Guided Reading for Early Readers

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1 Title M00 L00 S01 Guided Reading for Early Readers Special Notes 1

2 Course Outline M00_L00_S02 Course Outline Title of Course Guided Reading for the Early Reader Overview of Course The core of a balanced literacy program is guided reading - the provision of small group instruction that is planned to meet the specific learning needs of that group. By understanding the strategies used by early readers and the text complexity that matches these strategies, teachers are able to carefully match readers and books so that reading progress is made. Target Audience Primary Teachers Prerequisites - An understanding of running records and/or access to the text Teaching Children To Read and Write Course Duration - 5 hours. Each of the six modules is expected to take approximately minutes. 2

3 Course Objectives M00_L00_S03 Course Objectives Module One: Understanding Guided Reading At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - know where guided reading fits within a balanced literacy program - understand the concept of a gradual release of responsibility - understand the zone of proximal development Module Two: Understanding Early Readers At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - understand how children use cues in the text to help them read - know the characteristics of early readers - understand developmentally appropriate practice Module Three: Understanding the Characteristics of Texts at the Early Level At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - know the characteristics of early texts - know what makes these texts challenging for early readers - be able to apply the leveling criteria for early texts to classroom texts Module Four: Matching Books To Readers At the conclusion of the module the teacher will: - know what to assess to choose appropriate texts for children - choose appropriate books to reinforce reading strategies Module Five: Conducting a Guided Reading Lesson At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - know how to introduce a new book or story - know how to guide children through the reading of a new text - know how to discuss strategy use with the children - choose appropriate responses to the text Module Six: Providing Literacy Activities At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - have an understanding of effective and appropriate literacy responses - have an understanding of activities that will reinforce the children s learning 3

4 Module One: Introduction M01_L01_S01 Module One: Understanding Guided Reading Welcome to Guided Reading For the Early Reader. This course will provide you with an understanding of the guided reading component of a balanced literacy program. Guided reading is the core of the reading program the provision of small group instruction that is planned to meet the specific learning needs of that group. By understanding strategies used by early readers and the text complexity that matches these strategies, you will be able to carefully match readers and books so that reading progress is made. At the conclusion of this particular module you will: Know where guided reading fits within a balanced literacy program Understand the concept of a gradual release of responsibility Understand the zone of proximal development The assessment at the end of this module will help you to determine how well you understand balanced literacy and specifically, the place of guided reading in a balanced literacy plan. 4

5 What is Guided Reading? M01_L01_S02 What is Guided Reading? Guided reading is one approach that teachers use to help children develop the skills they need to read. It is an approach that involves a group of children with similar needs who read a text that is carefully chosen for that group. The text reflects the group s instructional level and it is one that will allow the teacher to introduce or reinforce a strategy that the group needs to employ to become more effective or efficient readers. The text must have a bit of a challenge to allow some reading work but not be so challenging that meaning is lost in the struggle to decode. Please note that if a child is reading an Early level text in Kindergarten the teacher may choose to introduce the book to that child during independent reading time. It is often difficult to group Kindergarten children into homogeneous groups and the text introduction and reading should be very brief. It is best accomplished individually. In Module 5 more specific information will be viewed in a Kindergarten website. 5

6 Teaching a New Strategy M01_L01_S03 When To Teach a New Strategy Guided reading is not a time to teach a new strategy. That is done in shared reading when all children in the group (whole class or small group) can see the text. A skill or strategy is explicitly taught in the context of authentic literature while the group reads the text together. A very supportive environment is created as the teacher reads with the children from a text that everyone can see. This may mean using a big book, or reading from a chart, a daily message or an anthology. In guided reading the child is able to apply the strategy independently while the teacher observes and prepares to offer assistance when needed. The text is placed in the child s or the group s box of independent reading material for frequent independent reading. Because the text is reread many times, children learn to read fluently and the vocabulary and reading strategies involved are reinforced and become automatic. 6

7 Comparison Chart M01_L01_S04 Comparison: Shared Reading vs. Guided Reading Shared Reading The teacher chooses a text that is moderately challenging for the majority of the class or group. (challenging text) The teacher is supportive because the text is challenging. The group reads the text together. Strategies are taught. Text features are taught. Guided Reading The teacher chooses a text that is only slightly challenging for members of the group or for individual students. (just right text) The text is supportive because it contains vocabulary and features that are known to the children. The teacher tries not to interfere with the reading. Members of the group read the text independently while they sit together as a group with the teacher. Strategies are practiced. Text features are used as strategies to read the text independently. Figure 1 Comparison between Shared Reading and Guided Reading 7

8 Teacher s Role M01_L01_S05 Teacher s Role The teacher spends the first part of a guided reading lesson helping the children to reflect on the topic of the book. The children are encouraged to think about their prior knowledge of the topic or develop knowledge about a topic that is new to them. This process helps the children to develop or activate schema and therefore to predict vocabulary and know that what they are reading makes sense. By helping children understand the language structures in the text prior to reading, the teacher ensures that the children will be able to follow the story structure and recognize key words. The children may also walk through the illustrations in the text to predict vocabulary and make sense of the story line. These pre-reading conversations help to ensure that the children have the groundwork in place for a successful reading of the text. The children do not leave the area to do the reading, but stay together and read the story or the selection to themselves in a quiet voice. The teacher is available to assist children in any way and to encourage them to use the strategies that were discussed prior to reading. While the children are reading the teacher has an opportunity to observe strategies the children are using and to evaluate the appropriateness of the text for each of these children. Because each child is reading at their own pace, the teacher is able to hear what strategies the child is using when they reach difficulty or to see when they require some support. It is easy for the teacher to offer simple guidance that will help them solve a specific problem because they are working in their reading zone (zone of proximal development). When all children have read the text, it is important to discuss the strategies they used to problem solve difficult words. This reinforces strategies the children have been using and suggests new strategies that others may use at a later time. 8

9 A Balanced Approach M01_L01_S06 A Balanced Approach To Literacy A Gradual Release of Responsibility Guided reading should be used as one of a number of instructional components in a balanced approach to literacy. Graphically, this information can be demonstrated by delineating the reading and writing components and by noting the individual components along a continuum of support. Reading Writing Levels of Support This box needs to go up the side of the graphic The text must be rotated to vertical. [Note to Developer: see sample diagram, next page this should be made into a better graphic by a designer] 9

10 Balanced Literacy A Framework to Support the Process of Learning To Read and Write Read Aloud Modeled Writing Shared Reading Shared Writing and Language Experience Guided Reading Interactive Writing Independent Reading Independent Writing From high teacher support to independence Foundations Oral Language Word Study / Spelling / Phonemic Awareness Literature Discussion [Note to Web developer: this is the diagram the author refers to in the previous page] 10

11 Opportunities M01_L01_S07 In a balanced program children should have opportunities to: hear stories read aloud to them daily by the teacher. A variety of texts from both fiction and non-fiction genres, should be introduced to children. The texts which are read aloud are ones that the children would find too difficult to read by themselves but ones which provide opportunities to engage in rich conversations to deepen comprehension. participate in shared reading activities in which the teacher introduces new strategies to the whole class or a specific group of children while engaging in the shared reading of a text. This text can be more complex than what the children can read independently because the teacher is there for support when the text becomes too challenging. participate in guided reading sessions regularly. The teacher must make decisions on how frequently to meet with each group of children. Those who struggle with their reading strategies should be seen in guided reading groups more frequently than those who are more proficient readers. These books are at an instructional level that is between 93 96% accuracy. read independently daily. Children need time to read books that are just right for them - ones that they can read accurately and fluently with no assistance from the teacher. They also need a time to review books that were read aloud, books that are of particular interest, written by a favourite author, illustrated by a favourite illustrator, etc. It is very appropriate for children to spend extended periods of time engaged with books. see the teacher model writing, demonstrating how the process sounds as the teacher thinks aloud the decisions that are made as a writer. The teacher may model a variety of texts from writing the daily message to writing a particular form of text such as a procedure for making cookies. participate in the creation of a joint text (shared writing) which the class or a small group of students develop with the teacher. The teacher has control of the story but works with the children to think through the process. The teacher may engage the children in interactive writing by asking a child to participate in the writing. A child is only asked to write something the teacher knows they can do correctly i.e. a high frequency word, their name, the initial or final letter of a word. 11

12 write independently every day. The topics should be ones the child has chosen to write about because of a personal interest or need. The teacher should have exposed children to various forms of writing so that the child can practice the independent writing of this form. 12

13 ZPD M01_L01_S08 Zone of Proximal Development Guided reading allows the teacher to work within what Vygotsky (1978) refers to as the child s zone of proximal development. This is the zone between a child s actual developmental level and the potential level at which they can achieve when given adult support. When support is provided for children within their zone of proximal development, they are in a very powerful learning situation. In guided reading, the child is given a book that they cannot quite read independently because there are a few challenges that can be overcome when supported by the teacher. It must also be supportive; containing many features with which the child is already familiar e.g., high frequency words, familiar topic, and distinct patterns. A difficult text would result in more than seven errors in 100 words (less than 93% accuracy), a guided reading text that is within that zone of proximal development can be read at between 93 and 96 % accuracy, and an easy or independent text is read at % accuracy. Think of a book that you might read yourself. If you made 5 errors for every 100 words read, it would be very difficult to read fluently, and it would be difficult to understand. Once comprehension breaks down we have lost the purpose for which we are reading. That same text would be easier to understand if someone sat with you and explained some of the difficult vocabulary or helped you to understand the context of the story and to help you to anticipate some of the vocabulary. This book would be in your zone of proximal development the level at which you can successfully read with support. Children require many reading opportunities within this zone, knowing that the teacher is there to offer specific demonstrations and support when the text becomes difficult. 13

14 Classroom Environment M01_L01_S09 photo of kindergarten classroom Classroom Environment In order to successfully implement a guided reading program in a primary classroom the teacher must ensure that the children are able to work independently. Questions or comments should not interrupt the teacher and the guided reading group by other members of the class. Prior to initiating guided reading groups, time must be taken to teach children how to work independently at a variety of reading activities or learning centres. A spot in the classroom must be chosen where the teacher can work in close proximity to the reading group but can also see the rest of the class as they work at other literacy activities. As soon as the teacher has finished working with one group of children, it is important to interact with the others to answer questions, celebrate their learning, clarify confusions, etc. In this way the children learn that if they hold their question for a few minutes while the teacher is busy with others, there will be a time for interaction when the guided reading group is finished. Children should be working in a classroom that is a very literate learning environment. They should be regularly engaging in reading activities with their classmates. The teacher should be reading aloud daily from a wide variety of books, and they should engage regularly in shared reading activities of exciting stories and poems. They should see literate materials around them in the classroom on the walls, on the shelves, on the teacher s desk, etc. The environment should identify to the children the importance in which literacy is placed in this environment. Links should be made between reading and writing as the strategies taught in one component should be reinforced in another. Once children have an opportunity to see the reciprocal relationship between the reading and writing components, they will begin to read as a writer and to write with the reader in mind. Figure 2 a Kindergarten or Grade One classroom must demonstrate to children the many purposes for writing. This Kindergarten classroom has many opportunities for children to understand the importance of print. 14

15 Assessment 1 M01_L01_S10 Assessment 1. Independent reading is to independent writing as reading aloud is to: a) Guided reading b) modeled writing c) shared reading d) independent reading Answer: b) modeled writing 2. When reading within the zone of proximal development, a child will: a) read most of the unfamiliar words accurately b) encounter many known high frequency words c) understand the text d) all of the above Answer: d) all of the above 3. Reading strategies should be taught in: a) Modeled reading b) Shared reading c) Guided reading d) Independent reading Answer: b) shared reading 4. Books read independently should: a) Be quite hard so the child can really work hard to figure out the words b) Have many challenges so that the child can practise reading a variety of new words c) A few challenges to make the reading interesting d) Very few challenges so that the children can concentrate on comprehension and fluency Answer: d) very few challenges 15

16 5. According to the Gradual Release of Responsibility model the most supportive components of a balanced literacy program are: (choose 2) a) Independent reading b) Modelled writing c) Shared reading d) Independent writing e) Shared writing f) Read aloud g) Guided reading h) Interactive writing Answer: read aloud and modelled writing 6. The least supportive components are: (choose 2) a) Independent reading b) Modelled writing c) Shared reading d) Independent writing e) Shared writing f) Read aloud g) Guided reading h) Interactive writing Answer: independent reading and independent writing 7. Moderate support is given through: (choose 4) a) Independent reading b) Modelled writing c) Shared reading d) Independent writing e) Shared writing f) Read aloud g) Guided reading h) Interactive writing Answers: Guided reading, shared reading, shared writing, interactive writing 16

17 Module 2: Introduction M02_L01_S01 Module 2: Understanding Early Readers Welcome to the second module of Guided Reading for Early Readers. In this module you will gain an understanding of how children use cues in the text to read accurately and with comprehension and some general literacy traits that distinguish the Early Readers from students in other developmental reading stages. You will also have an opportunity to think abut developmentally appropriate practice for the early reader. This will lead to an understanding of some appropriate classroom activities with which to engage early readers. The assessment for this module is based on the understanding that an analysis of a running record helps the teacher to make very individualized and quite accurate decisions on the instructional needs of students. It is also important to understand the learning needs of young children. For that reason the assessment activities are based on the teacher s ability to recognize developmentally appropriate practice and to analyse a running record. 17

18 The Three Cueing Systems M02_L01_S02 The Three Cueing Systems Before we can understand Early Readers we must first look at how all readers analyse the information that they encounter on a page of simple text. There are three main kinds of information that a text provides the reader. Meaning cues help the reader to make sense of what they are reading. The text at the early level is quite picture supported, allowing the reader to use pictures to confirm the meaning. This means that the pictures are critical to the child s ability to read the book independently. They do not have the detail that could be supported in more complex texts read by more sophisticated readers. If the story is about an elephant with large ears, the picture will clearly show this. If the child looks to the picture first, they will be able to predict that those words will be found in the text so that when they encounter those words they can read them. This cueing system is known as the semantic system. As children are reading they should ask themselves: Does this make sense? They should be monitoring their reading by thinking about words that would make sense in the context of story, thereby making predictions about what is going to happen in the story. Readers bring to the text: Prior knowledge about the topic Personal experiences Information gathered from the pictures 18

19 Structural cues help the reader to use their knowledge of how English works to predict or confirm vocabulary. This cueing system is known as the syntactic system. As children are reading they should ask themselves: Does this sound right? They should be monitoring their reading to determine whether what they are reading is the way that they would say it. When children become accustomed to this cueing system they learn to monitor their own reading and make corrections (self-correct) because it does not sound right. Then they have to think about what they would say and check the letters to see if that is what the text actually says. In the example referenced above, the child should know that the text would not say The elephant is big ears. It would not sound right. The child should know to change their reading to The elephant has big ears. This is obviously a cueing system that is difficult for those students who are learning English. These children require much exposure to good language role models to build their knowledge of how the text should sound. Readers bring to the text: knowledge of English simple grammatical structures and language patterns 19

20 Visual cues occur in the letters and letter clusters. This cueing system is known as the graphophonic system. As children are reading they should ask themselves: Does this look right? Readers have to look at the letters and match them to sounds. This does not necessarily mean that they sound out the words. It may mean that as the child predicts what the text will say, they should be monitoring their reading to determine whether the word they are saying matches the letters in the text. In the example referenced above, the child might read, The elephant has large ears. but when looking at the text would realize that large does not begin with a b. This should trigger the child to self correct their reading to The elephant has big ears. The visual system is often tricky to analyze. A child may in fact have used visual cues to read but still read the text incorrectly. If the child reads read for reads or cat for cot it can be assumed that the child did use visual cues to determine the word but could have used the visual cues more accurately. A child who reads trees for forest is not using the visual cues. This is very important to praise the child on using strategies that they tried while also reminding them of or teaching new strategies for decoding. Readers bring to the text: phonemic awareness knowledge of onset and rime letter knowledge 20

21 Early Readers M02_L01_S03 Characteristics of Early Readers Many leading authorities in literacy have developed similar criteria for categorizing texts as they increase in complexity and matching these texts to readers. David Hornsby in his book A Closer Look at Guided Reading 1 demonstrates how these authors criteria correspond. All sources appear to agree on the basic criteria for identifying the Early Reader but there may be some slight discrepancy amongst the sources. The criteria used in this course will be a compromise of the various authors. Clay (New Zealand) Fountas & Pinnell (USA) First Steps (Australia) Teaching Children To Read & Write (Canada) Emergent Early Fluent Emergent Early Transitional Self-extending Role-play Experimental Early Conventional Advanced Emergent Early Developing Primary Developing Junior Figure 3 Terminology used to explain the developmental stages of reading. This chart is adapted from the work of Hornsby (2000). Note: the texts and strategies used by the children may be slightly different in these stages depending on the criteria used by the author. 1 Hornsby, David. A Closer Look at Guided Reading P

22 Beginning Strategies M02_L01_S04 Beginning Strategies Generally, early readers are just learning to use reading strategies independently. They are beginning to integrate the three cueing systems: the semantic, the syntactic, and the graphophonic systems. This means that they are learning to look at the first letter of a word and use their knowledge of phonics to establish the beginning sound and then look at the picture to predict what the word may be. Then they would listen to their reading of the sentence to determine whether that word sounded right. Was it the correct part of speech? Was it the correct verb ending?, etc. Essentially the child is asking, Does this look right? Does it sound right? Does it make sense? 22

23 Early Reading Behaviours M02_L01_S05 [Note to Web developer: each of the points below is described in detail. Hyperlink each point to a box with the description that appear on clicking the point.] Early readers: are developing print concepts understand that print conveys a message knows the concept of a word, a letter, and a sentence aware of punctuation recognize many high frequency words are gaining control of reading strategies use illustrations to predict and confirm meaning use known spelling patterns to recognize new words use their own experiences and background knowledge to predict meaning [Descriptions of above points] Early readers: are developing print concepts. Beginning readers have much to learn about what to do with a book which way to hold it, where to start reading, how to turn the pages correctly. Each language has developed print concepts which may or may not be the same as English concepts. Because of this, many children who come from literate non-english speaking homes may have to learn appropriate book handling skills for English texts. Many of these are learned in the emergent stage. understand that print conveys a message. Emergent readers are encouraged to look at the pictures, hear the first few pages of the text read to them and then ready by following the pattern while interchanging words as the pictures indicate. The texts for early readers are written so that the reader must bring strategies to the text. They know that, although the pictures will support their reading, they must look to the print to tell the story. They also know that when they are reading, their story must make sense and if it does not, they should use their known strategies until it does. knows the concept of a word, a letter, and a sentence. These concepts blur for emergent readers but early readers must be able to distinguish amongst the marks on the page. If the teacher has worked on the development of phonemic awareness, the child should be able to hear some individual sounds within words, hear when words sound the same at the beginning (onset) or the end (rime) and know that the spaces are representative of new words. 23

24 aware of punctuation. The early reader is learning to use punctuation appropriately, usually in a shared reading experience, to read expressively. recognize many high frequency words. This is a very significant developmental step for early readers. Once certain high frequency words are known the child can begin building sentences. For example, if a child knows the, has, and, and a the child does not have to work at those words in a sentence such as: The elephant has big ears and a trunk. The illustration will accurately distinguish an elephant with obviously large ears and a trunk so the child will be able to use this illustration to predict vocabulary that may be encountered, read their known high frequency words, and work only on reading those specialized words. are gaining control of reading strategies. Early readers are learning when to apply a specific strategy over another. They are learning for instance that they do not have to sound every word out. By looking at the illustration they can predict what the text will say and they can also use their knowledge of English to predict the text. The early reader is also able to use one cueing system to check another. The child knows that it will make sense for the text to say The elephant has large ears but their phonetic knowledge will indicate that there is an error. (text reads big ears) They will be able to search their memory now for a word that means the same as large but begins with a b. use illustrations to predict and confirm meaning. The illustrations in texts for early readers are very supportive. They do not include extraneous details so that the reader can gain obvious cues. When the reader turns to a new page of text they should first look at the picture and think about what words would make sense in the text. Once the reader has a sense of what the story will be about, it will be easier to read the text as they are expecting certain words. The illustrations also help early readers to confirm vocabulary. Once a sentence or two have been read, the reader can look at the illustrations and determine whether they match. use known spelling patterns to recognize new words. Early readers can, for instance, begin to use their knowledge of onset and rime to read new words. If a child knows the word and the words band, sand, land, or grand can be problem solved. When reading by analogy the child is using knowledge of one word to read another. It is a sophisticated but simple strategy that can be easily introduced in shared reading and writing with early readers. use their own experiences and background knowledge to predict meaning. The reader has to think about all they know about a topic before they begin reading a new book. By thinking about their own schema on a topic readers have a better chance of detecting when what they are reading does not make sense. 24

25 Running Records M02_L01_S06 Running Records The most important assessment a teacher can use to determine strategies an early reader is using is the running record. In a running record the teacher uses a pre-determined coding system to record everything the child says as they read the text. This can be analyzed to determine what strategies the child is using and what strategies the child needs to use more consistently. By determining the accuracy rate of the text the teacher can determine whether or not it was a good pick one that matches the needs of the reader. The teacher should sit beside the child so that they can both see the book (the child must be holding the book, the teacher looking over their shoulder) and the child reads aloud the whole book or a section of about 100 or 150 words. The teacher records the reading on a blank sheet of paper or on a running record form such as the one suggested in Teaching Children To Read and Write. If you are unfamiliar with the taking of a running record you may look in Teaching Children To Read and Write pages 6-16 to Spend time practicing the coding so that you can keep up to the reading rate of your students. Visit the two websites suggested below to learn more about taking and analysing a running record. 25

26 Appropriate Practice M02_L01_S07 Developmentally Appropriate Practice For the Early Reader Children at the early level of reading require a balanced approach to instruction. They need to hear clear demonstrates of what reading sounds like in authentic situations. They need to join with the teacher in shared experiences in reading where the teacher withdraws support as the reader demonstrates control of the strategy. They need to have many carefully planned opportunities to use the strategies they are developing as they read texts independently. This gradual release of responsibility, as explained in Module 1, is critical in developing confident, critical readers who can both decode and comprehend a variety of text forms. Most children who are Early readers are in Grade One but there are certainly children both below and above this grade level who require the support of this level of text. It is not the age or grade of the reader that is important when planning a literacy program it is the developmental levels of the children in the class. A classroom organized for literacy learning invites children to use print in purposeful ways: wherever possible, written language materials for reading and writing are incorporated naturally and authentically. Individuals and groups of children are able to interact with the materials independently, regularly freeing the teacher to work with individuals or groups. 2 Children learn by interacting with each other in a supportive environment. By talking about the strategies they are using and by hearing about strategies used by others, children develop a keen interest in reading and a variety of strategies to do so independently. 2 Fountas, Irene and Gay Su Pinnell. Guided Reading, Good First Teaching for All Children P

27 Classroom for Early Readers M02_L01_S08 Classrooms for Early Readers The classroom for early readers should be planned to contain the following: An environment rich in print Books in a variety of genres for the teacher to read and for children to look at and enjoy Sets of books that have been leveled so that children have opportunities to read books at their independent level Word wall of high frequency words that have been previously taught Charts, shared writing texts, poetry Student work Word study charts Simple picture dictionaries Variety of writing tools and paper for independent writing a large group area containing space for all children to sit with the teacher an easel to hold a big book for shared reading of a text pointers, word masks, magnetic letters, highlighter tape and many other literacy tools used to demonstrate various aspects of reading variety of read aloud books that have been carefully chosen to suit the needs and the interests of the children a white board or chart paper to demonstrate the writing process a comfortable reading corner cushions and./or pillows to lean on or against rich literature books in a variety of genre collections of books by favourite authors space for independent work such as writing centres that are designed for independent use an area for the teacher to work with small groups of children 27

28 Just Right Books M02_L01_S09 Just Right Books Early readers need time daily to read books just right books independently. These books should be slightly easier than the books they are reading in guided reading groups where the teacher is there for support. A collection of books that have previously been read in guided reading plus a collection of other texts that the teacher believes the children will enjoy and that are at a similar level of difficulty may be put into a box or a basket for the group to read during independent reading time. The books in this browsing box may be read many times as the children gain confidence and fluency with text that becomes more and more familiar. At the early level the browsing box should contain books in a range of genre. Browsing boxes will be explained in more detail in Module 6, Providing Follow-Up Activities. Early readers benefit from a variety of experiences that allow the child to develop simple strategies and make links between reading and writing. This should often happen at learning centres at which children work independently. Centres such as the book corner, the Writing Centre, an Alphabet Centre, and the Visual Arts Centre allow children to practice and build on their knowledge of the stories they are reading. By responding to books in many ways they develop comprehension strategies. Readers at this stage should have many opportunities to believe in themselves as readers. Scan photo of two girls using their browsing cereal box Figure 4these children enjoy frequent opportunities to reread books. They can access them easily during the day. 28

29 Assessment 2 M02_L01_S10 Assessment The assessment component of this module will focus on the application of understandings discussed in the module and their application to classroom experiences. It is understood in this course that the participant has had previous experiences with running records or has access to the text Teaching Children to Read and Write and has already read Pages 6-16 to 6-22 on running records. 1. The miscues in the following running record allow the teacher to analyze the strategies the child used to read. The child may have used any or all of the three main cueing systems in an attempt to read the word even though the word was miscued or not read correctly. Please identify the cues used by the student in the following samples from a running record. In each case ask Does it look right? Does it sound right? Does it make sense? Add the running record here Add the text on page 2 of Sooty Figure 5 Jones, Shelley. Sooty From Alphakids It is M S V Answer m s v It s gets M S V Answer M S V jumps What should the teacher suggest to this student? What will help this student become a more accurate reader? Using the Meaning Cues? Using the Structural Cues? Using the Visual Cues? Answer: Visual Cues [Note to Web developer: make the above into a multiple choice question] 29

30 Assessment 2 (Cont.) M02_L01_S11 The following statements are adapted form the National Association for the Education of Young Children s position paper on developmentally appropriate practice. 3 Drag the statements and place them in the table below. [Comment: statements in the chart demonstrate where they are to be placed in the final analysis. The first column will remain in place and the teachers will have to drag the statements into the other two columns. The statements will have to be somehow scattered for the teacher to drag them into the chart.] Developmentally Appropriate Practice Appropriate Practice Promoting a Positive Climate for Learning Environment and Schedule Learning Experiences Teaching Strategies Teachers ensure that the classrooms for young children are caring communities. Teachers support beginning friendships. Teachers plan a learning environment that allows children opportunities to explore materials and work with other children. Teachers plan a variety of concrete learning opportunities with materials and people relevant to children s experiences. Teachers observe and interact with individuals and small groups in all contexts so as to fully understand what the child knows and what the child can do with scaffolding. Inappropriate Practice No efforts are made to build a community of learners. The teacher separates children from friends and does not encourage conversation. The environment is disorderly with little structure or accountability. There is little variety or choice. Learning materials are primarily workbooks, flashcards, and other materials that focus on drill and practice. Teachers are uninvolved in children s play, exploration, and activities, viewing their role as supervisor. Teachers fail to take a role in advancing children s thinking, thinking children 3 Bredekamp, Sue and Carol Copple, Editors. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs.I P. 30

31 Curriculum Content Teachers use a variety of approaches and provide daily opportunities to develop children s language and literacy skills through meaningful experiences. Teachers use a variety of strategies to help children develop concepts and skills. will develop on their own. In reading and writing instruction teachers follow a rigid sequence of prerequisites. A single approach is taken for all students. Instruction focuses only on isolate skill development through memorization and rote. 31

32 Reflect on your own classroom. Does it more resemble the classroom identified as inappropriate practice? How can you adjust your classroom to reflect more developmentally appropriate practice? 32

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