# 1. Pictures of Atoms. Rutherford s Model

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1 1. Pictures of Atoms By the end of today s lesson you will be able to describe Dalton s and Rutherford s models of atomic structure. Rutherford s Model In 1800 John Dalton described atoms as small, solid, hard spheres. In 1911 Ernest Rutherford described atoms as being made up of small charged particles occupying a volume of empty space. 1

2 flight path of electron overall size of atom negatively charged electron positively charged nucleus Most of the atom is empty space. 2

3 Rutherford s Experiment Rutherford fired radioactive particles at a thin sheet of gold foil. Most of the radioactive particles passed straight through the solid foil. Some changed direction (deflected) Very few bounced back (reflected) 3

4 deflected reflected pass straight through Watch the video about the building blocks of matter 4

5 Summary Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in a small area known as the nucleus. The nucleus has a positive charge deflecting other positively charged particles (like charges repel). Most of an atom is empty space occupied by fast moving negatively charged electrons. 5

6 2. Structure of an Atom By the end of today s lesson you will be able to describe the internal structure of an atom naming the 3 main subatomic particles, their charge, relative mass and position. Rutherford described atoms as mostly empty space with a solid core called the nucleus. He described most of the mass of an atom being concentrated within the nucleus. Atoms are made up of three different types of subatomic particles electrons, protons and neutrons. 1

7 Electrons Have a negative charge (-1). Have virtually no mass. Are found flying around the nucleus. Are organised in levels or shells depending on the amount of energy that they contain. Protons Have a positive charge (+1) Have a mass of 1 atomic mass unit (a.m.u.) Cannot move. Are located in the nucleus. 2

8 Neutrons Have no overall charge are neutral Have a mass of 1 atomic mass unit (a.m.u.) Cannot move Are located in the nucleus Rutherford s model of a Helium Atom electron proton neutron No. electrons = No. protons = No. neutrons = Mass number = 4 a.m.u. 3

9 Atoms are electrically neutral they contain equal numbers of positive and negative charges. Atoms therefore contain the same number of positive protons as negative electrons. No. of protons = No. of electrons The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom is the same as the element s atomic number. If we change the number of protons we are changing the type of element. The protons and neutrons of an atom make up all of the atom s physical mass. Mass number = no. protons + no. neutrons 4

10 Draw Rutherford pictures of the following atoms: Hydrogen (mass = 1 a.m.u.) Lithium (mass = 7 a.m.u.) Beryllium (mass = 9 a.m.u.) Summary Particle Location Charge Mass Proton Nucleus +1 1 Neutron Nucleus 0 1 Electron Outside Nucleus -1 0 No. of protons = atomic number of element No. of protons = no. of electrons Mass number = no. of protons + no. neutrons 5

11 3. Atomic Mass By the end of today s lesson you will be able to explain the meaning of isotopes and why relative atomic mass is rarely a whole number. Mass number = no. protons + no. neutrons All atoms of the same element contain the same number of protons. Nuclide notation is used to show information about an atom: e.g. 7 Li 3 mass number symbol of element atomic number 1

12 Atoms of the same element may contain different numbers of neutrons. This gives rise to atoms with different mass numbers. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers. Isotopes contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Due to isotopes, we record the average atomic mass for an element. The data booklet shows the relative atomic masses of selected elements. Use the Periodic Table and the following table help write the nuclide symbols for the elements shown. 2

13 Name Atomic No. R.A.M. Hydrogen 1 1 Helium 2 4 Lithium 3 7 Carbon 6 12 Nitrogen 7 14 Oxygen 8 16 Fluorine 9 19 Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Use your nuclide notations to draw up a table to show the number of protons, neutrons and electrons for each element. 3

14 Name Protons Neutrons Electrons Hydrogen Helium Lithium Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Average Atomic Mass Chlorine is made up of two isotopes. One isotope has a mass of 35 and makes up 75% of all chlorine atoms. Another isotope has a mass of 37 and makes up 25% of all chlorine atoms. Calculate the relative atomic mass of chlorine. 4

15 Summary Atoms contain the particles protons, neutrons and electrons. All the atoms of the same element contain the same number of protons. Isotopes are atoms of the same element which contain different numbers of neutrons. Isotopes have different mass numbers. Relative Atomic Mass gives the weighted average atomic mass for an element. 5

16 4. Electron Arrangements By the end of today s lesson you will be able to describe how electrons are arranged inside atoms draw diagrams to represent the electron arrangements of the first 20 elements Electron orbit the nucleus. Most of the volume of an atom is empty space. Electrons are organised into levels or shells something like the layers in an onion. The electrons closest to the nucleus have the lowest energy. The electrons furthest out from the nucleus have the highest energy. 1

17 nucleus 1 st energy level 2 nd energy level 3 rd energy level The 1 st energy level or shell can hold up to 2 electrons. The 2 nd energy level or shell can hold up to 8 electrons. The 3 rd energy level or shell can hold up to 8 electrons. The energy shells fill in order, from 1 st to 3 rd. A data booklet shows the electron arrangements of the elements found in groups 1 to 8. 2

18 40 Ca No. protons = No. electrons = Element H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si Total no. electrons 1 st shell 2 nd shell 3 rd shell 4 th shell Electron Arrangement 3

19 Element P S Cl Ar K Ca Total no. electrons 1 st shell 2 nd shell 3 rd shell 4 th shell Electron Arrangement Now draw target diagrams (electron arrangement pictures for the elements hydrogen to potassium) Summary Electrons are organised in levels of shells like the layers of an onion. The shells fill from the nucleus out. The further away from the nucleus the higher the energy of the electron. The electron arrangement for an atom tells us how many electrons are contained in each shell. 4

20 5. Outer electrons By the end of today s lesson you will be able to describe connection between outer electrons and chemical properties. The electron arrangement for a calcium atom is 2,8,8,2. 1 st energy level = nd energy level = 3 rd energy level = 4 th energy level = Total = The outermost energy level contains electrons. 1

21 The electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom can interact with other atoms to form bonds. The outermost electrons of an element determine the chemical properties of the element. The electrons contained in the full inner energy levels of an atom cannot interact with other atoms. These electrons form the core of an atom. e.g. a calcium atom 20+ Ca 2, 8, 8, 2 core electrons bonding electrons Outer electron picture (only shows bonding electrons) 2

22 1 H Outer electron pictures 8 or 0 He Li Be B C N O F He Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties. Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of outer electrons. Only outer electrons can interact with other atoms. The number of outer electrons in an atom determines the chemical properties of that atom. 3

23 Summary The outer electrons of an atom determine how it interacts with other atoms. Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of outer electrons. Elements in the same group of the periodic table react in a similar way. 4

24 6. Electricity and Compounds By the end of today s lesson you will be able to: explain the terms ionic and covalent describe a test to distinguish between the two Types of Compound Compounds can be divided into 1 of two groups depending on the elements they are made up of. A compound made up of only non-metal elements is said to be COVALENT. A compound made up of a metal element and at least one non-metal element is said to be IONIC. 1

25 Testing compounds Name Formula Ionic / Covalent Lead Bromide Candle Wax Solid Liquid Draw a sectional diagram of the apparatus used to test each compound. Do solid covalent compounds conduct electricity? Do liquid covalent compounds conduct electricity? What rule can you make up about conduction and covalent compounds? Do solid ionic compounds conduct electricity? Do liquid ionic compounds conduct electricity? What rule can you make up about conduction and ionic compounds? 2

26 You are given a white powder that has a melting point of 450 C. How could you test the compound to decide if it is ionic or covalent? Compound state symbols State symbols can be used to display information regarding the physical state of a compound. Solid (s) Liquid (l) Gas (g) Aqueous solution (aq) 3

27 How could you write the formula with state symbol for hexane at room temperature (20 C)? What change will occur if hexane is heated to 70 C? Write a symbol equation (including state symbols) to represent this change. Write a symbol equation (including state symbols) to represent the change that takes place when octane is cooled from 20 C to -35 C. Summary Covalent compounds contain only non-metal elements. Covalent compounds do not conduct electricity regardless of physical state. Ionic compounds contain a metal element and at least one non-metal element. Ionic compounds conduct electricity only when liquid or dissolved in solution. We can use state symbols to show the physical state of a substance solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g) and dissolved in solution (aq). 4

28 7. Compounds and Conduction By the end of today s lesson you will be able to explain how ions are formed and why ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten but not as solids. Ion Formation Ions of an element are formed from atoms of the same element. When a metal atom forms an ion it loses its outer electrons to achieve a full outer energy level. A metal atom is neutral. When it loses electrons to form an ion it is losing negative charges. Metal ions therefore have a positive charge. 1

29 Sodium Atoms: Number of protons 11 Number of electrons 11 Electron arrangement 2,8,1 Symbol Na Sodium Ions: Number of protons Number of electrons Electron arrangement Symbol Metal ions have the same electron arrangement as the Noble Gas from the previous period of the Periodic Table. Write the symbols and electron arrangements for the following ions: 1. Lithium 2. Beryllium 3. Potassium 4. Aluminium The number of charges found on a metal ion is the same as its valency. 2

30 When a non-metal atom forms an ion it gains electrons to achieve a full outer energy level. A non-metal atom is neutral. When it gains electrons to form an ion it is gaining negative charges. Non-metal ions therefore have a negative charge. Chlorine Atoms: Number of protons Number of electrons Electron arrangement Symbol Chloride Ions: Number of protons Number of electrons Electron arrangement Symbol 3

31 Non-metal ions have the same electron arrangement as the Noble Gas from the same period of the Periodic Table. Write the symbols and electron arrangements for the following ions: 1. Nitrogen 2. Iodine 3. Oxygen 4. Sulphur The number of charges found on a non-metal ion is the same as its valency. Ion Model Metal and non-metal ions have opposite charges. Opposite charges are attracted towards each other. Like charges repel each other. This leads to the creation of an alternating pattern of positive and negative ions in a special structure called a lattice. 4

32 In a lattice structure no like charged ions touch Only oppositely charged ions touch each other This diagram shows one layer of ions in reality there are many millions of layers on top of each other. When present as a solid ions are in a fixed position unable to move. When melted, the ions are freed from their fixed positions and are then able to move. For compounds to conduct electricity they must contain charged particles (ions) that are able to move. 5

33 Summary Metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions. Non-metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions. In an ionic compound, alternating ions arrange themselves to form a lattice. When held in a lattice, ions cannot move and cannot conduct electricity. If melted or dissolved in water the ions are free to move, and the substance can conduct electricity. 6

34 8. Solutions and Conduction By the end of today s lesson you will be able to: describe why ionic solutions conduct electricity describe why covalent solutions cannot conduct electricity. state the affect of concentration of an ionic solution on the current flowing through the ionic solution Type of solution Covalent solutions contain free molecules suspended amongst the solvent molecules. Ionic solutions contain free ions able to move through the solvent molecules. Covalent molecules are neutral, whilst ions are charged. Charged particles able to move through a solution allows the solution to conduct electricity. 1

35 Ionic Solution 2 V ac Covalent Solution 2 V ac 2

36 Conductivity of an Ionic Solution No drops sodium chloride solution 0 Current (ma) Draw a line graph of your results ensure the axes are labelled and appropriate units are used. Why would silver chloride not give the same general shape of graph? 3

37 Covalent Bonding Covalent compounds are made up of molecules. A molecule is formed from non-metal atoms held together by strong covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are formed due to the sharing of a pair of electrons between adjacent atoms. Non-metal atoms have almost full outer energy levels. To be completely stable, non-metal atoms must gain electrons to fill their outer energy levels. When covalent molecules are formed, rather than take electrons from other atoms, adjacent atoms share electrons. 1 covalent bond represents 1 shared pair of electrons. 4

38 e.g. bonding in a hydrogen molecule e.g. bonding in a water molecule 5

39 e.g. bonding in a nitrogen chloride molecule Summary For a substance to conduct electricity, charged particles must be able to move and carry the electrical charge. If we increase the number of charged particles we will increase the quantity of electricity the substance can transmit. A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons between two adjacent non-metal atoms. 6

40 9. Ions on the move By the end of today s lesson you will be able to: describe electrolysis in terms of ions moving. explain why the particular products are formed at each electrode. Electrolysis Model + - sodium chloride solution 1

41 Metal elements form at the negative electrode. Positive metal ions are attracted to the negative electrode. At the negative electrode the positive metal ions GAIN electrons and are transformed into metal atoms. At the negative electrode, metal ions are REDUCED. Non-metal elements form at the positive electrode. Negative non-metal ions are attracted to the positive electrode. At the positive electrode the negative nonmetal ions LOSE electrons and are transformed into non-metal atoms. At the positive electrode, non-metal ions are OXIDISED. 2

42 When carrying out an electrolysis, a d.c. power supply must be used. This gives a fixed positive electrode and a fixed negative electrode. By using this we can clearly identify the products of the electrolysis. Covalent solutions do not contain charged particles they cannot conduct electricity. Covalent solutions cannot be electrolysed. Zinc Iodide Solution + - Zinc Iodide solution 3

43 Extracting Metals Reactive metals such as aluminium, sodium and potassium are extracted from their ores using electrolysis. Compounds containing the metal desired are dissolved in a suitable solvent before being electrolysed. The metal is always obtained from the negative electrode of the electrolysis apparatus. Summary Positive metal ions are attracted to the negative electrode during an electrolysis. At the negative electrode, metal ions gain electrons to form metal atoms. Metal ions are reduced. Negative non-metal ions are attracted to the positive electrode during an electrolysis. At the positive electrode, non-metal ions lose electrons to form non-metal atoms. Non-metal ions are oxidised. 4

44 10. What makes an acid or alkali? By the end of today s lesson you will be able to: State what types of substances form acid solutions State what types of substances form alkali solutions Metal Oxides When sodium is burnt in a plentiful supply of air, sodium oxide is produced. When calcium is burnt in a plentiful supply of air, calcium oxide is produced. These are both metal oxides. To test the effect a metal oxide has on ph we need to dissolve the metal oxide in water to make a solution. We can only test a aqueous solution s ph. 1

45 1. Wash a 100 ml beaker and stirring rod with water. 2. Half fill the beaker with tap water. 3. Add 10 drops of universal indicator solution. 4. Stir the water with the stirring rod. 5. Add half a spatula of a metal oxide powder and stir well to see if it dissolves. 6. Compare the colour of the solution to the colour chart and read off the ph. 7. Wash the beaker, stirring rod and spatula thoroughly. 8. Repeat the experiment with the other metal oxide powders. Metal Oxide Formula Soluble? calcium oxide magnesium oxide aluminium oxide Acid? Alkali? Neutral? 2

46 What is the general rule regarding ph for soluble metal oxides? What is the general rule regarding ph for insoluble metal oxides? Non-metal Oxides When carbon is burnt in a plentiful supply of air, carbon dioxide is produced. When nitrogen is sparked in a car engine, this sparking causes nitrogen to combine with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. To test the effect a non-metal oxide has on ph we need to dissolve the non-metal oxide in water to make a solution. We can only test a aqueous solution s ph. 3

47 When sulphur is burnt in a plentiful supply of air, sulphur dioxide is produced. When sulphur dioxide dissolves in water, sulphurous acid is produced. A solution of sulphurous acid will cause universal indicator to change colour from green to red. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, carbonic acid is produced. A solution of carbonic acid will cause universal indicator to change colour from green to red. Questions How can burning coal cause acid rain? Why do some countries add calcium oxide powder to their lakes? 4

48 Summary Soluble metal oxides dissolve in water to form an alkali solution. Insoluble metal oxides have no affect on the ph of water. Soluble non-metal oxides dissolve in water to form an acid solution. 5

49 11. Acid Formulae By the end of today s lesson you will be able to: Write the formula of common laboratory acids State if an acid is an ionic or covalent substance Covalent or Ionic? Acids are compounds whose chemical names suggest that they are salts of hydrogen. sulphuric acid is hydrogen sulphate phosphoric acid is hydrogen phosphate nitric acid is hydrogen nitrate hydrochloric acid is hydrogen chloride 1

50 Using valency rules work out the formulae for: sulphuric acid hydrochloric acid nitric acid phosphoric acid How can we show that a solution is either ionic or covalent? 2 volts d.c. A carbon electrodes acid If the acid solution conducts electricity then acid is ionic 2

51 Acids are ionic Name Formula Positive ion Negative ion sulphuric acid nitric acid phosphoric acid hydrochloric acid 1 litre of 1M sulphuric acid contains twice as many hydrogen ions as 1 litre of 1M hydrochloric acid. We know this from the formulae for each acid: Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 1H + :1Cl - Sulphuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ) 2H + :1SO 2-4 3

52 Questions Which ion is found in ALL acids? Why does sulphuric acid need more than one hydrogen per sulphate ion? Which contains more ions, 50 ml of 1M hydrochloric acid or 50 ml of 1M sulphuric acid? Summary Acids are covalent molecules when present as pure substances. When dissolved in water, the covalent molecules split apart to release ions. Each acidic solution contains hydrogen ions. Acidic solutions conduct electricity. 4

53 12. Breaking Acids By the end of today s lesson you will be able to: State the ion present in all acid solutions Describe how electrolysis can be used to break apart an acid Electrolysis Electrolysis can be used to break an ionic compound into its constituent elements using electricity. The ionic compound must be present as a pure liquid or dissolved in solution The ions that make up the ionic compound must be free to move. 1

54 carbon electrodes + - solution or melt Positively charged ions are attracted to the negative electrode. Here they electrons to form atoms. (A reaction.) Negatively charged ions are attracted to the positive electrode. Here they electrons to form atoms. (An reaction.) Electrolysis of an acid 1. Set up the equipment shown on next slide. 2. Fill a test tube with water and keep your finger over the end as you place it upside down in the beaker. 3. Hold the upside down test tube over the negative electrode. 4. Collect a full test tube of the gas released at the negative electrode. 5. Test the test tube of gas with a burning splint. 2

55 clamp + stand electrodes 25 ml hydrochloric acid + 50 ml water Volts D.C. hydrochloric acid 3

56 Questions Name the gas produced when hydrochloric acid is electrolysed. Which gas is produced by all acids when they are electrolysed? Which electrode does hydrogen appear at? Are hydrogen ions reduced or oxidised during electrolysis? Summary If an acidic solution is electrolysed, hydrogen gas is released at the negative electrode. At the negative electrode positive hydrogen ions gain electrons to form hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen ions are oxidised (lose electrons). 4

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