2 Properties of Acids They taste sour (don t try this at home). They can conduct electricity. Can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution React with metals to form H 2 gas. Change the color of indicators (for example: blue litmus turns to red). React with bases (metallic hydroxides) to form water and a salt.
3 Properties of Acids They have a ph of less than 7 (more on this concept of ph in a later lesson) They react with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce a salt, water, and carbon dioxide gas How do you know if a chemical is an acid? It usually starts with Hydrogen. HCl, H 2 SO 4, HNO 3, etc. (but not water!)
4 Acids Affect Indicators, by changing their color Blue litmus paper turns red in contact with an acid (and red paper stays red).
5 Acids have a ph less than 7
6 Acids React with Active Metals Acids react with active metals to form salts and hydrogen gas: HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl 2(aq) + H 2(g) This is a single-replacement reaction
7 Acids React with Carbonates and Bicarbonates HCl + NaHCO 3 Hydrochloric acid + sodium bicarbonate NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 salt + water + carbon dioxide An old-time home remedy for relieving an upset stomach
8 Effects of Acid Rain on Marble (marble is calcium carbonate) George Washington: BEFORE acid rain George Washington: AFTER acid rain
9 Acids Neutralize Bases HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O -Neutralization reactions ALWAYS produce a salt (which is an ionic compound) and water. -Of course, it takes the right proportion of acid and base to produce a neutral salt
10 Sulfuric Acid = H 2 SO 4 Highest volume production of any chemical in the U.S. (approximately 60 billion pounds/year) Used in the production of paper Used in production of fertilizers Used in petroleum refining; auto batteries
11 Nitric Acid = HNO 3 Used in the production of fertilizers Used in the production of explosives Nitric acid is a volatile acid its reactive components evaporate easily Stains proteins yellow (including skin!)
12 Hydrochloric Acid = HCl Used in the pickling of steel Used to purify magnesium from sea water Part of gastric juice, it aids in the digestion of proteins Sold commercially as Muriatic acid
13 Phosphoric Acid = H 3 PO 4 A flavoring agent in sodas (adds tart ) Used in the manufacture of detergents Used in the manufacture of fertilizers Not a common laboratory reagent
14 Acetic Acid = HC 2 H 3 O 2 (also called Ethanoic Acid, CH 3 COOH) Used in the manufacture of plastics Used in making pharmaceuticals Acetic acid is the acid that is present in household vinegar
15 Properties of Bases (metallic hydroxides) React with acids to form water and a salt. Taste bitter. Feel slippery (don t try this either). Can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution Change the color of indicators (red litmus turns blue).
17 Bases Affect Indicators Red litmus paper turns blue in contact with a base (and blue paper stays blue). Phenolphthalein turns purple in a base.
18 Bases have a ph greater than 7
19 Bases Neutralize Acids Milk of Magnesia contains magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2, which neutralizes stomach acid, HCl. 2 HCl + Mg(OH) 2 MgCl H 2 O Magnesium salts can cause diarrhea (thus they are used as a laxative) and may also cause kidney stones.
20 Acid-Base Theories
21 Svante Arrhenius He was a Swedish chemist ( ), and a Nobel prize winner in chemistry (1903) one of the first chemists to explain the chemical theory of the behavior of acids and bases Dr. Hubert Alyea (professor emeritus at Princeton University) was the last graduate student of Arrhenius.
22 Hubert N. Alyea ( )
23 1. Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions (H 1+ ) in aqueous solution (HCl H 1+ + Cl 1- ) Bases produce hydroxide ions (OH 1- ) when dissolved in water. (NaOH Na 1+ + OH 1- ) Limited to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of base (hydroxides) NH 3 (ammonia) could not be an Arrhenius base: no OH 1- produced.
24 Svante Arrhenius ( )
25 Polyprotic Acids? Some compounds have more than one ionizable hydrogen to release HNO 3 nitric acid - monoprotic H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid - diprotic - 2 H + H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid - triprotic - 3 H + Having more than one ionizable hydrogen does not mean stronger!
26 Acids Not all compounds that have hydrogen are acids. Water? Also, not all the hydrogen in an acid may be released as ions only those that have very polar bonds are ionizable - this is when the hydrogen is joined to a very electronegative element
27 Arrhenius examples... Consider HCl = it is an acid! What about CH 4 (methane)? CH 3 COOH (ethanoic acid, also called acetic acid) - it has 4 hydrogens just like methane does?
28 Organic Acids (those with carbon) Organic acids all contain the carboxyl group, (-COOH), sometimes several of them. CH 3 COOH of the 4 hydrogen, only 1 ionizable (due to being bonded to the highly electronegative Oxygen) The carboxyl group is a poor proton donor, so ALL organic acids are weak acids.
29 2. Brønsted-Lowry A broader definition than Arrhenius Acid is hydrogen-ion donor (H + or proton); base is hydrogen-ion acceptor. Acids and bases always come in pairs. HCl is an acid. When it dissolves in water, it gives it s proton to water. HCl (g) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Water is a base; makes hydronium ion.
30 Johannes Brønsted Thomas Lowry ( ) ( ) Denmark England
31 Why Ammonia is a Base Ammonia can be explained as a base by using Brønsted-Lowry: NH 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 1+ 4 (aq) + OH 1- (aq) Ammonia is the hydrogen ion acceptor (base), and water is the hydrogen ion donor (acid). This causes the OH 1- concentration to be greater than in pure water, and the ammonia solution is basic
32 Acids and bases come in pairs A conjugate base is the remainder of the original acid, after it donates it s hydrogen ion A conjugate acid is the particle formed when the original base gains a hydrogen ion Thus, a conjugate acid-base pair is related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion. Chemical Indicators? They are weak acids or bases that have a different color from their original acid and base
33 Acids and bases come in pairs General equation is: HA (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + A - (aq) Acid + Base Conjugate acid + Conjugate base NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH 1- base acid c.a. c.b. HCl + H 2 O H 3 O 1+ + Cl 1- acid base c.a. c.b. Amphoteric a substance that can act as both an acid and base- as water shows
34 3. Lewis Acids and Bases Gilbert Lewis focused on the donation or acceptance of a pair of electrons during a reaction Lewis Acid - electron pair acceptor Lewis Base - electron pair donor Most general of all 3 definitions; acids don t even need hydrogen! Summary: Table 19.4, page 592
35 Gilbert Lewis ( )
36 Hydrogen Ions from Water Water ionizes, or falls apart into ions: H 2 O H 1+ + OH 1- Called the self ionization of water Occurs to a very small extent: [H 1+ ] = [OH 1- ] = 1 x 10-7 M Since they are equal, a neutral solution results from water K w = [H 1+ ] x [OH 1- ] = 1 x M 2 K w is called the ion product constant for water
37 Ion Product Constant H 2 O H 1+ + OH 1- K w is constant in every aqueous solution: [H + ] x [OH - ] = 1 x M 2 If [H + ] > 10-7 then [OH - ] < 10-7 If [H + ] < 10-7 then [OH - ] > 10-7 If we know one, other can be determined If [H + ] > 10-7, it is acidic and [OH - ] < 10-7 If [H + ] < 10-7, it is basic and [OH - ] > 10-7 Basic solutions also called alkaline
38 The ph concept from 0 to 14 ph = pouvoir hydrogene (Fr.) hydrogen power definition: ph = -log[h + ] in neutral ph = -log(1 x 10-7 ) = 7 in acidic solution [H + ] > 10-7 ph < -log(10-7 ) ph < 7 (from 0 to 7 is the acid range) in base, ph > 7 (7 to 14 is base range)
40 Calculating poh poh = -log [OH - ] [H + ] x [OH - ] = 1 x M 2 ph + poh = 14 Thus, a solution with a poh less than 7 is basic; with a poh greater than 7 is an acid Not greatly used like ph is.
41 ph and Significant Figures For ph calculations, the hydrogen ion concentration is usually expressed in scientific notation [H 1+ ] = M = 1.0 x 10-3 M, and has 2 significant figures the ph = 3.00, with the two numbers to the right of the decimal corresponding to the two significant figures
42 Measuring ph Why measure ph? Everyday solutions we use - everything from swimming pools, soil conditions for plants, medical diagnosis, soaps and shampoos, etc. Sometimes we can use indicators, other times we might need a ph meter
43 How to measure ph with wide-range paper 1. Moisten the ph indicator paper strip with a few drops of solution, by using a stirring rod. 2.Compare the color to the chart on the vial then read the ph value.
44 Some of the many ph Indicators and their ph range
45 Acid-Base Indicators Although useful, there are limitations to indicators: usually given for a certain temperature (25 o C), thus may change at different temperatures what if the solution already has a color, like paint? the ability of the human eye to distinguish colors is limited
46 Acid-Base Indicators A ph meter may give more definitive results some are large, others portable works by measuring the voltage between two electrodes; typically accurate to within 0.01 ph unit of the true ph Instruments need to be calibrated
47 Strength Acids and Bases are classified acording to the degree to which they ionize in water: Strong are completely ionized in aqueous solution; this means they ionize 100 % Weak ionize only slightly in aqueous solution Strength is very different from Concentration
48 Strength Strong means it forms many ions when dissolved (100 % ionization) Mg(OH) 2 is a strong base- it falls completely apart (nearly 100% when dissolved). But, not much dissolves- so it is not concentrated
51 Measuring strength Ionization is reversible: HA + H 2 O H + + A - This makes an equilibrium Acid dissociation constant = K a K a = [H + ][A - ] [HA] Stronger acid = more products (ions), thus a larger K a (Note that the arrow goes both directions.) (Note that water is NOT shown, because its concentration is constant, and built into K a )
52 What about bases? Strong bases dissociate completely. MOH + H 2 O M + + OH - (M = a metal) Base dissociation constant = K b K b = [M + ][OH - ] [MOH] Stronger base = more dissociated ions are produced, thus a larger K b.
53 Strength vs. Concentration The words concentrated and dilute tell how much of an acid or base is dissolved in solution - refers to the number of moles of acid or base in a given volume The words strong and weak refer to the extent of ionization of an acid or base Is a concentrated, weak acid possible?
54 Practice Write the K a expression for HNO 2 1) Equation: HNO 2 H 1+ + NO 2 1-2) K a = [H 1 + ] x [NO2 1- ] [HNO 2 ] Write the K b expression for NH 3 (as NH 4 OH)
55 Acid-Base Reactions Acid + Base Water + Salt Properties related to every day: antacids depend on neutralization farmers adjust the soil ph formation of cave stalactites human body kidney stones from insoluble salts
56 Acid-Base Reactions Neutralization Reaction - a reaction in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 2 SO 4(aq) + 2KOH (aq) K 2 SO 4(aq) + 2 H 2 O (l)
57 Titration Titration is the process of adding a known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution Remember? - a balanced equation is a mole ratio The equivalence point is when the moles of hydrogen ions is equal to the moles of hydroxide ions (= neutralized!)
58 Titration The concentration of acid (or base) in solution can be determined by performing a neutralization reaction An indicator is used to show when neutralization has occurred Often we use phenolphthaleinbecause it is colorless in neutral and acid; turns pink in base
59 Steps - Neutralization reaction #1. A measured volume of acid of unknown concentration is added to a flask #2. Several drops of indicator added #3. A base of known concentration is slowly added, until the indicator changes color; measure the volume
60 Neutralization The solution of known concentration is called the standard solution added by using a buret Continue adding until the indicator changes color called the end point of the titration
61 Salt Hydrolysis A salt is an ionic compound that: comes from the anion of an acid comes from the cation of a base is formed from a neutralization reaction some neutral; others acidic or basic Salt hydrolysis - a salt that reacts with water to produce an acid or base
62 Salt Hydrolysis Hydrolyzing salts usually come from: 1. a strong acid + a weak base, or 2. a weak acid + a strong base Strong refers to the degree of ionization A strong Acid + a strong Base = Neutral Salt
63 Salt Hydrolysis To see if the resulting salt is acidic or basic, check the parent acid and base that formed it. Practice on these: HCl + NaOH H 2 SO 4 + NH 4 OH CH 3 COOH + KOH NaCl, a neutral salt (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4, acidic salt CH 3 COOK, basic salt
64 Buffers Buffers are solutions in which the ph remains relatively constant, even when small amounts of acid or base are added made from a pair of chemicals: a weak acid and one of it s salts; or a weak base and one of it s salts
65 Buffers A buffer system is better able to resist changes in ph than pure water Since it is a pair of chemicals: one chemical neutralizes any acid added, while the other chemical would neutralize any additional base AND, they produce each other in the process!!!
66 Buffers Example: Ethanoic (acetic) acid and sodium ethanoate (also called sodium acetate) Examples on page 621 of these The buffer capacity is the amount of acid or base that can be added before a significant change in ph
67 Buffers The two buffers that are crucial to maintain the ph of human blood are: 1. carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) & hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 1- ) 2. dihydrogen phosphate (H 2 PO 4 1- ) & monohydrogen phosphate (HPO 4 2- )
68 Aspirin (which is a type of acid) sometimes causes stomach upset; thus by adding a buffer, it does not cause the acid irritation. Bufferin is one brand of a buffered aspirin that is sold in stores. What about the cost compared to plain aspirin?
CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee
: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water
Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties
Name: Period: Date: I. Definitions: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions 2. Bronsted-Lowry (1923) 3. Lewis (1923), so only allows for aqueous solutions only protic
ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Experiment #2 PURPOSE: 1. To distinguish between acids, bases and neutral substances, by observing their effect on some common indicators. 2. To distinguish between strong and weak
Properties Unit 12 Acids & Bases electrolytes sour taste turn litmus red react with metals to form 2 gas vinegar, soda, citrus fruits electrolytes bitter taste turn litmus blue slippery feel ammonia, lye,
Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Hydronium ion (H3O + ) = more stable form of hydrogen ion (H + ) H + + H2O H3O + 8.1 Theories of acids and bases 2 hours 1. Arrhenius H-X / M-OH ACID a substance that dissociates
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must
UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that
AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize
Definitions acid-an ionic compound that releases or reacts with water to form hydrogen ion (H + ) in aqueous solution. They taste sour and turn litmus red. Acids react with certain metals such as zinc,
Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.
Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry
Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Julie Klare Fortis College Smyrna, GA Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium 9.4
Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid
TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and
Acid/Base Basics How does one define acids and bases? In chemistry, acids and bases have been defined differently by two sets of theories. One is the Arrhenius definition, which revolves around the idea
Acids and Bases An Introduction David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste (examples: vinegar, citric acid, lemon juice) 2. Turns litmus
Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see
SNC 2DI Chemistry Unit Test Review Note: this review sheet only covers the second half of our chemistry unit. You should use our mid-unit test review sheet to recall concepts from the first half of the
Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Acids and Bases Period I. Describing Acids and Bases A. Properties of Acids taste ph 7 Acids change color of an (e.g. blue litmus paper turns in the presence of an acid) React
Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and
Chemistry 3202 Unit 2 Acids and Bases Definitions of Acids and Bases An operational definition is one that is based on the observable properties, behaviours or uses of an entity. The earliest definitions
Talk in. Arrhenius Acid Base Definition and ph When we think of acids, we typically think of the Arrhenius definition. Svante Arrhenius (18591927) Arrhenius Acid = Any compound that increases the hydronium
Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following
In the Investigations, you measured several indicators of water quality, including the ph. You may remember that ph values range from 0 to 14. Low values (0 to 6) indicate that a solution is acidic whereas
Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break
CHAPTER 3 3 Solutions of Acids and Bases SECTION Chemical Compounds BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are strong and weak acids? What are strong
CHE 1400 - Spring 2015 - Chapter 7 Homework 7 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1)According to Arrhenius, an acid and a base will react
Chemistry I Accelerated Study Guideline - Chapter 19 Acids, Bases and Salts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ By the end of this unit, the skills you should
CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.
Materials: ph paper and color chart (ph range 3 to 12) or ph meter distilled water white vinegar household ammonia (or baking soda) spot plate test or 3 small test tubes stirring rod solutions / fruits
Acids and Bases Name: Expected background knowledge from acids and bases introductory reading: Definitions (Arrhenius, BL) of an acid and base Definitions of conjugate acid and base pairs Properties of
Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.
ph: Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. The concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) affects the solubility of inorganic and organic
61 Chapter 7 Acids, Bases and Concentrations Thoughts or pictures of a shark usually evoke fear. But most sharks are not harmful to humans and shark attacks while dangerous and sometimes fatal are extremely
Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens 2. Binary acids 3. Oxyacids 4. Carboxylic acid 5. Amines Name the following
AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +
Chapter 16 AcidBase Equilibria Acids and bases are found in many common substances and are important in life processes. Group Work: Make a list of some common acids and bases. How do we know which is which?
Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined
Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius
Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called
Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The
Name Team Name CHM101 Lab Acids and Bases Grading Rubric To participate in this lab you must have splash-proof goggles, proper shoes and attire. Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.
CHEM 1105 ACIDS AND BASES 1. Early Definitions Taste: Effect on Indicators: Neutralization: acids - sour; bases - bitter acids turn blue litmus red; bases turn red litmus blue phenolphthalein is colourless
Cool Chemistry Show Activity 7 Acids, Bases, and Indicators Colorful Chemistry GOALS In this activity you will: Identify common household acids and bases. Identify characteristic properties of acids and
OpenStax-CNX module: m39088 1 Types of reactions: Acid-base reactions Free High School Science Texts Project This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,
COURSE READINESS ASSESSMENT FOR PHYSIOLOGY WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS Sections in this module I. Water is a polar molecule II. Properties of water III. ph IV. Acids and bases V. Buffers I. Water
Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical
CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 aqueous acid/base reactions a. a little bit more about water Water is a polar substance. This means water is able to "solvate" ions rather well. Another
ph of strong acid and base What does strong mean in terms of acids and bases? Solubility. Basically, if you say an acid or base is strong, then it dissociates 100% in water. These types of situations are
Properties of Acids and Bases According to Boyle In 1661 Robert Boyle summarized the properties of acids as follows: 1. Acids have a sour taste. 2. Acids are corrosive. 3. Acids change the color of certain
2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?
Experiment # 6 Determining the percent composition of a mixture by acid-base Objective Determine the percent composition of a mixture of sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and
CAPTER Acids, Bases and Salts Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids Acids are substances that generate in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize 0% in water. That is,
Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for
Lecture Presentation Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria
Chemistry: 9. Acids and Bases Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety
Chem 1B Dr. White 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases A. Acids B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 2 C. Arrhenius Definition 1. acid 2. base 3. Acid-base reaction involving Arrhenius acids
Announcements & Agenda (0//07) You should be reading Ch 0 this weekend! Quiz Today! Open Review Sessions @ pm on Wed. Low attendance this week Last Time: Bronsted nsted-lowry Acids & Bases acids donate
Chemistry 101 - H Acids and Bases This presentation was created by Professor Carl H. Snyder Chemistry Department University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124 CSnyder@miami.edu Chapter 10 - Acids and Bases
ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the
Lab Activity: Strong Acids & Strong Bases, Weak Acids & Weak Bases, and the Hydrolysis of Salts Strong acids and strong bases completely ionize in water to make hydronium or hydroxide ions. Because the
Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid
Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.
AcidBaseEquil 1 Acid-Base Equilibrium See AqueousIons in Chemistry 1110 online notes for review of acid-base fundamentals! Acid- Base Reaction in Aqueous Salt Solutions Recall that use [ ] to mean concentration
General Chemistry II Jasperse Acid-Base Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems 1 General Types/Groups of problems: Conceptual Questions. Acids, Bases, and p1 K b and pk b, Base Strength, and using K b or p7-10
1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K =
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3. Basic solutions
Dissolving Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility One very important property of a solution is the rate of, or how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent. When dissolving occurs, there