Stoichiometry Homework Packet

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1 Name: Period: Stoichiometry Homework Packet Chapter 16: 16.1 and 16.2 Chapter 11: 11.1 and 11.2 Chapter 12: All sections Upon completion of the Stoichiometry Unit, you should be able to: Explain how a solution in terms of a solute and solvent. Use a solubility chart. Classify a solution as unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated. Calculate molarity and use it as a converting factor for solutions. Write a chemical equation given words describing the reaction Use coefficients to balance a chemical reaction Identify the five general types of chemical reactions combination, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement and combustion Predict the products given the reactants Use a solubility chart to predict the formation of a precipitate Write net ionic equations Use stoichiometry to analyze a chemical reaction. Calculate the percent yield. Determine the amount of product produced, the limiting, the excess reactant within a chemical reaction when two reactants are given.

2 Solubility Curve Worksheet You'll notice that for most substances, solubility increases as temperature increases. As discussed earlier in solutions involving liquids and solids typically more solute can be dissolved at higher temperatures. Can you find any exceptions on the graph? Here's an example of how to read the graph. Find the curve for KClO 3. At 30 C approximately 10g of KClO 3 will dissolve in 100g of water. If the temperature is increased to 80 C, approximately of the substance will dissolve in 100g (or 100mL) of water. Directions: Use the graph to answer the following questions. REMEMBER UNITS! 1) What mass of solute will dissolve in 100mL of water at the following temperatures? a. KNO 3 at 70 C = b. NaCl at 100 C= c. NH 4 Cl at 90 C= d. Which of the above three substances is most soluble in water at 15 C. =

3 2) Types of Solutions On a solubility curve, the lines indicate the concentration of a solution - the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve at that specific temperature. Values on the graph a curve represent unsaturated solutions - more solute could be dissolved at that temperature. Label the following solutions as saturated or unsaturated. If unsaturated, write how much more solute can be dissolved in the solution. Solution Saturated or Unsaturated? If unsaturated: How much more solute can dissolve in the solution? a solution that contains 70g of NaNO 3 at 30 C (in 100 ml H 2 O) a solution that contains 50g of NH 4 Cl at 50 C (in 100 ml H 2 O) a solution that contains 20g of KClO 3 at 50 C (in 100 ml H 2 O) a solution that contains 70g of KI at 0 C (in 100 ml H 2 O) 1. a. At 90 C, you dissolved 10 g of KCl in 100. g of water. Is this solution saturated or unsaturated? b. How do you know? 2. A mass of 100 g of NaNO 3 is dissolved in 100 g of water at 80ºC. a) Is the solution saturated or unsaturated? b) As the solution is cooled, at what temperature should solid first appear in the solution? Explain. 3. Use the graph to answer the following two questions: Which compound is most soluble at 20 ºC? Which is the least soluble at 40 ºC? 4. Which substance on the graph is least soluble at 10 C? 5. A mass of 80 g of KNO 3 is dissolved in 100 g of water at 50 ºC. The solution is heated to 70ºC. How many more grams of potassium nitrate must be added to make the solution saturated? Explain your reasoning (See question #2 on the other side for a hint)

4 Balancing Chemical Equations Directions: First balance each of the chemical equations below. Then, classify each reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement, or double-replacement. Balance the equation and classify it 1. Sb + Cl 2 SbCl 3 2. Mg + O 2 MgO 3. CaCl 2 Ca + Cl 2 4. NaClO 3 NaCl + O 2 5. Fe + HCl FeCl 2 + H 2 6. CuO + H 2 Cu + H 2 O 7. Al + H 2 SO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H 2 8. MgBr 2 + Cl 2 MgCl 2 + Br 2 9. SnO 2 + C Sn + CO

5 10. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 S PbS + HNO HgO Hg + O KClO 3 KCl + O N 2 + H 2 NH NaBr + Cl 2 NaCl + Br Zn + AgNO 3 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + Ag 16. Sn + Cl 2 SnCl Ba(OH) 2 BaO + H 2 O 18. Mg(OH) 2 + HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 O 19. Na 2 CO 3 + HCl NaCl + H 2 CO 3

6 Chemical Word Equations Directions: Write a balanced chemical equation of each of the word equations below 1. Aqueous sodium chloride reacts with aqueous lead (II) nitrate to yield a lead (II) chloride precipitate and aqueous sodium nitrate. 2. Solid calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid [HCl(aq)] to yield aqueous calcium chloride, carbon dioxide gas, and liquid water. 3. Aqueous zinc (II) chloride reacts with dihydrogen monosullfide gas to yield a zinc (II) sulfide precipitate and hydrochloric acid [HCl(aq)]. 4. Aqueous lead (IV) nitrate reacts with aqueous sodium sulfate to yield a lead (IV) sulfate precipitate and soluble sodium nitrate. 5. Aqueous sodium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide gas to yield soluble sodium carbonate and liquid water. 6. Solid magnesium oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid [HCl(aq)] to yield a solution of magnesium chloride and liquid water. 7. Solid iron (III) oxide reacts with solid aluminum metal to yield solid aluminum oxide and solid iron metal.

7 Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions Directions: First predict the products of the reactions below. Then write a complete balanced chemical equation and classify the type of reaction. 1. magnesium bromide + chlorine 2. aluminum + iron (III) oxide 3. iron + oxygen 4. silver nitrate + zinc chloride 5. propane (C 3 H 8 ) + oxygen 6. hydrogen + bromine 7. sodium phosphate + manganese (II) hydroxide 8. magnesium chloride 9. magnesium cyanide + copper (I) oxide 10. combustion of octane (C 8 H 18 )

8 Mole Mole Problems Complete the following problems. Show all work, units, labels, etc. 1. When nitrogen gas reacts with hydrogen gas, ammonia gas (NH 3 ) is produced. How many moles of hydrogen gas are needed to completely react with 2.5 moles of nitrogen gas? 2. Potassium chlorate decomposes into potassium chloride and oxygen gas. If 6.3 moles of potassium chlorate decomposes, how many moles of oxygen are produced? 3. When solid zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid [HCl(aq)], zinc (II) chloride and hydrogen gas are produced? If 3.1 moles of zinc reacts with an excess of hydrochloric acid, how many moles worth of hydrogen gas would be produced? 4. How many moles of oxygen gas are necessary to react with 4.5 moles of propane (C 3 H 8 ) in order for it to completely combust? 5. When potassium phosphate reacts with aluminum nitrate, potassium nitrate and aluminum phosphate are produced. How many moles of potassium nitrate would be produced if 7.1 moles of potassium phosphate reacted completely with excess aluminum nitrate?

9 Mass-to-Mass Problems Complete the following problems. Show all work, units, labels, etc. 1. How many grams of hydrogen gas are needed to completely react with 50.0g of nitrogen gas to produce ammonia gas (NH 3 )? 2. How many grams of potassium chloride are produced if 25 g of potassium chlorate decomposes into potassium chloride and oxygen gas? 3. If grams of potassium phosphate reacts completely with excess aluminum nitrate, how many grams of aluminum phosphate would be produced? Volume-to-Volume Complete the following problems. Show all work, units, labels, etc. 1. If 20 liters of propane (C 3 H 8 ) are completely consumed in a combustion reaction, how many liters of carbon dioxide are produced? 2. When electricity is sent through water it decomposes into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. If 30 milliliters of water decomposes, how many liters of oxygen gas are produced? 3. Carbon monoxide and oxygen gas can react to produce carbon dioxide. How many liters of oxygen gas are needed to completely react with 75 liters of carbon monoxide?

10 Mixed Problems 1. What volume of ammonia (NH 3 ) gas at STP is produced if 25.0g of nitrogen gas reacts with an excess amount of hydrogen gas? 2. If 5.0g of potassium chlorate decomposes into potassium chloride and oxygen gas, what volume of oxygen gas is produced if at STP? 3. Using the information in problem 2, how many grams of potassium chloride would be produced? 4. When metallic zinc is mixed with hydrochloric acid [HCl (aq) ], zinc (II) chloride and hydrogen gas are produced. a. What volume of hydrogen gas would be produced at STP if 2.5g of zinc reacts with an excess amount of hydrochloric acid? b. What volume of 6.0M hydrochloric acid is needed for the 2.5 grams of zinc to completely react?

11 5. Calcium carbonate ( limestone ) reacts with hydrochloric acid [HCl (aq) ] to produce carbon dioxide gas, calcium chloride, and water. What volume of 3.0 M hydrochloric acid is needed to completely react with 25.0 grams of calcium carbonate? 6. When sulfuric acid [H 2 SO 4(aq) ] reacts with sodium hydroxide, water and sodium sulfate is produced. a. How many molecules of water are produced if 2.0g of sodium sulfate were produced? b. How much 0.75M sulfuric acid was needed to produce the 2.0g of sodium sulfate? 7. How many molecules of chlorine gas would be produced if 10.0g of aluminum chloride decomposed into aluminum precipitate and chlorine gas?

12 Percent Yield 1. Frank was asked to let 25.8g of hydrochloric acid [HCl (aq) ] decompose. What is Frank s percent yield of chlorine gas if he collected 13.6g of chlorine gas in the lab. 2. Annie allowed 18g of butane (C 4 H 10 ) to completely combust. If she collected 35.0g of carbon dioxide, what is her percent yield? 3. Sally and Sam reacted silver (I) chloride with metallic zinc in class. However, Sally did not record all of the data. Sam later told Sally that they had a 94.6% yield to help her determine the data. If they used 100g of silver (I) chloride with excess zinc, what was the actual mass of metallic silver produced that Sally forget to record?

13 Limiting Reactants 1. How many grams of ammonia gas (NH 3 ) can be produced from the reaction of 5.0g hydrogen gas and 28g nitrogen gas? Which reactant is the limiting reactant? How much excess reactant is there? 2. What volume of hydrogen gas at STP is produced from the reaction of 50.0g of Mg and ml of 6.0M HCl? Which reactant is the limiting reactant? How much excess reactant is there? 3. If ml of 0.25M silver (I) nitrate and 25.0g of sodium phosphate react, how many grams of silver (I) phosphate are produced? Which reactant is the limiting reactant? How much excess reactant is there?

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