SEFEC. With Open Coast Defence of Steel and Concrete built Barrier towards Total Energy Transition 2050 by Combining Water-, Wind- and Sun-Power

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1 1. Description Multifunctional Flood Barrier SEFEC With Open Coast Defence of Steel and Concrete built Barrier towards Total Energy Transition 2050 by Combining Water-, Wind- and Sun-Power Description SEFEC / Version 01 January 2009 R.J. Santema Pagina 1

2 Multifunctional Flood Barrier along Belgium and Dutch Coast North Sea coast 1. Preface Present situation of generating in West European countries is that in short term major part of the power supply are continued to be generated by fossil fuel consuming power plants. Not contributing at all and even worsening the CO2 reduction we all together have agreed for in international agreements. As alternatives for above mentioned are considered nuclear power plants, waste burning power plants and bio mass gas power plants. West European countries getting more and more dependent from countries having huge stocks of mentioned natural sources. There are some low scale movements in directions of sustainable generation. Main problem with the windmill parks offshore and onshore and solar panel parks is that generated has to be stored and power supply of for example generated by an offshore windmills can not guarantee a continuous distribution and because of fluctuations can not be connected to central power distribution networks. With combined use of sustainable types like tidal, hydro, Blue, wind- and solar, the particular non regular advantages of each particular way of each type can be strengthened and disadvantages can be reduced. Parallel to our general problem we are facing in Holland the higher risk of flooding because of sea level rise due to global warming, climate changes with wet and dry periods because of global warming and reduction of economical grow because of giant traffic problems. Other countries like France facing huge problems because of their nuclear power plant park is getting older, maintenance works were shifted forward in time and the risk of nuclear contamination grows every day. In this document there is a proposal to catch all the problems mentioned above by applying in steps at different locations along West European North Sea coast, Irish Sea coast and French and English Channel coast a Multifunctional Flood Barrier to be located in coastal waters between 10 and 30 kilometers out of coastal lines. Applying the combinations of sustainable in coastal areas worldwide the big threats for mankind of existing fossil fuel consuming power plants, which are too less or even not reducing at all global warming, can be reduced in big steps. At the moment there are different small test projects with sustainable going on at the Dutch Afsluitdijk in the Northern part of Holland. These test projects should be combined as pre-stage for proposed Multifunctional Flood Barrier and together with the knowledge and skills of the Dutch Deltawerken in Southern part of Holland, will guarantee that application of Multifunctional Flood Barrier will be an answer on giant problems we are facing worldwide because of climate change. As always with these kinds of things a rough plan has to be laid on the table and than hopefully the high necessary work out is started up. Highly necessary because the giant problems we are facing need to be tackled as soon as possible, otherwise it will be too late! 2. General Most far point of triangles is at about 30 kilometers distance from coastal line. Triangles to be built out of pre-fabricated concrete caissons with dimensions of approx. 250 x 60 x 50 meters (Length x Width x Height). In general each caisson built up in 4 layers each consisting of: 1) Down layer: fresh water tanks and multi stage water turbines in tubes 2) Second layer: natural gas line-, fresh water lines-, data cable lines- and power distribution cables trays. 3) Third layer: two sea water inlet gate ways with integrated low speed water turbines, desalination plants, pumps, heat pumps, Blue Energy equipment or tubes for railway for freight/containers and passengers 4) Top (outside) layer: for seawater resistant solar panels, concrete windmill foundation, windmill and a railway for maintenance purposes. Pagina 2

3 The triangles in my proposal to be located between the following places: A. De Panne Zeebrugge, B. + C. Zeebrugge Westkapelle (Walcheren), D. Westkapelle - Nieuw Haamstede (Schouwen Duiveland), E. Nieuw Haamstede Southern point of 2 nd -Maasvlakte. F. Hoek van Holland Scheveningen, G. Scheveningen IJmuiden, H. IJmuiden Bergen aan Zee, I. Bergen aan Zee Callantsoog Pagina 3

4 Railway/highway dike situated about 10 to 15 kilometers from coastal line. Between the dike and coastal line seawater present environmental conditions. Dikes J., K., L., M., N., O., P., and Q. will be of an open type like the Oosterschelde dam also so called Maesland keringen (movable Barriers) will be part of the dikes. The so called closing slides high enough to allow all weather coastal and inland navigation along the entire coastal line from De Panne to Den Helder. Between 8 and 10 kilometers a protected seaway for coastal and inland navigation along coastal line is independent from coastal weather conditions. Both coastal and inland navigation and railway (similar to Eurotunnel railway) will give relief to inland railroad and highway network in Belgium and Holland. At R., S., T. there will be bridges (tunnels can be an option). At U. there will be a tunnel. At V. designed an offshore airport with freight terminal. At W. and X. designed a big freight and container transfer terminal. As an indication: difference in sea level height with intervals of 6 hours on 4 th of April 2007 with 1-4 bft wind force from North-East: - Oostende Zeebrugge, 4,5 meters - Westkapelle (Walcheren) Nieuw Haamstede, 3,5 meters - Zandvoort IJmuiden, 2 meters - Callantsoog Den Helder, 2,5 meters 3. General description of components 3.1 Coastal Line Dunes and Dikes Existing coastal line will stay as it is. Because the Railway and fresh water storage dike is situated at 10 to 15 kilometers distance at sea, this Barrier hardly can be seen from coastal line. Particular details: Where are necessary landing points and land inward connections for railway and high-way these have to be connected to existing networks. At landing points fresh water storages and pump stations have to be located. Most of the storages will be used to store freshwater pumped from Lake IJsselmeer and upstream areas from rivers like Rhine and Maas covering giant consumption of Blue Energy power units located inside the dikes of the Multifunctional Flood Barrier triangles. Through the landing points the general big power distribution cables will be installed. These will be so called plug-in points to distribute sustainable supply generated by Multifunctional Flood Barrier sources. Through dike Q. (landing at Den Helder) railway connection will go through towards the Afsluitdijk. This railway goes through to Harlingen in Province of Friesland and connect to existing railway to Leeuwarden, Groningen to the port of Eemhaven nearby Delfzijl. The general power distribution cables can follow the same path. 3.2 Multifunctional Open Flood Barrier 3.2.A Dikes J. through Q. Each segment of dikes J. through Q. with a slide to be closed at extreme flooding circumstances. Under normal circumstances the slides are opened so water streams along the coastal area because of 6-hour differences between high- and low tide. Components to be applied per segment dikes J through Q.: Slides, seawater resistant solar panels, tubes for Eurotunnel railway, fresh water-, natural gas pipe lines-, data cable lines- and power distribution cables trays. Particular details: Energy generated by solar panels partly will contribute to general distribution net and partly can be transformed to heat up fresh water in steps and stored in huge onshore storage reservoirs. This warm water can be used to heat up buildings and/or glass houses and can be used as feed water for existing gas- and coal fired plants located in North Sea coastal areas to give a boost to their efficiency. Pagina 4

5 3.2.B Dikes A.1 through I.1 Each segment of dikes A.1 through I.1 built up with 4 layers consisting of: In general each caisson built up in 4 layers each consisting of: 1) Down layer: fresh water tanks, multi stage water turbines in tubes and Blue-Energy power generation units and heat pumps 2) Second layer: natural gas line-, fresh water lines-, data cable lines- and power distribution cables trays. 3) Tubes for railway for freight/containers and passengers 4) Top (outside) layer: for seawater resistant solar panels, concrete windmill foundation, windmill and a railway for maintenance purposes. Components to be applied per segment dikes A.1 through I.1: Seawater resistant solar panels and windmills on top and inside: Eurotunnel railway tubes, freshwater storage tanks, Blue- power generation units and heat-pumps to heat up fresh water. Particular details: Energy generated by solar panels and windmills can be used to pump up the inside triangle sea level. Fresh water to be stored in tanks or pumped ashore. 3.2.C Dikes A.2, 3 through I.2, 3 Each segment of dikes A.2, 3 through I.2, 3 built up with 4 layers consisting of: In general each caisson built up in 4 layers each consisting of: 1) Down layer: fresh water tanks and multi stage water turbines in tubes 2) Second layer: natural gas line-, fresh water lines-, data cable lines- and power distribution cables trays. 3) Third layer: two sea water inlet gate ways with integrated low speed water turbines, desalination plants, pumps, heat pumps, Blue Energy equipment 4) Top (outside) layer: for seawater resistant solar panels, concrete windmill foundation, windmill and a railway for maintenance purposes. Components to be applied per segment dikes A.2, 3 through I.2, 3: Seawater resistant solar panels and windmills on top and inside: freshwater storage tanks for heating or cooling rejection, desalination units, Blue- power generation units and heat-pumps to heat up fresh water and multi stage water turbines in tubes. Particular details: At low tide situation the slides of two sea water inlet gate ways of each segment in dikes A 2, 3 through I.2, 3 will be opened. Seawater will flow inside diked in area A through I. Streaming seawater will generate power by Blue and Tidal. At maximum high tide level each gate way entrance will be closed. After seawater level outside diked in areas will be low enough, the tubes of multi stage water turbines will be opened again and power will be generated by out streaming seawater. Also Blue will contribute continuously to generate power. During this process huge seawater pumps will pump seawater inside the diked in area to extend the process of power generation by multi stage water turbines. When level of seawater will be the same inside and outside 'diked in' area s the multi stage water turbines tubes will be closed. In the process from low tide to high tide (6 hours) the cycle starts all over. There also can be chosen for a 12 or 18 hour cycle. During this time the diked-in area water level can rise more by pumping sea water inside. 4. Triangle Heads A. through I. Most far point of triangles about 30 kilometers at Sea. At this component of concrete some huge windmills can be projected, generated can be contributed to above described functionalities. Triangle shapes are chosen in that way that influence on present Dutch and Belgium North Sea coastal water ways will be as less as possible. 5. Triangle connections With this dike and triangle connecting bridges and/or tunnels for example at entrance of Zeebrugge, Vlissingen and Antwerpen harbor, Rotterdam and Scheveningen harbor, Amsterdam harbor and Den Pagina 5

6 Helder harbor a railway and high way connection will be created from Oostende in Belgium to Den Helder in Holland and Hamburg in Germany when Multifunctional Flood Barrier is extended towards Germany North Sea coastal waters. Also along Danish North Sea coastal area this model of Multifunctional Flood Barrier can be applied in waters up to approx 30 meters depth. Near Rotterdam harbour at W. and Zeebrugge harbour at X. freight and container transfer terminals are projected. Goods/containers can be shipped/transferred by railway, coastal or inland navigation. Near IJmuiden at V. an airport is located to ship/transfer goods and passengers by air. Light rail connections between offshore airport and ashore connections. 6. Harbour or river mouth or railway or highway landing places Dependent on which location involved and what functionalities are chosen Maesland keringen will be chosen similar to the one constructed in the Nieuwe Waterweg channel between Rotterdam harbour and Hoek van Holland. 7. Beach and near coastal area of about at 10 to 15 kilometers distance Because of application of Oosterschelde type open flood barriers the present environmental friendly situation of high and low tide, and seawater streaming along the coastal areas will be maintained. 8. Existing offshore windmill parks These can be integrated easily in this plan. Reducing numerous disadvantages. 9. Overview of installed power each triangle A. - I. 9.1 Triangle A Length of Dike A.1 = 100 mm = 47,6 km (scale 1 : ) Number of windmills to be installed: : 200 = 238 Pagina 6

7 Installed power windmills 238 x 5 MW = MW Solar generation: 50 MW (estimation). Blue Energy: pilot plant Afsluitdijk : 200 MW = 1 kilometer length and 10 meters wide = with 5W/m2 = 40 million m2 membrane surface. Blue Energy Dike A.1 = 47,6 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike A.2 = 74 mm = 35,3 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 176 Installed power windmills 176 x 5 MW = 880 MW Solar generation: 37 MW (estimation) Dike A.2: 176 tubes = installed power = 414 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike A.2 = 35,3 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike A.3 = 44 mm = 20,9 km. Installed power windmills 104 x 5MW = 520 MW, Solar generation: 20 MW. Dike A.3: 104 tubes = installed power = 245 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike A.3 = 20,9 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). 9.2 Triangle B Length of Dike B.1 = 60 mm = 28,6 km. Number of windmills to be installed: : 200 = 143 Installed power windmills 143 x 5 MW = 715 MW, Solar generation: 30 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike B.1 = 28,6 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike B.2 = 55 mm = 26,2 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 131 Installed power windmills 131 x 5MW = 655 MW, Solar generation: 27,5 MW (estimation) Dike B.2: 131 tubes = installed power = 308 MW (estimation) Blue Energy Dike B.2 = 26,2 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike B.3 = 50 mm = 23,8 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 119 Installed power windmills 119 x 5MW = 595 MW, Solar generation: 25 MW (estimation) Dike B.3: 119 tubes = installed power = 280 MW (estimation) Blue Energy Dike B.3 = 23,8 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). 9.3 Triangle C Length of Dike C.2 = 74 mm = 35,3 km. Length of Dike C.3 = 24 mm = 11,4 km. Main purpose of this open type bridges are railway and highway functions. Inside triangle goods and container transfer station X. is located. 9.4 Triangle D Length of Dike D.1 = 55 mm = 26,2 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 131 Installed power windmills 131 x 5MW = 655 MW, Solar generation: 27,5 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike D.1 = 26,2 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike D.2 = 50 mm = 23,8 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 119 Installed power windmills 119 x 5MW = 595 MW, Solar generation: 25 MW (estimation) Pagina 7

8 Dike D.2: 119 tubes = installed power = 280 MW (estimation) Blue Energy Dike D.2 = 23,8 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike D.3 = 50 mm = 23,8 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 119 Installed power windmills 119 x 5MW = 595 MW, Solar generation: 25 MW Dike D.3: 119 tubes = installed power = 280 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike D.3 = 23,8 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). 9.5 Triangle E Length of Dike E.1 = 60 mm = 28,6 km. Number of windmills to be installed: : 200 = 143 Installed power windmills 143 x 5 MW = 715 MW, Solar generation: 30 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike E.1 = 28,6 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike E.2 = 32 mm = 15,2 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 76 Installed power windmills 76 x 5MW = 380 MW, Solar generation: 16 MW (estimation) Tidal : Afsluitdijk 17 locks installed power Torcado water turbines = 40MW Dike E.2: 76 tubes = installed power = 179 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike E.2 = 15,2 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike E.3 = 50 mm = 23,8 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 119 Installed power windmills 119 x 5MW = 595 MW, Solar generation: 25 MW (estimation) Tidal : Afsluitdijk 17 locks installed power Torcado water turbines = 40MW Dike E.3: 119 tubes = installed power = 280 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike E.3 = 23,8 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Overview installed power Triangles A. E. Triangle Dike Wind Solar Blue Tidal Total Simultaneous factor x 0,5 Overall factor x 0,8 MW MW MW MW MW MW MW A A A Total B B , B Total , D , D D , E E E Total Total Total Pagina 8

9 9.6 Triangle F Length of Dike F.1 = 35 mm = 16,7 km. Number of windmills to be installed: : 200 = 84 Installed power windmills 84 x 5 MW = 420 MW, Solar generation: 17,5 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike F.1 = 16,7 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Pagina 9

10 Length of Dike F.2 = 35 mm = 16,7 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 84 Installed power windmills 84 x 5 MW = 420 MW, Solar generation: 17,5 MW (estimation) Dike F.2: 84 tubes = installed power = 198 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike F.2 = 16,7 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike F.3 = 17 mm = 8,1 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 40 Installed power windmills 40 x 5MW = 200 MW, Solar generation: 8,5 MW (estimation). Dike F.3: 40 tubes = installed power = 94 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike F.3 = 8,1 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). 9.7 Triangle G Length of Dike G.1 = 85 mm = 40,5 km. Number of windmills to be installed: : 200 = 203 Installed power windmills 203 x 5 MW = MW, Solar generation: 42,5 MW (estimation). Blue Energy G.1 = 40,5 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike G.2 = 65 mm = 31 km. Number of windmills : 200 = 155 Installed power windmills 155 x 5MW = 775 MW, Solar generation: 32,5 MW (estimation) Dike G.2: 131 tubes = installed power = 365 MW (estimation) Blue Energy G.2 = 31 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike G.3 = 44 mm = 20,9 km. Installed power windmills 104 x 5MW = 520 MW, Solar generation: 20 MW (estimation). Dike G.3: 104 tubes = installed power = 245 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike G.3 = 20,9 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). 9.8 Triangle H Length of Dike H.1 = 44 mm = 20,9 km. Installed power windmills 104 x 5MW = 520 MW, Solar generation: 20 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike H.1 = 20,9 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike H.2 = 44 mm = 20,9 km. Installed power windmills 104 x 5MW = 520 MW, Solar generation: 20 MW (estimation). Dike H.2: 104 tubes = installed power = 245 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike H.2 = 20,9 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike H.3 = 44 mm = 20,9 km. Installed power windmills 104 x 5MW = 520 MW, Solar generation: 20 MW (estimation). Dike H.3: 104 tubes = installed power = 245 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike H.3 = 20,9 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Pagina 10

11 9.9 Triangle I Length of Dike I.1 = 44 mm = 20,9 km. Installed power windmills 104 x 5MW = 520 MW, Solar generation: 20 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike I.1 = 20,9 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike I.2 = 44 mm = 20,9 km. Installed power windmills 104 x 5MW = 520 MW, Solar generation: 20 MW (estimation) Dike I.2: 104 tubes = installed power = 245 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike I.2 = 20,9 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). Length of Dike I.3 = 44 mm = 20,9 km. Installed power windmills 104 x 5MW = 520 MW, Solar generation: 20 MW (estimation) Dike I.3: 104 tubes = installed power = 245 MW (estimation). Blue Energy Dike I.3 = 20,9 km x 200 MW = MW (estimation). 10. Sequence Dependend of onshore demand there will be a sequence of triangles in service and triangles not in service. While not in service the level inside these triangles can be pumped up with sea water pumps and that will be for the benefit of efficiency of power generation by multi stage water turbines in tubes. Overview installed power Triangles F. I. Triangle Dike Wind Solar Blue Tidal Total Simultaneous factor x 0,5 Overall factor x 0,8 MW MW MW MW MW MW MW F F F Total G G G Total H H H I I I Total Total Total Overview total installed power Triangles A. I. Triangle Wind Solar Blue Tidal Total Simultaneous factor x 0,5 Overall factor x 0,8 MW MW MW MW MW MW MW A E F - I Total Pagina 11

12 Summary Again I want to emphasize that it is very important to start with installation of test facilities at Dutch Afsluitdijk locations. To boost these tests in time as soon as possible project groups have to be created and EC and World Bank funds reserved. With test results from practice detail engineering can start. Meantime all over the world there can be an investigation for suitable locations in coastal areas. Whether there are tidal circumstances or not. When no tidal circumstances, than the diked in triangles can be filled with huge seawater pumps creating outward streaming water necessary for Blue and Hydro Energy generated by the water turbines. Conclusion Summary of advantages of proposed combined use of sustainable solutions: 1. Combined application of sustainable which pays back most of the investment costs through delivery of electrical power, fresh water, charging toll costs for Eurotunnel railway purpose, delivery of fresh water for inland use. 2. Less focus on costly maintaining keep on height of coastal dunes and dikes 3. The more seawater level will rise in future, the more efficient will be the tidal electrical power and Blue Energy generation (seawater stowing effect) 4. Triangles components can be pre-assembled and built in steps. Like pre-assembling components at the artificial diked in area Neeltje Jans for previous Deltawerken project. 5. Fulfillment of request from European Commission to Europe to take it s leading role in a new industrial revolution and reducing CO2 emissions 6. Less dependent of (foreign) fossil fuels and natural gas 7. Huge reduction of CO2 emissions 8. Huge boost for European national and international industries 9. Present coastal windmill parks easy can be integrated in this project 10. Using of proofed techniques in both mechanical and civil water structures 11. Reduction of disadvantages applying single sustainable applications 12. Much more efficient use of existing and new to build fossil fuel power plants 13. No more application of nuclear power plants and dismantling existing ones 14. Strong reduction of shut down chances general electricity distribution network 15. Sustainable environmental friendly flooding protection along the entire coast of Belgium and Holland 16. Solutions for traffic jams in Western and central Parts of Holland and Belgium 17. More efficient traffic regulation between big cities of Rotterdam and Antwerp. 18. More efficient transport connections Northern- and other parts of Holland 19. Economical use on large scale of Memstill- technology (fresh water units) 20. Economical use on large scale of Blue Energy- technology 21. Economical use on large scale of high and low speed type water turbines 22. Economical use on large scale of seawater resistant solar panels 23. Huge relief of fresh water shortages elsewhere in dry parts of Europe 24. More efficient use of European Eurotunnel railway network 29/01/2009 The author followed an education at Amsterdam Higher Nautical School for ship s engineers, sailed for 12 years as ship s engineer and after that worked as an expert designing technical installations and now works as technical consultant specialized to link combinations of sustainable applications. Pagina 12

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