CO-MANAGEMENT OF MARINE BENTHIC ARTISAN RESOURCES IN CHILE: COUPLING OR DECOUPLING SUSTAINABILITY? Juan Carlos Castilla D.Sc.

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1 CO-MNGEMENT OF MRINE BENTHIC RTISN RESOURCES IN CHILE: COUPLING OR DECOUPLING SUSTINBILITY? Juan Carlos Castilla D.Sc. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas P. Universidad Católica de Chile International Resource Panel- PNUM Santiago, May 2014

2 Chilean fisheries coupling and decoupling : artesan sector Phase 0.0 Phase 1.0 Phase 2.0 Before 1991 Open access regimes: uncontrolled increased of landings Fishery Law (N ) 2013 Fishery Law (N ) iming for further DECOUPLING COUPLING of economic growth and intensive use of resources Non-sustainable Some DECOUPLING External market forces

3 I N D U S T R I L & R T I S N miles 5 miles 18º S 41º S Chile Fisheries: Phase 0.0 Before 1991: Open ccess.. incentives for Coupling! Chile Fisheries: Phase Incentives for Decoupling : Sea -zoning of the Ocean Regulation for spatial access Teritorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs).. Macro and Micro TURFs! Co-Management for coastal benthic species. Dived ones in artisan fisheries ll fisheries under space access or quota control Management regulatory schemes for speciesdeclared in full exploitation (13),mostly small pelagics (anchovy, sardine, jack mackrel)

4 195 miles 5 miles 18º S 1991 CHILEN FISHERY LEGISLTION 5 KEY GOVERNNCE ND MNGEMENT RULES I N D U S T R I L & Industrial C H I L E 1. Definition of 2 fleet units and Official Registers: (a) rtisanfleet (small and mid-scale) < 18 m (b) IndustrialFleet (large),vessels > 18 m length and/or 50 gross tons 2. First 5 miles (between 18ºS to 41ºS and around oceanic islands: ca km 2 for the EXCLUSIVE USE of the artisan fishery fleet unit ( MCRO-TURF for all fisheries) R T i S N 41º S 3.Territorial User Rights for Fisheries of Benthic Resources (Benthic-TURFs; 1110 km 2 ) resources allocated exclusively to local organized communities as Management and Exploitation reas for Benthic Resources (MEBRs or MICRO- TURFs for benthic species) 4. For 13 Fully Exploited species (sardine, anchovy, jack mackerel, shrimps) management was based on the allocation of QUOTS. There exist no quota transferibility inside the artisan fleet and very reduced transferiblity inside the industrial fleet. Historical rights. No auction policy! legislation will be Revisited. DPTIVE

5 rtisan Fleet: < 18 m length ; < 50 gross tons < 12 meters Mostly diving and inner-inshore fisheries, for local consumption and also export meters Coastal fisheries: mostly small pelagic: anchovy, sardine, jack mackerel Industrial Fleet: > 18 m length or 50 gross tons Mid-water trawling (bottom trawling is very reduced) Purse-seine (small pelagic)

6 MICRO TURFs: Key fishery artesan management tool 1981 No-Take rea ECIM 5 hect Quintay Cove 52 hect TURF m 50 m Development of the model Cove: 110 fishers Quisco Cove 57 hect TURF Las Cruces Cove 84 hecs Cove: 40 fishers Cove: 80 fishers TURF 200 m 200 m co-mangement scheme

7 CHILE Small-scale fishery community TURFs: Management and Exploitation reas for Benthic Resources (MEBRs) TURFs ( ): Number decreed in the country: 707 (in full operation 500) TURFs: Total surface in the country: 1100 km 2 Micro TURFs: Territorial User Rights for Fishery TURFs: Number of small-scale fishers & divers engaged: aprox

8 SPECIES UNDER CO-MNGEMENT IN TURFs IN CHILE LOCO: Concholepas concholepas Key-hole limpets: Fissurella costata; F. picta; F. maxima; F. latimarginata; F. cumingi; F.nigra; F. pulchra Octopus: Octopus mimus Sea squirt: Pyura chilensis; P. praeputialis Bivalves: Mesodesma donacium, Choromytilus chorus, ulacomya ater LOCO Sea urchin: Loxechinus albus lgae: Durvillea antarctica, Gracilaria spp. Crabs: Homalaspis plana; Cancer setosus

9 rtisan s Fleet Landing: Landing (tons x 1000) Total artisan landing Finfish Shellfish (without squid) Macroalgae Squid Law

10 Small- scale artisan s fleet landing: Landing (tons x 1000) Shellfish Mollusc Other species Crustacean Landing (tons x 1000) Gastropod Loco (snail) Locate (snail) Key-hole limpets Other snail Trumulco (snail)

11 New tools and challengers in the 2013 fishing law

12 195 miles 5 miles Chile: Pesquero 2.0 I N D U S T R I L & R T i S N Industrial C H I L E 2013: NEW FISHING LW (Some of major additions) (a) Extension of 5 coastal miles (b) First 5 miles are divided into: (i) 1 mile for the exclusive use of the small-scale fleet (boats less than de 12 m), and exclusive access to all resources there. (ii) 4 miles for the exclusive access of artesanal fleet boats up to 18 m, and exclusive access to all resources there. (c) To design new plans for artisan fishery management, including open and micro TURFs areas! (d) Designation of Expert Groups per species or species group (benthic) and new formula for quota decision and allocations

13 Chile: Pesquero 2.0 Ley No (2013): rtículo 9, Política de Planes de Manejo rtesanal en Chile, que tienen relación con Macroalgas - Permiten el manejo de una especie (o grupo) dentro de una región administrativa o parte de una región (ej, Bahía)..Ejemplo: Chascón, Cochayuyo - Operan en áreas abiertas a la pesca (áreas de acceso libre).. - Establecen la formación de Comites de Manejo, que incluyen a los pescadores, gobierno y privados. Incentivan la transparencia - Desarrollan e implementan Planes de Monitoreo/ Seguimientos y de Planes de Manejo. - ctualmente, hay 15 planes en desarrollo (en diferentes estados de avance) Decentralized management plans with participation of users and government.

14 n example: the mollusc Loco : Concholepas concholepas

15 PNS 2010 Historical landing of locos in Chile Governance transformation Landing (tons) Incremental extraction and opennig of international markets COUPLING? Internal consumption Colapse phase Ventana de oportunidades Transitional phase Building the Resilience phase DECOUPLING? Price per ton (US$ ) 0 B C D

16 BUT Coupling / decoupling (sustanaibility) of nat. resources is more complex!! 80 quacultured balone landing Wild balone landing BLONE LOCO (Chile) Landing (MT) Loco, Chile & Peru landing Price MT exported (Thousand $US/ MT) LOCO (Peru) (paper in progress, Castilla et al)

17 MIN CONCLUSIONS It provides hope that in Chile seazoning, TURFs and co-management appear to be fundamental building blocks for the construction of spatial coastal networks for resource sustainability and decoupling (and biodiversity conservation). This makes TURFs a win-win alternative to scale-up sustainability (and conservation).but markets and aquaculture may play a role in coupling, decoupling and sustainability! For the connection between co-management and biodiversity conservation see: Gelcich et al., 2012 (Biological Conservation)

18 GRCIS POR L INVITCION ECIM- Las Cruces, Chile

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