The dyslexic learner by Eva Gyarmathy

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1 The dyslexic learner by Eva Gyarmathy Abstract The aim of this manual is to help to understand of the learning: basic skills (to improve literacy which helps access materials) and learning how to learn and study, concept mapping, note taking and how to take exams. Dyslexia is a special way of thinking and learning, and for these special people a special way of teaching can be more effective. Content Preface Independent learner Study skills o Counting o Writing and spelling o Reading o Studying Studying for an exam Summary Case Reading Writing and spelling Counting Study skills Studying Independent learning SUPPORTING THE DYSLEXIC LEARNER Studying for exam

2 Preface Dyslexia is not something to be ashamed of. It is a special way of thinking, which causes many difficulties in childhood as well as in the adulthood. In primary school the principle purpose of learning is to acquire literacy skills of reading and writing, and it is these skills that are most problematic for the dyslexic individual. In secondary education, the focus is more about knowledge acquisition through study. And it is the studying that is the major difficulty for dyslexics at secondary school, assuming they have acquired the skills to read the text. Thus when these students leave school, they are faced with major literacy difficulties due to years of failure in the two areas of reading and studying. Mainstream education pays little attention to the mode of learning, and few teachers are aware of the learning characteristics of dyslexics. Therefore, often the dyslexics have to find the appropriate education themselves: They have to seek people who are able to provide teaching suited to their learning style. Fortunately beyond school they have the opportunity to make choices. However, it all depends on the appropriately trained teachers being are available. Independent learner Dyslexics can learn efficiently but in a different way to most others, and it is important to make the not just the dyslexic students but also their peers aware of this. In this case, their means both the other teachers and the colleagues of the dyslexic. The teacher can help the individual to become an effective independent learner on three levels. The first is that the teacher uses their own subject as a material to teaching to learn. The second is that the teacher coaches the students learning to learn. The third is that the teacher expects the learner to learn to learn. Figure 2. Becoming an independent learner INDEPENDENT LEARNING Teaching to learn Coaching to learn Learning to learn

3 On the first level the responsibility is on the teacher. Students learn more how they have been taught than what they have been taught. The teacher s ways and style has a great effect on the students. They learn to learn unconsciously. Thus it is important to know and use methods that are beneficial for dyslexics. To teach dyslexic students properly teachers have to be aware of the needs of the students: They need to have an overview of a material in order to master it. Therefore teaching should begin with summarizing. They need to see the structure of the material in order to handle the details. Methods requiring the use of the whole of the brain are helpful: o Concept maps o Imagination, visualisation o Pictures and text together, linking the material to pictures etc. They like to discuss new concepts thoroughly, so that they will not be vague and blurred. They start out from specific examples and proceed to the general concepts through them. It is then possible to interpret the concepts using specific examples. They need more time to prepare written material. They find processing longer texts difficult. o Explanations should be as short as possible. o Long written materials does not help learning. They often find it difficult to maintain attention. Therefore, they study better if they can do various activities in the meantime. Technical tools help a lot in learning. The teacher s second level task in developing independent learners is to make students aware of their strengths and weaknesses. Like a good coach the teacher directs the students to learning styles and methods that can be effective. This is the phase where the learning becomes conscious. The student s task is to learn to learn. The teachers and others can supply material and proper environment for the learning, as taken from the first and second level. However the student has to take the effort and the responsibility to change the inefficient methods of learning, and work out own style and ways. This is the third level of becoming an independent learner.

4 Study skills Dyslexics can learn well using appropriate learning methods. However, even learning methods related to the learning style of the majority are not acquired by students at school. Understanding how we learn rarely forms part of the our education. Education is concerned almost exclusively with what has to be learned. There are thus very few who are able to learn well. Dyslexics, who have their own distinctive learning style, definitely do not learn to learn well during the education that is suited to the majority. Traditional learning methods are built upon precisely the weak points of the dyslexics, so failure is understandable. Methods building on strengths make learning easier and more efficient for dyslexics, too. Since the main information processing method of the dyslexics is global (simultaneous, visual), effective learning should be based on this. Pictures, figures, diagrams and other visual tools have to have a place in learning. The c-map (or concept map) is a visual representation that charts the material on one page. Knowledge relating to one topic can not only be listed as entries underneath each other in a linear manner, but also distributed in two dimensional space. Visual representation helps in remembering the material. In drawing the main branches, the important aspects of the topic get highlighted and the material will receive visual structure. Figure 3. The concept of the concept map SPIDER MAIN TOPICS CREATIVE THINKING C-MAP MIND MAP STUDY AID VISUAL

5 In drawing a mind map, a few rules are worth observing, since they contribute to the efficiency. The layout of the paper should be landscape, since this is the position that best fits our visual field. Big capital letters are used, because they are easier to remember and are stored in a pictorial way. A proper c-map starts with a central picture of the theme. From this, the lines of the main topics branch off, which can, in turn, be divided into subtopics. Write on the lines starting from the centre, because they make the picture ordered and easy to follow. The 45 rule: Do not write at a greater angle, since a text with an inclination of more than 45 does read well and hinders remembering the material. Colours help remembering and can highlight and emphasize. They also make figures more beautiful, pleasing to the eye and more agreeable to learn. Pictures and drawings carry a lot of information: one picture can be worth a hundred words. Less writing is needed and it is easier to remember. Signs and codes help orientation and can interpret information. Figure 4. A proper c-map PICS CAPITALS SYMBOLS C-MAP ON THE LINE EMPHASIS &,>,<, /, = COLOURS HIGHLIGHTING 45 o READABLE WORDS LANDSCAPE

6 In making the map, three important points should be taken into consideration. These are the most important helps in the dyslexic individual s learning: 1. Less is more. 2. Transparent structure. 3. Using the whole of the brain. 1. Less is more should be one of the most important concepts for dyslexics and people working with dyslexics to remember. It calls attention to patience. If we want to solve all the difficulties caused by dyslexia quickly, even the best methods will not produce results. If we want to make up for the deficits in one go using one of the good methods, we may cause even more problems. Major advances can be made by wisely amassing small achievements. It is better to learn less, but thoroughly, so that what has been learned will not get confused. C-maps are based on associative thinking. Related knowledge will be activated through the help of the keywords and the pictures. The less information there is on the figure, the more probable it is that one can remember it. This is how less will be more on a mind map. 2. Placed in a transparent structure, the details are incorporated into the whole. Clear rendering of thoughts is essential for dyslexics. Ignoring details will lead to vague concepts, which will become a hindrance for learning. The global thinking of dyslexics can be made effective by an adequate use of space. Void is part of space. In music, silence and pauses have just as much significance as notes. In the same way, emptiness has significance in space. Spatial positioning helps a lot in remembering the material. This is one of the reasons why separating the elements is important. 3. Using the whole brain, the picture and the text together form a whole. The two roads verbal and visual complement and support each other in the thinking process. They are related to the two hemispheres of the brain. Their joint use involves using the whole of the brain. Dyslexics usually manage pictures better, but speech is one of the bases of human thinking and has a definitive role in processing information that is carried by pictures. Exercise: Go back to the relevant section and draw a c-map of the topic: To teach dyslexics.

7 Figure 5. Some possible uses of the c-map C-maps are efficient tools for learning and thinking. Nowadays, it is mainly executives and organizing professionals who are taught their use. In everyday life, in learning and in work, c-maps can be used in several ways and fields. It is a perfect tool for organizing thoughts, gathering ideas and summarizing knowledge relating to given topics, as well. This method was not developed for dyslexics in particular, but it transpired that visual representation of thoughts is decidedly ideal for dyslexics, and, thus, of all the people, it helps them the most. C-maps are advantageous in other respects, too. Besides being holistic, it also gives an overview of the structure of the topic. It can, therefore, be used very well in a global thinking style. As a visual representation, it suits the dyslexics fine, as they think in pictures more easily. Less reading and writing is required using the c-map. As regarding selecting and remembering information, it is important that all knowledge is contained on one page. Figure 6. The advantages of c-maps for dyslexics

8 What cannot be written on one page, is not worth writing down. When a topic is more complex, then its parts should be represented on separate maps. Thereby, usable bits of whole will be remembered. Visualization, that is, drawing a given concept or piece of knowledge helps a lot in understanding and, consequently, in remembering. Everything can be drawn, since our imagination as the word itself indicates works with images. Our knowledge is in many respects produced by our imagination on the basis of pictures. Dyslexics are particularly efficient in this. Therefore, it is worth representing knowledge visually on paper as well, rather than merely in our heads and imagination. Figure 7. A possible picture of the concept of visualization CITY C-maps are really efficient when there are plenty of pictures in them. A drawing made of a concept or a given part of the material can play an important role in remembering. Exercise: Visualize - Draw dyslexia. One mode of multi-channel learning, which involves the use of more sensory modalities, is learning through pictures and making drawings. Another possibility is the more differentiated use of the auditory channel, that is, hearing. The material can be associated to various tunes. Poems can be memorized more easily when set to music. Understanding a concept can be facilitated not only by pictures, but by motions, as well. For dyslexics, trying out something in practice makes clarification of concepts possible. During activities, available data will become knowledge through touch and motions. For example, the often baffling difference between circular and rotational motions will be cleared at once and will be remembered forever, if one has a chance to try out what it is like revolving around one's own axis and circulating around another body, when the axis will be the axis of the other person's body.

9 Counting Many dyslexics have difficulties with counting, too. In everyday life, this leads to several obstacles, difficulties and failures. A few practical ideas, solutions can help. The most important point is to leave oneself enough time for counting tasks. Weakness in counting can be compensated for by visual representation. Any tool is better than getting lost in counting. One can count using: fingers the dial of an analogue watch a ruler or many other physical aids. The difficulty is often caused by the dyslexics' poor sense of details and relations. One cannot think with vague concepts. When dealing with mathematical expressions, concepts or performing operations, it is worth drawing it and translating the task into everyday language and real examples. For example: a fraction means that something is fractured, broken into pieces. The denominator at the bottom tells me how many pieces the object was broken into, and I can count up in the nominator the number of pieces I am going to take: 3/4 This means that I have broken something into four identical parts and taken three parts out of the four. Estimation and try out, the use of good sense and experience can protect one against greater mistakes. Link amounts to graphical, picturesque material. One can get a lot of experience during shopping, but it is more beneficial is one can link amounts and units to particular events and objects. For example: Buy 500 ml of vinegar. Try to remember how much it looks. You can probably remember a litre of milk. This can be a good base and a guideline. Technical approaches, like using a calculator will help even if one can use the above methods. Even using a calculator, one cannot avoid translating the task into everyday language and using common sense and estimation. However, you should remember that many of the maths difficulties of the dyslexic may be accounted for not in the maths itself, but in the reading the problem. Thus you cannot do the maths if you cannot conceptualise the task, and you cannot conceptualise the task if you cannot read the question.

10 Writing and spelling Most dyslexics have difficulties with writing. They write more slowly and with many errors. This makes learning and achieving efficiency more difficult. Poor writing leads to a decrease in standards and loss of information. If the dyslexic individual concentrates on the writing, the spelling and content will decrease as they cannot concentrate on all aspects at one. Conversely, if they concentrate on the spelling and content, the handwriting quality decreases. This is one reason why computers have been such a bonus for dyslexic individuals. Because of these difficulties with writing, dyslexics tend to write less and can thus express themselves less vividly and less accurately. They do not write down all they would like to. They use words and expressions that are shorter and easier to write. They often make choices unconsciously. This fall in standards does not only cause damage because the dyslexics are not able to show whole of their knowledge in writing, but also because regularly using more simple expressions, the richness and variegation of their vocabulary will not develop, or, what is more, will wear out. As a consequence, their thinking might approach or come down to the level of this crippled diction, and their real abilities are hidden from all. Beside skills development, the goal is a more efficient use of skills. Highquality writing is possible despite poorer writing and spelling. Here are some methods that help achieve better written performance. 1. Using a c-map a) Outline the topic on a c-map b) Write one or two keyword on every main branch. c) On each sub-branch, write one word connected to the relevant thoughts. An example: Thereby, thoughts will not be lost while agonizing over writing.

11 2. Protecting vocabulary 1. Write down the topic. 2. Write down everything you want to write about characters, buildings, vehicles, tools, animals, etc. 3. Find and write down attributes for each word. 4. Find and write down verbs connected to them. An example (which, again, can be represented on a c-map): Life on Mars Aliens green, slimy, friendly, pock-marked shuffle, wobble, blubber, wave Buildings shiny, wet, vaulted, cosy loom, be situated, lie hidden Vehicles caterpillar, air cushioned, metal, glowing, jet-propelled creak, fleet, boom, clatter, dash, advance Plants abundant, thorny, twisting spread, entangle Animals small, huge, spikey, slimy, horrible sneak, stalk, slip, canter etc. Your writing will thus remain vivid and colourful, because the diversity present in your imagination will be preserved. 3. Dictaphones and dictation If there is an opportunity, a Dictaphone (digital recorder) or tape can be used to store the ideas. The teacher may help students write down the text after dictating. That way it is not the writing but the content that will be evaluated. 4. Word processoring If hand writing is difficult, the best aid is the computer. Nowadays it is easy to carry a laptop and use it whenever the dyslexic student has to write an essay, take notes or write anything. Spelling It is worth always important to check the correct spelling of words. As far as possible, never write down a word incorrectly, because it will be harder later on to remember the correct form. Although in theory when using a word processor, the problem of spell checking is solved, in practice you still need to be reasonably close to have a chance of finding the right words in a list of alternatives. One way to overcome this is to use a look-up dictionary which also shows the meaning. This will give a greater chance that the right word is used.

12 It may also be useful to find rules and associations that help you eliminate your frequent mistakes. If you manage to learn the correct spelling of one member of a group, this might help you spell the other ones. Reading Dyslexia is the disorder of acquiring reading skills, but through appropriate education, it will not cause so many difficulties by adulthood. On the other hand, if dyslexics are not taught to read according to their own learning style and manner of information processing, then their adult life will be made harder by slow reading, many mistakes and problems with text comprehension. However, it is possible to find compensation strategies to help overcome reading difficulties. For example, less but more efficient reading will significantly decrease the disadvantage of dyslexics. Reading is an important part of human culture. Its goals can be diverse: acquiring information, understanding instructions, learning, entertainment or personal communication. It is not a subject that can be avoided. But carefully planned strategies, based on abilities and preferences, can maximise the learning and the enjoyment. Figure 8. The goals of reading Acquiring information Menu Timetable Signs Newspaper Understanding instructions Users' manual Recipe Exercises Messages Learning Textbook Notes Entertainment Magazines Poems Novels Short stories Personal communication Correspondence Reading does not solely consist of accurate word by word reading, as taught in school. The method of reading varies depending on the goal of reading. There are very few situations when the traditional way of reading the whole text thoroughly is needed. In everyday life, one usually only gathers

13 information, for which it suffices to find the relevant parts and analyse these more thoroughly. It is worth skimming through the text before reading, as thus one can get a general picture of the whole. Perhaps the only exception to this are literary works, in which case the author wants to guide the reader. There are at least three types of reading 1. Skimming reading getting a general picture of the material 2. Scanning reading looking for information 3. Word by word reading reading a text thoroughly 1. In the case of skimming reading it is worth concentrating mainly on visually prominent elements in the text. Figures, diagrams, pictures, subtitles, bold face texts and words can help. Based on these, one can form a general picture of the material. Thereby, one knows what the text is about without having read it. In the case of shorter texts without visually prominent elements, one has to rely solely on words. The goal of this kind of reading is finding the essence of texts and written material. If necessary, a frame can be created for the text, since one has an overview and the main points and parts of the text. This is the basis of creating a c-map, the most important part of learning. But remember that Woody Allen once said that he had mastered speed reading (a relative of skimming) and read Tolstoy s War and Peace. When asked what it was about, he replied "Russia". 2. Scanning reading involves looking for information necessary for a given goal. Not all words have to be read; the point is to find the elements that are relevant for the topic of the search. The eye scans the text, while the brain selects the relevant parts. Only words have to be read. If the brain finds a relevant element, it will highlight that particular part and process it more thoroughly. With the help of this kind of reading, necessary information can be found fast without having to struggle for a long and hard time with the huge amount of written text. 3. Word by word reading is the traditional way of reading through a text. In this case, reading proceeds linearly and information is put together gradually as details. This kind of reading requires the most concentration, an accurate handling of details and an efficient sequential thinking.

14 During traditional reading, one has to form whole pictures and ideas based on details and verbal material. Most of the difficulties with text comprehension stem from problems with this process. The uses of the different types of reading: 1. Skimming reading: Newspapers, throwaways such as advertising, letters. 2. Scanning reading: Menus, Internet sites, contents pages, looking for a movie, timetables. 3. Word by word reading: Instructions, magazines, novels, poems, important letters. In the case of text comprehension difficulties, all three types of reading is worth using. Comprehension is helped if a general picture is first formed using skimming reading. Thereby, one will have an idea of what the text is about. Next, the relevant information can be gathered using scanning reading. If necessary, one may proceed through the text word by word, but the text should be read in chunks already identified previously. Skimming and scanning reading helps processing written texts, as well as improving traditional reading skills. Regular reading, processing words and sentences will develop a routine in handling written texts. In addition, success with reading will decrease anxieties about written texts, which is responsible for most of the difficulties. Exercise: Read an article in a newspaper using skimming reading. Read only words. Ask someone to check whether you got the point right. Read old formal letters using the three types of reading. Studying Many people believe that studying means reading the material several times and trying to remember it. That is one way of learning, but this is the least efficient method of learning. As for dyslexics, this way is a non-starter. Learning is not about amassing factual knowledge, but building information into structure and forming knowledge. For the dyslexics, the most important part of learning is getting an overview of the material. Therefore, all learning should begin with summarising the material. It is much easier to make a picture from its parts when one knows what the picture is like than when one has to guess what it is like based on the small parts.

15 Figure 9. Parts and wholes Learing is a complex activity, during which one might not need to read the whole material at all. The task is processing and acquiring the material. To achieve this, appropriate circumstances are needed. Skimming through gathering the material. Skimming through it, the amount and complexity of the material can be estimated. Plans can be made based on this. Timing organizing time. Periods spent with learing can be planned, including breaks and monitoring progress. Arrangement developing the ideal circumstances. Both the environment and the method of learning should be adapted to one's individual learing style. Mobilization recalling knowledge relating to the material. It is worth asking questions and stirring up one's imagination about the material.

16 Figure 10. Phases of studying The implementation phase consists of processing and acquiring the material: Skimming through Timing Overview Frames PREPARATION STUDYING IMPLEMENTATION Arrangement Warming up Filling in Review Overview one can acquaint oneself with the material using skim reading. The task in this phase is to get an overview and see the main points. Frames can be identified based on diagrams, pictures, subtitles etc. chiefly visually prominent elements used in skimming reading. One can study with or without a c-map, but getting an overview and seeing the structure is essential. Frames selecting the main topics. The task is to identify and highlight the main points. These define the frames for the material. On the c-map, the goal is drawing the main branches. Filling in appropriate information can be gathered into the frames using scan reading. Knowledge relating to the keywords and mental pictures of the relevant concepts can be of help. On the c-map, sub-branches, drawings and other important information have to be represented. Trying out one has to check whether one managed to acquire the material. During the tryout, there is a chance of linking sounds and movements to the material. This is the time to check whether the appropriate keywords were selected and whether they recall the relevant parts of the material. If need be, the c-map can be modified or complemented, in order to provide most certain knowledge. Trying out also helps remembering. This structure of studying can be used in complex learning situations, such as studying for exams.

17 Exercise: Skim through the text below and recount what it is about. Read only the words. Collect some of them from here and there. Agate (Brasilia): The type of chalcedony most in demand for industrial working. One of its main characteristics is banded colouring. Different shades of red, brown, white, blue and grey stripes alternate with each other with sharp boundaries between them. It is easy to colour it or to enhance its colours artificially. Gelic layers colour more than crystalline ones, which emphasizes its striped appearance. Before painting it, the stone is carefully rubbed and polished on fast spinning discs. Jewellery and various other ornaments are made from them. Agates can be found in cavities of volcanic rocks. The cavities that are filled and can be loaf-, pear- or almond-shaped, their size varying from about the size of a pea to several metres across. Agate (achates) was named after the river Achates in Sicily, where the stone was first found amidst pebbles. The most famous specimen were found in Brasilia, but its places of occurence include India, North America and a few places Europe (e.g., Germany). Write five main topics on the main branches of the c-map. AGATE Fill in the frames with important details.

18 Studying for exams In adulthood, the most difficult form of studying is studying for exams. Dyslexics can only take exams successfully if they build on continuous, planned study, are able to manage time well, use appropriate learning methods, are able to organize and have an overview of the material, learn to ask for help. Studying for an exam unites activities that have to be used in all kinds of learning. Therefore, it is vital for dyslexics to master this form of learning thoroughly. If they are able to study for exams, then any other type of learning is also feasible. Studying is intellectual work, but its tool is the body. Therefore, during studying, especially continuous studying, it is essential for the body to be in a state appropriate for learning, as well. Teachers should encourage students to make physical activites during the exam periods. The studying can be more effective with appropeate movements, positions suited to the given learning phase: Refreshing oneself, warming up for learning, perhaps even after breaks. What helps: stretching, crossing movements, bowing one's head Concentration in the active work phase. What helps: balancing exercises, even movements (e.g., walking) Relaxation at the end of phases during deepening one's knowledge. What helps: straining and relaxing the muscles, laying back, lying down The most difficult part of learning is organzation. Learning itself, if carried out using the appropriate learing methods, causes no problems. The usual problem is that there is not enough time. Good planning and time management can help. Dyslexics have to be thought to organize their time. Preparation is more thorough studying for exams. The three parts of studying are: 1. Planning 2. Management 3. Studying A detailed guide to learn for exams can give a good instruction to the study time management.

19 A guide for students studying for exams PLANNING 1. Collect all the materials you have for the subject. You need all your notes, handouts and necessary books. The way to a dead end: Unfinished, lost or unreadable notes, missing handouts and books. Solution: double-check the material before you start studying. q Arrange them systematically. q You will see if anything is missing. q Borrow them, make a photocopy. 2. Plan your study You need a year planner and your diary and the collected material. The way to a dead end: Spending too much time on planning, and not starting to act. Solution: be effective. Arrange and put down the dates of the exams. You will thus see in the year planner how many days you have for a given subject. If it is possible, deal with only one subject at the same time. Plan your work backwards from the day of the exam in your diary. Plan study days, but keep a free day after exams if it is possible. 3. Plan your days You need a timetable and your diary. The way to a dead end: planning too much for a day will lead to leaving studying for the next days. Solution: a good routine: 90 minutes work session in the morning, 90 minutes work session in the afternoon, breaks about every 30 minutes, work session in the evening for testing the daily material.

20 4. Decide what is important You need enough paper and pencils to make sketches MANAGAMENT The way to a dead end: Spending too much time with the first part or with interesting details Solution: browse and be holistic. Set up the frame. Find the main topics. Find the most important details of each part of the frame. 5. Feel well You need all your notes, books and a bowl of vegetables or fruits and something to drink. The way to a dead end: Forcing the study, then losing days doing other activities as reinforcement. Solution: breaks and bribery: LESS IS MORE Be realistic, don t try too much: Place yourself in a comfortable position. Always keep breaks after you have finished a part of the work. Set up goals like: I will finish three subtopics before the break. Bribe like: when I have finished the chapter, I will go for a walk with the dog. 6. If you are stuck You need patience The way to a dead end: Giving up, panicking and thinking you are stupid. Solution: seek help. v Get a friend to explain. v Make a concept map, a picture or a diagram of the difficult part. v If the topic is too overwhelming make small chunks of it.

21 7. Keep being active You need colours, sounds and movements. STUDYING The way to a dead end: Reading several times and memorizing the material. Solution: use your senses look, listen, feel. Convert long notes into shorter ones. Use colours to structure the material. Make coloured pictures, diagrams, cartoons, concept maps, mind maps. Listen to instrumental music, make a song or a movement from the materials. Make records of quotations, answers, etc. and listen. Talk to yourself, sing and dance the material you have learnt. 8. Monitor your progress The way to a dead end: Revising what you know very well and skipping unclear parts. Solution: talk aloud as if you were on the exam. Ø Test yourself regularly. Ø Answer questions. Ø Draw diagrams. Ø Solve tasks, exercises. Ø Tick off topics from the list when you have revised. Ø Reward yourself with some recreational activities. 9. Revision You need all the concept maps, flow charts and sketches you have made. The way to a dead end: Confusing facts, dates and other details, feeling you know nothing Solution: keep clear concept maps and other visual notes on the wall. q Make it possible for yourself to see visual aids any time. q Repeat quotations while you are making physical exercises.

22 Case study A young dyslexic lady visited the out-patients' department, her problem being that she cannot read, but would like to acquire a degree in higher education. Although she is able to read written texts more or less fluently, she does not understand what she has read. In school, she used to learn everything by heart without understanding what she has learned. That way, she even managed to obtain a school leaving exam. She enrolled in a university, but she soon found out that it is impossible to learn using her old method, when she had to read several books. The solution seemed impossible, but the lady had help. Her husband was willing to read the books and prepare notes of a few pages length. The dyslexic lady could handle these notes more easily, but it remained a problem that she could not understand the sentences. As a first step, she learned skimming and scanning reading. She was surprised that she understood half a page of text, even though she only read words and inferred the content. Her husband checked it, and it turned out that she always grasped the essence well. Then she learned to learn using a c-map. She made a figure of every part of the material, using many pictures and signs. She took the exams using these. She passed all the exams with average results, except for one subject, where the exam consisted of multiple-choice questions. Unfortunately, multiple-choice questions are the death of dyslexics, since they are unable to interpret either the questions or the answers.

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