail. Bladder Snail. Freshwater Limpet. Nerite Snail. Valve Snail. Jenkins Spire Shell. Bi-Valve Molluscs.

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1 Wandering Pond Snail Up to 18mm tall. Anti-clockwise spiral. Bladder Snail Up to 12mm high. Clockwise spiral. Freshwater Limpet Very tiny; usually 2-4mm, sometimes much larger. Nerite Snail 7-10mm variable colour from yellow to black with white to purple blotches. Valve Snail Also known as a freshwater winkle. 6mm tall. Anticlockwise spiral. Jenkins Spire Shell 4-5mm high, small and dark. Anticlockwise spiral Bi-Valve Molluscs Very small, usually 2-4mm, often as small as a grain of sand. Ramshorn Snail 4-8mm in size. Flattened. 27

2 Cased Caddis Fly Larva Caddis fly larvae build tiny cases to prevent them from being eaten by other animals living in the river. Here are some that you may find. Usually about 25mm long, the caddis fly larva spins a case of silk to which it attaches tiny sticks and/or fine particles of sand to make an outer case to prevent the larva from being eaten by hungry trout. Sometimes the caddis fly makes its outer case out of tiny bits of leaves and plant matter. Cased Caddis Fly larvae are found under stones in fast flowing streams. The larvae crawl along the bottom feeding mainly on plants. Along the body of the larva are gills. The larva wriggles about in its case to keep a constant flow of water going over its body in order to breathe. These cases are very fragile and may still have the owner in them. 28

3 Flattened Mayfly Nymph It is flat and wide, specially adapted for clinging onto rocks and cobbles in fast flowing rivers and streams. It measures about 12mm with three tails spread out like a fan. On each side of the abdomen are the gills. Swimming Mayfly Nymph About 10-15mm long with a rounded stream-lined body and three hairy tails, specially adapted for moving around in fast flowing rivers and streams. Burrowing Mayfly Nymph Can grow up to 25mm. These mayfly nymphs have shovel like front legs for burrowing into the fine silty bottom of slow moving rivers and lakes, where they are usually found. Damselfly Nymphs Damselfly nymphs have three flat leaf like tails which are gills and feed on smaller insects. Dragonfly Nymph Usually found in still waters among plants or in the mud. At the rear of the abdomen are spiky tails and a hole into which the nymph sucks in water and breathes through gills inside its body. 29

4 Stonefly Nymph Stoneflies vary in size from 7mm to 25mm. They live in streams and rivers where there is fast flowing, well oxygenated clear water. Smaller stoneflies live for about a year, whilst the larger stoneflies may live for up to three years. Stoneflies move about in a lazy and sluggish manner. Adult stoneflies are very laboured fliers. Caseless Caddis Fly Larva Has two short hairy tails ending in hooks and clumps of whisker-type gills all along its body. They live under stones in fast flowing rivers and streams feeding mainly on smaller insects. This Caddis Fly larva spins a net which it attaches to a large stone to catch its food. Great Silver Beetle Larva Very fat and greyish, thinning towards the tail end. Great Diving Beetle Larva. Two short hairy tails. Dragonfly Nymph Two short spiky tails and tiny wing cases on its back. 30

5 Alderfly Larva It has bristle like gills along the length of its body and a feathery tail. Water Stick Insect About 65mm long, and uses a tube to breathe underwater. Water Scorpion Can be up to 30mm long, it lives underwater and breathes through a tube at its rear end. It has strong front legs for capturing its prey. 31

6 Whirlygig Beetle Larva About 25mm long with a pair of hair like gills on each segment of the abdomen and four gills on the rear, commonly found in ponds and slow flowing streams. Whirlygig Beetle Swim on the surface of ponds or slow moving sreams in late summer whirling around in different patterns. Their eyes are in two parts; for seeing above and below the water. Great Diving Beetle Usually the size of a 50p coin, the Great Diving Beetle breathes air. Fine hairs on its body trap air forming an air bubble enabling it to breathe underwater when it dives for food. Great Silver Beetle Traps a bubble of air under its body and breathes this air whilst underwater looking for food. It feeds on small insects, captured between its strong front legs. Small Diving Beetle Found in fast flowing rivers and streams, it has a blotchy yellow and black body, about 7-8mm long. Backswimmer. They swim on their backs and are 14-17mm long, found in slow moving rivers and ponds feeding on insects and even fish fry. Waterboatman. Common in ponds and slow moving rivers, Waterboatmen swim on their bellies and feed on small insect larvae, 5-10mm long. 32

7 Water Mite These are very tiny, only the size of a pin head and are difficult to see. They come in many different colours from red, brown to blue and green. They are very quick movers and feed on other insects in the water. Freshwater Hoglouse Are between 18mm to 25mm long and are scavengers feeding on decaying matter in still and often muddy waters. Freshwater Shrimp Can be up to 25mm long, swim very quickly on their sides and live under stones in fast flowing streams and rivers. Usually scavengers they also feed on small insects and each other. White Clawed Crayfish Can be 150mm or larger. Feeds on anything smaller than itself and needs fast flowing clean water in which to live. Crayfish live in burrows under rocks and stones and usually only come out at night. It crawls along forwards on its legs, but when disturbed it retreats backwards very quickly using its tail in a flicking motion. It is rare and protected under law. The White Clawed Crayfish is Britain s only native crayfish. Its numbers have declined due to Crayfish Plague ; a fungus carried by the larger introduced Red Clawed or Signal Crayfish. 33

8 Cranefly Larva Up to 25mm long, cranefly larvae grow into craneflies, also known as Daddy Long Legs. Blackfly Larva Up to 10mm long, blackfky larvae turn into small flies like midges. Mosquito Larva Phantom Midge Larva Midge Pupa/Mosquito Pupa Both look the same, like a comma, with a big head and a short curled tail. Rat-Tailed Maggot About 15mm long and grey, Rat-Tailed Maggots have a long breathing tube to reach the surface of the water. Found in the dirtiest, smelliest places, they turn into flies. 34

9 Midge Larva There are thousands of different midges and midge larvae that live in freshwater habitats. They have less than fifteen segments, some may have very tiny pro-legs (short legs without joints, like a caterpillar). Biting Midge Larva Bloodworm Midge Larvae Worms There are many types of worms to be found in freshwater habitats. Earthworm The ones that live in our gardens. Hair Worm Hard to see, very thin and like a hair. Leeches Long and flat. It moves along using suckers at both ends of its body, although the larger ones are good swimmers. Can be up to 20cm long! Flatworms Usually very tiny, only about 5mm long, planarians feed on tiny animals and algae in streams and rivers. 35

10 Stickleback Small and silvery with three spines in its back. Minnow About 95mm long, colour ranges from silver and grey to brown and yellow. Stoneloach Up to 200mm and more, the stoneloach has fleshy whiskers around its mouth for finding tiny insects under stones. Bullhead Usually about mm long, it has a thin body and an enormous head. It lives under stones in fast flowing rivers and streams feeding on small insects and larvae. 36

11 Salmon Fry About 150mm long the young salmon can be identified by its pointed nose and the v shaped tail Brown Trout Fry The young brown trout is usually about 150mm long and can be identified by its prominent red-orange fins, its blunt nose and c shaped tail fin. Lamprey The lamprey is very similar to the eel, but it has a round mouth and holes along the side of its head which are gills. Eel Eels can be much bigger than lampreys, they have a single fin on their backs, and gills like other fish. 37

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