Guided Reading for Early Readers

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Guided Reading for Early Readers"

Transcription

1 Title M00 L00 S01 Guided Reading for Early Readers Special Notes 1

2 Course Outline M00_L00_S02 Course Outline Title of Course Guided Reading for the Early Reader Overview of Course The core of a balanced literacy program is guided reading - the provision of small group instruction that is planned to meet the specific learning needs of that group. By understanding the strategies used by early readers and the text complexity that matches these strategies, teachers are able to carefully match readers and books so that reading progress is made. Target Audience Primary Teachers Prerequisites - An understanding of running records and/or access to the text Teaching Children To Read and Write Course Duration - 5 hours. Each of the six modules is expected to take approximately minutes. 2

3 Course Objectives M00_L00_S03 Course Objectives Module One: Understanding Guided Reading At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - know where guided reading fits within a balanced literacy program - understand the concept of a gradual release of responsibility - understand the zone of proximal development Module Two: Understanding Early Readers At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - understand how children use cues in the text to help them read - know the characteristics of early readers - understand developmentally appropriate practice Module Three: Understanding the Characteristics of Texts at the Early Level At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - know the characteristics of early texts - know what makes these texts challenging for early readers - be able to apply the leveling criteria for early texts to classroom texts Module Four: Matching Books To Readers At the conclusion of the module the teacher will: - know what to assess to choose appropriate texts for children - choose appropriate books to reinforce reading strategies Module Five: Conducting a Guided Reading Lesson At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - know how to introduce a new book or story - know how to guide children through the reading of a new text - know how to discuss strategy use with the children - choose appropriate responses to the text Module Six: Providing Literacy Activities At the conclusion of this module the teacher will: - have an understanding of effective and appropriate literacy responses - have an understanding of activities that will reinforce the children s learning 3

4 Module One: Introduction M01_L01_S01 Module One: Understanding Guided Reading Welcome to Guided Reading For the Early Reader. This course will provide you with an understanding of the guided reading component of a balanced literacy program. Guided reading is the core of the reading program the provision of small group instruction that is planned to meet the specific learning needs of that group. By understanding strategies used by early readers and the text complexity that matches these strategies, you will be able to carefully match readers and books so that reading progress is made. At the conclusion of this particular module you will: Know where guided reading fits within a balanced literacy program Understand the concept of a gradual release of responsibility Understand the zone of proximal development The assessment at the end of this module will help you to determine how well you understand balanced literacy and specifically, the place of guided reading in a balanced literacy plan. 4

5 What is Guided Reading? M01_L01_S02 What is Guided Reading? Guided reading is one approach that teachers use to help children develop the skills they need to read. It is an approach that involves a group of children with similar needs who read a text that is carefully chosen for that group. The text reflects the group s instructional level and it is one that will allow the teacher to introduce or reinforce a strategy that the group needs to employ to become more effective or efficient readers. The text must have a bit of a challenge to allow some reading work but not be so challenging that meaning is lost in the struggle to decode. Please note that if a child is reading an Early level text in Kindergarten the teacher may choose to introduce the book to that child during independent reading time. It is often difficult to group Kindergarten children into homogeneous groups and the text introduction and reading should be very brief. It is best accomplished individually. In Module 5 more specific information will be viewed in a Kindergarten website. 5

6 Teaching a New Strategy M01_L01_S03 When To Teach a New Strategy Guided reading is not a time to teach a new strategy. That is done in shared reading when all children in the group (whole class or small group) can see the text. A skill or strategy is explicitly taught in the context of authentic literature while the group reads the text together. A very supportive environment is created as the teacher reads with the children from a text that everyone can see. This may mean using a big book, or reading from a chart, a daily message or an anthology. In guided reading the child is able to apply the strategy independently while the teacher observes and prepares to offer assistance when needed. The text is placed in the child s or the group s box of independent reading material for frequent independent reading. Because the text is reread many times, children learn to read fluently and the vocabulary and reading strategies involved are reinforced and become automatic. 6

7 Comparison Chart M01_L01_S04 Comparison: Shared Reading vs. Guided Reading Shared Reading The teacher chooses a text that is moderately challenging for the majority of the class or group. (challenging text) The teacher is supportive because the text is challenging. The group reads the text together. Strategies are taught. Text features are taught. Guided Reading The teacher chooses a text that is only slightly challenging for members of the group or for individual students. (just right text) The text is supportive because it contains vocabulary and features that are known to the children. The teacher tries not to interfere with the reading. Members of the group read the text independently while they sit together as a group with the teacher. Strategies are practiced. Text features are used as strategies to read the text independently. Figure 1 Comparison between Shared Reading and Guided Reading 7

8 Teacher s Role M01_L01_S05 Teacher s Role The teacher spends the first part of a guided reading lesson helping the children to reflect on the topic of the book. The children are encouraged to think about their prior knowledge of the topic or develop knowledge about a topic that is new to them. This process helps the children to develop or activate schema and therefore to predict vocabulary and know that what they are reading makes sense. By helping children understand the language structures in the text prior to reading, the teacher ensures that the children will be able to follow the story structure and recognize key words. The children may also walk through the illustrations in the text to predict vocabulary and make sense of the story line. These pre-reading conversations help to ensure that the children have the groundwork in place for a successful reading of the text. The children do not leave the area to do the reading, but stay together and read the story or the selection to themselves in a quiet voice. The teacher is available to assist children in any way and to encourage them to use the strategies that were discussed prior to reading. While the children are reading the teacher has an opportunity to observe strategies the children are using and to evaluate the appropriateness of the text for each of these children. Because each child is reading at their own pace, the teacher is able to hear what strategies the child is using when they reach difficulty or to see when they require some support. It is easy for the teacher to offer simple guidance that will help them solve a specific problem because they are working in their reading zone (zone of proximal development). When all children have read the text, it is important to discuss the strategies they used to problem solve difficult words. This reinforces strategies the children have been using and suggests new strategies that others may use at a later time. 8

9 A Balanced Approach M01_L01_S06 A Balanced Approach To Literacy A Gradual Release of Responsibility Guided reading should be used as one of a number of instructional components in a balanced approach to literacy. Graphically, this information can be demonstrated by delineating the reading and writing components and by noting the individual components along a continuum of support. Reading Writing Levels of Support This box needs to go up the side of the graphic The text must be rotated to vertical. [Note to Developer: see sample diagram, next page this should be made into a better graphic by a designer] 9

10 Balanced Literacy A Framework to Support the Process of Learning To Read and Write Read Aloud Modeled Writing Shared Reading Shared Writing and Language Experience Guided Reading Interactive Writing Independent Reading Independent Writing From high teacher support to independence Foundations Oral Language Word Study / Spelling / Phonemic Awareness Literature Discussion [Note to Web developer: this is the diagram the author refers to in the previous page] 10

11 Opportunities M01_L01_S07 In a balanced program children should have opportunities to: hear stories read aloud to them daily by the teacher. A variety of texts from both fiction and non-fiction genres, should be introduced to children. The texts which are read aloud are ones that the children would find too difficult to read by themselves but ones which provide opportunities to engage in rich conversations to deepen comprehension. participate in shared reading activities in which the teacher introduces new strategies to the whole class or a specific group of children while engaging in the shared reading of a text. This text can be more complex than what the children can read independently because the teacher is there for support when the text becomes too challenging. participate in guided reading sessions regularly. The teacher must make decisions on how frequently to meet with each group of children. Those who struggle with their reading strategies should be seen in guided reading groups more frequently than those who are more proficient readers. These books are at an instructional level that is between 93 96% accuracy. read independently daily. Children need time to read books that are just right for them - ones that they can read accurately and fluently with no assistance from the teacher. They also need a time to review books that were read aloud, books that are of particular interest, written by a favourite author, illustrated by a favourite illustrator, etc. It is very appropriate for children to spend extended periods of time engaged with books. see the teacher model writing, demonstrating how the process sounds as the teacher thinks aloud the decisions that are made as a writer. The teacher may model a variety of texts from writing the daily message to writing a particular form of text such as a procedure for making cookies. participate in the creation of a joint text (shared writing) which the class or a small group of students develop with the teacher. The teacher has control of the story but works with the children to think through the process. The teacher may engage the children in interactive writing by asking a child to participate in the writing. A child is only asked to write something the teacher knows they can do correctly i.e. a high frequency word, their name, the initial or final letter of a word. 11

12 write independently every day. The topics should be ones the child has chosen to write about because of a personal interest or need. The teacher should have exposed children to various forms of writing so that the child can practice the independent writing of this form. 12

13 ZPD M01_L01_S08 Zone of Proximal Development Guided reading allows the teacher to work within what Vygotsky (1978) refers to as the child s zone of proximal development. This is the zone between a child s actual developmental level and the potential level at which they can achieve when given adult support. When support is provided for children within their zone of proximal development, they are in a very powerful learning situation. In guided reading, the child is given a book that they cannot quite read independently because there are a few challenges that can be overcome when supported by the teacher. It must also be supportive; containing many features with which the child is already familiar e.g., high frequency words, familiar topic, and distinct patterns. A difficult text would result in more than seven errors in 100 words (less than 93% accuracy), a guided reading text that is within that zone of proximal development can be read at between 93 and 96 % accuracy, and an easy or independent text is read at % accuracy. Think of a book that you might read yourself. If you made 5 errors for every 100 words read, it would be very difficult to read fluently, and it would be difficult to understand. Once comprehension breaks down we have lost the purpose for which we are reading. That same text would be easier to understand if someone sat with you and explained some of the difficult vocabulary or helped you to understand the context of the story and to help you to anticipate some of the vocabulary. This book would be in your zone of proximal development the level at which you can successfully read with support. Children require many reading opportunities within this zone, knowing that the teacher is there to offer specific demonstrations and support when the text becomes difficult. 13

14 Classroom Environment M01_L01_S09 photo of kindergarten classroom Classroom Environment In order to successfully implement a guided reading program in a primary classroom the teacher must ensure that the children are able to work independently. Questions or comments should not interrupt the teacher and the guided reading group by other members of the class. Prior to initiating guided reading groups, time must be taken to teach children how to work independently at a variety of reading activities or learning centres. A spot in the classroom must be chosen where the teacher can work in close proximity to the reading group but can also see the rest of the class as they work at other literacy activities. As soon as the teacher has finished working with one group of children, it is important to interact with the others to answer questions, celebrate their learning, clarify confusions, etc. In this way the children learn that if they hold their question for a few minutes while the teacher is busy with others, there will be a time for interaction when the guided reading group is finished. Children should be working in a classroom that is a very literate learning environment. They should be regularly engaging in reading activities with their classmates. The teacher should be reading aloud daily from a wide variety of books, and they should engage regularly in shared reading activities of exciting stories and poems. They should see literate materials around them in the classroom on the walls, on the shelves, on the teacher s desk, etc. The environment should identify to the children the importance in which literacy is placed in this environment. Links should be made between reading and writing as the strategies taught in one component should be reinforced in another. Once children have an opportunity to see the reciprocal relationship between the reading and writing components, they will begin to read as a writer and to write with the reader in mind. Figure 2 a Kindergarten or Grade One classroom must demonstrate to children the many purposes for writing. This Kindergarten classroom has many opportunities for children to understand the importance of print. 14

15 Assessment 1 M01_L01_S10 Assessment 1. Independent reading is to independent writing as reading aloud is to: a) Guided reading b) modeled writing c) shared reading d) independent reading Answer: b) modeled writing 2. When reading within the zone of proximal development, a child will: a) read most of the unfamiliar words accurately b) encounter many known high frequency words c) understand the text d) all of the above Answer: d) all of the above 3. Reading strategies should be taught in: a) Modeled reading b) Shared reading c) Guided reading d) Independent reading Answer: b) shared reading 4. Books read independently should: a) Be quite hard so the child can really work hard to figure out the words b) Have many challenges so that the child can practise reading a variety of new words c) A few challenges to make the reading interesting d) Very few challenges so that the children can concentrate on comprehension and fluency Answer: d) very few challenges 15

16 5. According to the Gradual Release of Responsibility model the most supportive components of a balanced literacy program are: (choose 2) a) Independent reading b) Modelled writing c) Shared reading d) Independent writing e) Shared writing f) Read aloud g) Guided reading h) Interactive writing Answer: read aloud and modelled writing 6. The least supportive components are: (choose 2) a) Independent reading b) Modelled writing c) Shared reading d) Independent writing e) Shared writing f) Read aloud g) Guided reading h) Interactive writing Answer: independent reading and independent writing 7. Moderate support is given through: (choose 4) a) Independent reading b) Modelled writing c) Shared reading d) Independent writing e) Shared writing f) Read aloud g) Guided reading h) Interactive writing Answers: Guided reading, shared reading, shared writing, interactive writing 16

17 Module 2: Introduction M02_L01_S01 Module 2: Understanding Early Readers Welcome to the second module of Guided Reading for Early Readers. In this module you will gain an understanding of how children use cues in the text to read accurately and with comprehension and some general literacy traits that distinguish the Early Readers from students in other developmental reading stages. You will also have an opportunity to think abut developmentally appropriate practice for the early reader. This will lead to an understanding of some appropriate classroom activities with which to engage early readers. The assessment for this module is based on the understanding that an analysis of a running record helps the teacher to make very individualized and quite accurate decisions on the instructional needs of students. It is also important to understand the learning needs of young children. For that reason the assessment activities are based on the teacher s ability to recognize developmentally appropriate practice and to analyse a running record. 17

18 The Three Cueing Systems M02_L01_S02 The Three Cueing Systems Before we can understand Early Readers we must first look at how all readers analyse the information that they encounter on a page of simple text. There are three main kinds of information that a text provides the reader. Meaning cues help the reader to make sense of what they are reading. The text at the early level is quite picture supported, allowing the reader to use pictures to confirm the meaning. This means that the pictures are critical to the child s ability to read the book independently. They do not have the detail that could be supported in more complex texts read by more sophisticated readers. If the story is about an elephant with large ears, the picture will clearly show this. If the child looks to the picture first, they will be able to predict that those words will be found in the text so that when they encounter those words they can read them. This cueing system is known as the semantic system. As children are reading they should ask themselves: Does this make sense? They should be monitoring their reading by thinking about words that would make sense in the context of story, thereby making predictions about what is going to happen in the story. Readers bring to the text: Prior knowledge about the topic Personal experiences Information gathered from the pictures 18

19 Structural cues help the reader to use their knowledge of how English works to predict or confirm vocabulary. This cueing system is known as the syntactic system. As children are reading they should ask themselves: Does this sound right? They should be monitoring their reading to determine whether what they are reading is the way that they would say it. When children become accustomed to this cueing system they learn to monitor their own reading and make corrections (self-correct) because it does not sound right. Then they have to think about what they would say and check the letters to see if that is what the text actually says. In the example referenced above, the child should know that the text would not say The elephant is big ears. It would not sound right. The child should know to change their reading to The elephant has big ears. This is obviously a cueing system that is difficult for those students who are learning English. These children require much exposure to good language role models to build their knowledge of how the text should sound. Readers bring to the text: knowledge of English simple grammatical structures and language patterns 19

20 Visual cues occur in the letters and letter clusters. This cueing system is known as the graphophonic system. As children are reading they should ask themselves: Does this look right? Readers have to look at the letters and match them to sounds. This does not necessarily mean that they sound out the words. It may mean that as the child predicts what the text will say, they should be monitoring their reading to determine whether the word they are saying matches the letters in the text. In the example referenced above, the child might read, The elephant has large ears. but when looking at the text would realize that large does not begin with a b. This should trigger the child to self correct their reading to The elephant has big ears. The visual system is often tricky to analyze. A child may in fact have used visual cues to read but still read the text incorrectly. If the child reads read for reads or cat for cot it can be assumed that the child did use visual cues to determine the word but could have used the visual cues more accurately. A child who reads trees for forest is not using the visual cues. This is very important to praise the child on using strategies that they tried while also reminding them of or teaching new strategies for decoding. Readers bring to the text: phonemic awareness knowledge of onset and rime letter knowledge 20

21 Early Readers M02_L01_S03 Characteristics of Early Readers Many leading authorities in literacy have developed similar criteria for categorizing texts as they increase in complexity and matching these texts to readers. David Hornsby in his book A Closer Look at Guided Reading 1 demonstrates how these authors criteria correspond. All sources appear to agree on the basic criteria for identifying the Early Reader but there may be some slight discrepancy amongst the sources. The criteria used in this course will be a compromise of the various authors. Clay (New Zealand) Fountas & Pinnell (USA) First Steps (Australia) Teaching Children To Read & Write (Canada) Emergent Early Fluent Emergent Early Transitional Self-extending Role-play Experimental Early Conventional Advanced Emergent Early Developing Primary Developing Junior Figure 3 Terminology used to explain the developmental stages of reading. This chart is adapted from the work of Hornsby (2000). Note: the texts and strategies used by the children may be slightly different in these stages depending on the criteria used by the author. 1 Hornsby, David. A Closer Look at Guided Reading P

22 Beginning Strategies M02_L01_S04 Beginning Strategies Generally, early readers are just learning to use reading strategies independently. They are beginning to integrate the three cueing systems: the semantic, the syntactic, and the graphophonic systems. This means that they are learning to look at the first letter of a word and use their knowledge of phonics to establish the beginning sound and then look at the picture to predict what the word may be. Then they would listen to their reading of the sentence to determine whether that word sounded right. Was it the correct part of speech? Was it the correct verb ending?, etc. Essentially the child is asking, Does this look right? Does it sound right? Does it make sense? 22

23 Early Reading Behaviours M02_L01_S05 [Note to Web developer: each of the points below is described in detail. Hyperlink each point to a box with the description that appear on clicking the point.] Early readers: are developing print concepts understand that print conveys a message knows the concept of a word, a letter, and a sentence aware of punctuation recognize many high frequency words are gaining control of reading strategies use illustrations to predict and confirm meaning use known spelling patterns to recognize new words use their own experiences and background knowledge to predict meaning [Descriptions of above points] Early readers: are developing print concepts. Beginning readers have much to learn about what to do with a book which way to hold it, where to start reading, how to turn the pages correctly. Each language has developed print concepts which may or may not be the same as English concepts. Because of this, many children who come from literate non-english speaking homes may have to learn appropriate book handling skills for English texts. Many of these are learned in the emergent stage. understand that print conveys a message. Emergent readers are encouraged to look at the pictures, hear the first few pages of the text read to them and then ready by following the pattern while interchanging words as the pictures indicate. The texts for early readers are written so that the reader must bring strategies to the text. They know that, although the pictures will support their reading, they must look to the print to tell the story. They also know that when they are reading, their story must make sense and if it does not, they should use their known strategies until it does. knows the concept of a word, a letter, and a sentence. These concepts blur for emergent readers but early readers must be able to distinguish amongst the marks on the page. If the teacher has worked on the development of phonemic awareness, the child should be able to hear some individual sounds within words, hear when words sound the same at the beginning (onset) or the end (rime) and know that the spaces are representative of new words. 23

24 aware of punctuation. The early reader is learning to use punctuation appropriately, usually in a shared reading experience, to read expressively. recognize many high frequency words. This is a very significant developmental step for early readers. Once certain high frequency words are known the child can begin building sentences. For example, if a child knows the, has, and, and a the child does not have to work at those words in a sentence such as: The elephant has big ears and a trunk. The illustration will accurately distinguish an elephant with obviously large ears and a trunk so the child will be able to use this illustration to predict vocabulary that may be encountered, read their known high frequency words, and work only on reading those specialized words. are gaining control of reading strategies. Early readers are learning when to apply a specific strategy over another. They are learning for instance that they do not have to sound every word out. By looking at the illustration they can predict what the text will say and they can also use their knowledge of English to predict the text. The early reader is also able to use one cueing system to check another. The child knows that it will make sense for the text to say The elephant has large ears but their phonetic knowledge will indicate that there is an error. (text reads big ears) They will be able to search their memory now for a word that means the same as large but begins with a b. use illustrations to predict and confirm meaning. The illustrations in texts for early readers are very supportive. They do not include extraneous details so that the reader can gain obvious cues. When the reader turns to a new page of text they should first look at the picture and think about what words would make sense in the text. Once the reader has a sense of what the story will be about, it will be easier to read the text as they are expecting certain words. The illustrations also help early readers to confirm vocabulary. Once a sentence or two have been read, the reader can look at the illustrations and determine whether they match. use known spelling patterns to recognize new words. Early readers can, for instance, begin to use their knowledge of onset and rime to read new words. If a child knows the word and the words band, sand, land, or grand can be problem solved. When reading by analogy the child is using knowledge of one word to read another. It is a sophisticated but simple strategy that can be easily introduced in shared reading and writing with early readers. use their own experiences and background knowledge to predict meaning. The reader has to think about all they know about a topic before they begin reading a new book. By thinking about their own schema on a topic readers have a better chance of detecting when what they are reading does not make sense. 24

25 Running Records M02_L01_S06 Running Records The most important assessment a teacher can use to determine strategies an early reader is using is the running record. In a running record the teacher uses a pre-determined coding system to record everything the child says as they read the text. This can be analyzed to determine what strategies the child is using and what strategies the child needs to use more consistently. By determining the accuracy rate of the text the teacher can determine whether or not it was a good pick one that matches the needs of the reader. The teacher should sit beside the child so that they can both see the book (the child must be holding the book, the teacher looking over their shoulder) and the child reads aloud the whole book or a section of about 100 or 150 words. The teacher records the reading on a blank sheet of paper or on a running record form such as the one suggested in Teaching Children To Read and Write. If you are unfamiliar with the taking of a running record you may look in Teaching Children To Read and Write pages 6-16 to Spend time practicing the coding so that you can keep up to the reading rate of your students. Visit the two websites suggested below to learn more about taking and analysing a running record. 25

26 Appropriate Practice M02_L01_S07 Developmentally Appropriate Practice For the Early Reader Children at the early level of reading require a balanced approach to instruction. They need to hear clear demonstrates of what reading sounds like in authentic situations. They need to join with the teacher in shared experiences in reading where the teacher withdraws support as the reader demonstrates control of the strategy. They need to have many carefully planned opportunities to use the strategies they are developing as they read texts independently. This gradual release of responsibility, as explained in Module 1, is critical in developing confident, critical readers who can both decode and comprehend a variety of text forms. Most children who are Early readers are in Grade One but there are certainly children both below and above this grade level who require the support of this level of text. It is not the age or grade of the reader that is important when planning a literacy program it is the developmental levels of the children in the class. A classroom organized for literacy learning invites children to use print in purposeful ways: wherever possible, written language materials for reading and writing are incorporated naturally and authentically. Individuals and groups of children are able to interact with the materials independently, regularly freeing the teacher to work with individuals or groups. 2 Children learn by interacting with each other in a supportive environment. By talking about the strategies they are using and by hearing about strategies used by others, children develop a keen interest in reading and a variety of strategies to do so independently. 2 Fountas, Irene and Gay Su Pinnell. Guided Reading, Good First Teaching for All Children P

27 Classroom for Early Readers M02_L01_S08 Classrooms for Early Readers The classroom for early readers should be planned to contain the following: An environment rich in print Books in a variety of genres for the teacher to read and for children to look at and enjoy Sets of books that have been leveled so that children have opportunities to read books at their independent level Word wall of high frequency words that have been previously taught Charts, shared writing texts, poetry Student work Word study charts Simple picture dictionaries Variety of writing tools and paper for independent writing a large group area containing space for all children to sit with the teacher an easel to hold a big book for shared reading of a text pointers, word masks, magnetic letters, highlighter tape and many other literacy tools used to demonstrate various aspects of reading variety of read aloud books that have been carefully chosen to suit the needs and the interests of the children a white board or chart paper to demonstrate the writing process a comfortable reading corner cushions and./or pillows to lean on or against rich literature books in a variety of genre collections of books by favourite authors space for independent work such as writing centres that are designed for independent use an area for the teacher to work with small groups of children 27

28 Just Right Books M02_L01_S09 Just Right Books Early readers need time daily to read books just right books independently. These books should be slightly easier than the books they are reading in guided reading groups where the teacher is there for support. A collection of books that have previously been read in guided reading plus a collection of other texts that the teacher believes the children will enjoy and that are at a similar level of difficulty may be put into a box or a basket for the group to read during independent reading time. The books in this browsing box may be read many times as the children gain confidence and fluency with text that becomes more and more familiar. At the early level the browsing box should contain books in a range of genre. Browsing boxes will be explained in more detail in Module 6, Providing Follow-Up Activities. Early readers benefit from a variety of experiences that allow the child to develop simple strategies and make links between reading and writing. This should often happen at learning centres at which children work independently. Centres such as the book corner, the Writing Centre, an Alphabet Centre, and the Visual Arts Centre allow children to practice and build on their knowledge of the stories they are reading. By responding to books in many ways they develop comprehension strategies. Readers at this stage should have many opportunities to believe in themselves as readers. Scan photo of two girls using their browsing cereal box Figure 4these children enjoy frequent opportunities to reread books. They can access them easily during the day. 28

29 Assessment 2 M02_L01_S10 Assessment The assessment component of this module will focus on the application of understandings discussed in the module and their application to classroom experiences. It is understood in this course that the participant has had previous experiences with running records or has access to the text Teaching Children to Read and Write and has already read Pages 6-16 to 6-22 on running records. 1. The miscues in the following running record allow the teacher to analyze the strategies the child used to read. The child may have used any or all of the three main cueing systems in an attempt to read the word even though the word was miscued or not read correctly. Please identify the cues used by the student in the following samples from a running record. In each case ask Does it look right? Does it sound right? Does it make sense? Add the running record here Add the text on page 2 of Sooty Figure 5 Jones, Shelley. Sooty From Alphakids It is M S V Answer m s v It s gets M S V Answer M S V jumps What should the teacher suggest to this student? What will help this student become a more accurate reader? Using the Meaning Cues? Using the Structural Cues? Using the Visual Cues? Answer: Visual Cues [Note to Web developer: make the above into a multiple choice question] 29

30 Assessment 2 (Cont.) M02_L01_S11 The following statements are adapted form the National Association for the Education of Young Children s position paper on developmentally appropriate practice. 3 Drag the statements and place them in the table below. [Comment: statements in the chart demonstrate where they are to be placed in the final analysis. The first column will remain in place and the teachers will have to drag the statements into the other two columns. The statements will have to be somehow scattered for the teacher to drag them into the chart.] Developmentally Appropriate Practice Appropriate Practice Promoting a Positive Climate for Learning Environment and Schedule Learning Experiences Teaching Strategies Teachers ensure that the classrooms for young children are caring communities. Teachers support beginning friendships. Teachers plan a learning environment that allows children opportunities to explore materials and work with other children. Teachers plan a variety of concrete learning opportunities with materials and people relevant to children s experiences. Teachers observe and interact with individuals and small groups in all contexts so as to fully understand what the child knows and what the child can do with scaffolding. Inappropriate Practice No efforts are made to build a community of learners. The teacher separates children from friends and does not encourage conversation. The environment is disorderly with little structure or accountability. There is little variety or choice. Learning materials are primarily workbooks, flashcards, and other materials that focus on drill and practice. Teachers are uninvolved in children s play, exploration, and activities, viewing their role as supervisor. Teachers fail to take a role in advancing children s thinking, thinking children 3 Bredekamp, Sue and Carol Copple, Editors. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs.I P. 30

31 Curriculum Content Teachers use a variety of approaches and provide daily opportunities to develop children s language and literacy skills through meaningful experiences. Teachers use a variety of strategies to help children develop concepts and skills. will develop on their own. In reading and writing instruction teachers follow a rigid sequence of prerequisites. A single approach is taken for all students. Instruction focuses only on isolate skill development through memorization and rote. 31

32 Reflect on your own classroom. Does it more resemble the classroom identified as inappropriate practice? How can you adjust your classroom to reflect more developmentally appropriate practice? 32

Guided Reading with Emergent Readers by Jeanne Clidas, Ph.D.

Guided Reading with Emergent Readers by Jeanne Clidas, Ph.D. Bebop Books Guided Reading with Emergent Readers by Jeanne Clidas, Ph.D. What Is Guided Reading? Guided reading involves a small group of children thinking, talking, and reading through a new text with

More information

Extra! Extra! Write all about it! Plainview ISD

Extra! Extra! Write all about it! Plainview ISD Extra! Extra! Write all about it! Plainview ISD To write well, Students must read well It is about more than test scores- it is about our children s future! Our school improvement model is the implementation

More information

How to Take Running Records

How to Take Running Records Running Records are taken to: guide teaching match readers to appropriate texts document growth overtime note strategies used group and regroup children for instruction How to Take Running Records (adapted

More information

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (1 and 2): The Research Base

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (1 and 2): The Research Base Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (1 and 2): The Research Base The Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System consists of a series of carefully designed benchmark books that measure

More information

Mendham Township School District Reading Curriculum Kindergarten

Mendham Township School District Reading Curriculum Kindergarten Mendham Township School District Reading Curriculum Kindergarten Kindergarten Unit 1: We Are Readers Exploring the Exciting World of Books Reading Level Benchmark: Emergent Story Books & Shared Reading

More information

FAQ about Reading Workshop

FAQ about Reading Workshop FAQ about Reading Workshop My child is in Level M. What does that mean as far as a grade level that I can understand? Several different systems exist today for organizing reading levels. The one used in

More information

English for academic year Class 1. Years R and 1. read and understand simple sentences

English for academic year Class 1. Years R and 1. read and understand simple sentences English for academic year Class 1 Years R and 1 Reading Word Reading Reception Children (Foundation Stage) read and understand simple sentences use phonic knowledge to decode regular words and read them

More information

The National Reading Panel: Five Components of Reading Instruction Frequently Asked Questions

The National Reading Panel: Five Components of Reading Instruction Frequently Asked Questions The National Reading Panel: Five Components of Reading Instruction Frequently Asked Questions Phonemic Awareness What is a phoneme? A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word. For example, the word

More information

Christ Church C of E (VA) Primary School and Nursery. Reading Policy

Christ Church C of E (VA) Primary School and Nursery. Reading Policy Christ Church C of E (VA) Primary School and Nursery Reading Policy Aims We aim to enable our pupils to read for enjoyment, confidently, fluently, accurately and with understanding. We aim to employ a

More information

Reading Competencies

Reading Competencies Reading Competencies The Third Grade Reading Guarantee legislation within Senate Bill 21 requires reading competencies to be adopted by the State Board no later than January 31, 2014. Reading competencies

More information

California. www.heinemann.com Phone: 800.225.5800

California. www.heinemann.com Phone: 800.225.5800 California Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 1 (Foundations in Language and Literacy) and The Continuum of Literacy Learning, Grades PreK 8: A Guide to Teaching by Gay Su Pinnell and Irene C. Fountas

More information

Grade 1 Reading and Literature Objectives

Grade 1 Reading and Literature Objectives Grade 1 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.1a Apply word analysis skills

More information

Grade 4 Reading Curriculum Map

Grade 4 Reading Curriculum Map Curriculum Map BOE Approval November 2013 CURRICULUM MAP READING GRADE 4 SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY Creating a Buzz About Books Fiction: Understanding Story Elements Fiction: Connecting

More information

The First 20 Days of Reading: Intermediate Description of Lessons

The First 20 Days of Reading: Intermediate Description of Lessons Day 1 The First 20 Days of Reading: Intermediate Description of Lessons Read Aloud & Independent Reading Read Aloud: Reading is Thinking! Teacher will model how they think as they read. Teacher will think

More information

Literacy. Work Stations. Source: Diller, D.(2003) Literacy Work Stations, Making Centers Work

Literacy. Work Stations. Source: Diller, D.(2003) Literacy Work Stations, Making Centers Work Literacy Work Stations Source: Diller, D.(2003) Literacy Work Stations, Making Centers Work Kyrene Reading Instruction Focus: Improve student achievement through implementation of curriculum and adopted

More information

Word Identification: A Teacher s Story

Word Identification: A Teacher s Story Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K 3) Series Word Identification: A Teacher s Story Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Building Capacity Through Education Written by the staff of the

More information

New National Curriculum 2014 Reading Objectives Year 1

New National Curriculum 2014 Reading Objectives Year 1 New National Curriculum 2014 Reading s Year 1 To make the assessment of reading slightly easier we have split the objectives up into three groups. Guided Reading; these are objectives easily assessed through

More information

Contents. A Word About This Guide... 3. Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?... 4. How Will My Child Learn to Read?... 4

Contents. A Word About This Guide... 3. Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?... 4. How Will My Child Learn to Read?... 4 Contents A Word About This Guide............................... 3 Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?................ 4 How Will My Child Learn to Read?....................... 4 How Can I Help My

More information

Elementary Language Arts

Elementary Language Arts Elementary Language Arts The Language Arts program challenges students to read, write, listen, and speak effectively in order to communicate with others. There is a strong literacy connection that is embedded

More information

KS1 CURRICULUM READING YEAR 1 YEAR 2

KS1 CURRICULUM READING YEAR 1 YEAR 2 KS1 CURRICULUM READING WORD READING YEAR 1 YEAR 2 WORD READING apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of

More information

Mersey Drive Community Primary Reading and Phonics Guidance for Parents.

Mersey Drive Community Primary Reading and Phonics Guidance for Parents. The Staff and Governors of the school recognise each pupil s entitlement to a rich and comprehensive programme of reading which will endeavour to ensure that each pupil develops an enjoyment of reading

More information

Exemplary Planning Commentary: Elementary Literacy

Exemplary Planning Commentary: Elementary Literacy Exemplary Planning Commentary: Elementary Literacy! This example commentary is for training purposes only. Copying or replicating responses from this example for use on a portfolio violates TPA policies.

More information

* In this guide, the word "parent" is meant to include guardians, caregivers, and other family members who can help young children learn to read.

* In this guide, the word parent is meant to include guardians, caregivers, and other family members who can help young children learn to read. A Parents Guide to Teaching Early Reading Skills You don't need to do everything suggested in this guide! Instead, read through the suggestions and choose the ones that you think will be most helpful for

More information

Engaging Young Readers with Text through Shared Reading Experiences

Engaging Young Readers with Text through Shared Reading Experiences Engaging Young Readers with Text through Shared Reading Experiences Barbara Honchell University of North Carolina at Wilmington Melissa Schulz Miami University of Ohio This article explores Shared Reading

More information

Using Leveled Text to Teach and Support Reading Strategies

Using Leveled Text to Teach and Support Reading Strategies Using Leveled Text to Teach and Support Reading Strategies The text structures of leveled text support the teaching of strategies along a developmental continuum. As the levels increase, the demands on

More information

Literacy Institute August 2013 Jessica Plemons

Literacy Institute August 2013 Jessica Plemons Literacy Institute August 2013 Jessica Plemons Introductions Jessica Plemons plemonsj@wawm.k12.wi.us http://mrsplemonskindergarten.blogspot.com Today s Objectives Participants will understand the research

More information

Fiction titles feature a variety of styles including narrative. X X X X X X X X

Fiction titles feature a variety of styles including narrative. X X X X X X X X READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE Key Ideas and Details 1.RL.1 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1.RL.2 Retell familiar stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding

More information

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS INTRODUCTION Clear student learning outcomes and high learning standards in the program of studies are designed to prepare students for present and future language requirements. Changes

More information

Teaching writing. Guide for Years 1 3. December 2009

Teaching writing. Guide for Years 1 3. December 2009 150624 Contents Building a supportive writing community 1 The teaching focus... 2 Planning modelled writing lessons 3 Before writing... 3 Step 1: Identifying the writing task in context and... 3 Step 2:

More information

FOSS and Common Core ELA Grade 4

FOSS and Common Core ELA Grade 4 Contents Introduction...1 Reading Standards for Informational Text...4 Reading Standards: Foundational Skills...8 Writing Standards... 10 Speaking and Listening Standards... 16 Language Standards... 22

More information

Grade 2 Reading and Literature Objectives

Grade 2 Reading and Literature Objectives Grade 2 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.1a Apply word analysis skills

More information

APPENDIX B CHECKLISTS

APPENDIX B CHECKLISTS APPENDIX B CHECKLISTS Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Third Grade 69 70 Teacher Visit 1 By: Date / / Time - WG SG Visit 2 By: Date / / Time - WG SG Visit 3 By: Date / / Time - WG SG VISITS 1 2 3

More information

Whitefield Schools and Centre

Whitefield Schools and Centre Whitefield Schools and Centre APPROACHES TO READING Position statement Key elements in teaching reading Learning to read is a complex activity. It may be the most complex subject to teach. It is widely

More information

Bedford Public Schools

Bedford Public Schools Bedford Public Schools Grade 3 English Language Arts The third grade program is an integrated study of communication skills that includes reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Building on grade two

More information

Standardized Criterion-referenced Tests Norm Referenced Tests Informal Reading Inventories Miscue Analyses Portfolio Assessment Running Records

Standardized Criterion-referenced Tests Norm Referenced Tests Informal Reading Inventories Miscue Analyses Portfolio Assessment Running Records Standardized Criterion-referenced Tests Norm Referenced Tests Informal Reading Inventories Miscue Analyses Portfolio Assessment Running Records Rubrics Retellings for Assessment Text Leveling In theory,

More information

End of Year Expectations in Year 1. Reading, Writing and Mathematics

End of Year Expectations in Year 1. Reading, Writing and Mathematics End of Year Expectations in Year 1 Reading, Writing and Mathematics Year 1 Expectations The following pages outline the national expectations for children in Year 1 by the end of the academic year. The

More information

English YEAR 4-6 AT SCHOOL AND HOME

English YEAR 4-6 AT SCHOOL AND HOME English YEAR 4-6 AT SCHOOL AND HOME stcuthberts.school.nz ENGLISH English is structured around two interconnected strands, each encompassing the oral, written, and visual forms of the language. The strands

More information

Reading: Text level guide

Reading: Text level guide Reading: Text level guide Text level guide for seen text and accompanying background information. As teachers we provide the range of experiences and the instruction necessary to help children become good

More information

An Early Childhood Practitioner s Guide: Developmentally Appropriate Literacy Practices for Preschool-Age Children

An Early Childhood Practitioner s Guide: Developmentally Appropriate Literacy Practices for Preschool-Age Children An Early Childhood Practitioner s Guide: Developmentally Appropriate Literacy Practices for Preschool-Age Children SUMMARY In her discussion of user-friendly and developmentally appropriate literacy strategies

More information

OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment

OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment Subject Area: Grade: Strand 1: Standard 1: Reading and Language Arts Kindergarten Reading Process The student demonstrates knowledge of the concept of

More information

Debbie Hepplewhite s suggestions for effective and supportive phonics provision and practice

Debbie Hepplewhite s suggestions for effective and supportive phonics provision and practice Debbie Hepplewhite s suggestions for effective and supportive phonics provision and practice Are the following suggestions features of your phonics provision and practice? You may find this information

More information

Reading Goals by Skills 1 st Grade. Content Standard 9: Comprehension. Content Standard 8: Foundations of Reading

Reading Goals by Skills 1 st Grade. Content Standard 9: Comprehension. Content Standard 8: Foundations of Reading Reading Goals by Skills 1 st Grade Content Standard 8: Foundations of Reading General Goal Name: Utilizing Concepts about Print SLE# Required Expectations R.8.1.1 Distinguish between letters, words and

More information

Support for Student Literacy

Support for Student Literacy Support for Student Literacy Introduction In today s schools, many students struggle with English language literacy. Some students grow up speaking, reading and/or writing other languages before being

More information

Our New Year 1 Curriculum

Our New Year 1 Curriculum Our New Year 1 Curriculum The New National Curriculum is concise and sets out the core knowledge that pupils should acquire. It states that pupils need to be ready for the next level of their learning

More information

Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1. Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark. Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27

Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1. Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark. Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27 Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1 Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27 Grade 1: Reading Process Concepts of Print Standard: The student demonstrates knowledge

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

More information

Reading Strategies by Level. Early Emergent Readers

Reading Strategies by Level. Early Emergent Readers The charts below were created as a common language for teachers and students in the Wallingford Public Schools in kindergarten through eighth grade. The level of the chart selected for use in the classroom

More information

Chapter 4: Basics of Writing and the Role of the Teacher

Chapter 4: Basics of Writing and the Role of the Teacher Chapter 4: Basics of Writing and the Role of the Teacher We believe all teaching stems from certain beliefs that each teacher holds. These beliefs are sometimes articulated and sometimes not, but they

More information

Revised Publishers Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy, Grades K 2

Revised Publishers Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy, Grades K 2 Revised Publishers Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy, Grades K 2 David Coleman Susan Pimentel INTRODUCTION Developed by two of the lead authors of the Common

More information

Parents guide to helping children at home with reading and writing

Parents guide to helping children at home with reading and writing Introduction What can I do to help my child learn to read? How are children taught to read and write at school? How can I avoid feeling frustrated especially when How do I eliminate the stress associated

More information

Reading and Writing in the EYFS

Reading and Writing in the EYFS Reading and Writing in the EYFS Aims of this session: Outline the expectations in Nursery and Reception for reading and writing Explain how we teach reading in the EYFS Give you some ideas on how you can

More information

Main Idea in Informational Text Grade Three

Main Idea in Informational Text Grade Three Ohio Standards Connection Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Benchmark C Identify the central ideas and supporting details of informational text. Indicator 3 Identify and list the important central

More information

What Does Research Tell Us About Teaching Reading to English Language Learners?

What Does Research Tell Us About Teaching Reading to English Language Learners? Jan/Feb 2007 What Does Research Tell Us About Teaching Reading to English Language Learners? By Suzanne Irujo, ELL Outlook Contributing Writer As a classroom teacher, I was largely ignorant of, and definitely

More information

Year 1 reading expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 writing expectations (New Curriculum)

Year 1 reading expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 writing expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 reading expectations Year 1 writing expectations Responds speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative

More information

Create stories, songs, plays, and rhymes in play activities. Act out familiar stories, songs, rhymes, plays in play activities

Create stories, songs, plays, and rhymes in play activities. Act out familiar stories, songs, rhymes, plays in play activities PRESCHOOL Language Arts Literacy Expectation 1 Children listen and respond to environmental sounds, directions, and conversations. NJCCC K-12 Standard 3.4 Listening Strand A: Active Listening Strand B:

More information

There are many reasons why reading can be hard. This handout describes

There are many reasons why reading can be hard. This handout describes Understand the problems a child may be having with reading, and target what you can do to help! Look inside for practical, research-based information for parents and teachers about: Phonological and Phonemic

More information

Mini-Lessons for FLUENCY

Mini-Lessons for FLUENCY Mini-Lessons for FLUENCY Rate 1. Fast finger: Guided Reading levels A-D) Prompt the child to Read it with a fast finger. Demonstrate this by having the students read it with their finger while you read

More information

Guided Reading with LEO AND THE BUTTERFLIES written and photographed by Jan Reynolds

Guided Reading with LEO AND THE BUTTERFLIES written and photographed by Jan Reynolds Bebop Books Page 1 Guided Reading with LEO AND THE BUTTERFLIES written and photographed by Jan Reynolds Nonfiction Guided Reading : J DRA: 18 Intervention: 18 24 pages, 348 words, plus Informational Note

More information

Speech and Language Development during Elementary School

Speech and Language Development during Elementary School Speech and Language Development during Elementary School By the end of kindergarten your child should be able to do the following: Follow 1-2 simple directions in a sequence Listen to and understand age-appropriate

More information

Figure 1: Outline for the 12 Literate Days Lessons in Book 1: Grounding Children in Routines and Procedures for Meaningful Learning

Figure 1: Outline for the 12 Literate Days Lessons in Book 1: Grounding Children in Routines and Procedures for Meaningful Learning Figure 1: Outline for the 12 Literate Days Lessons in Book 1: Grounding Children in Routines and Procedures for Meaningful Learning 1 The Morning Circle Routines: Focusing on What Matters Discuss the routines

More information

Table of Contents (includes selected charts and forms)

Table of Contents (includes selected charts and forms) Table of Contents (includes selected charts and forms) Acknowledgements... v Introduction... 1 Overview of Resource... 1 Chart: Developmental Differences Between Children in the Emerging Phase... 1 Chart:

More information

Monitoring for Meaning

Monitoring for Meaning Monitoring for Meaning Grades 3-5 eeee Wwh Monitoring comprehension is above all engagement. When readers monitor their thinking, they have an inner conversation with the text. They listen to the voice

More information

Make a Plan of Your Classroom

Make a Plan of Your Classroom Level D/5 Teacher s Guide Skills & Strategies Anchor Comprehension Strategy Identify Sequence of Events How-To Phonemic Awareness Count the number of sounds in words Phonics Initial, medial, and final

More information

FIRST 25 DAYS OF READING WORKSHOP (Kinder 3 rd grade)

FIRST 25 DAYS OF READING WORKSHOP (Kinder 3 rd grade) Why Reading Workshop? The purpose of reading workshop is to give students opportunities to read during the school day and to provide targeted and appropriate instruction. Reader s workshop allows for classrooms

More information

National Curriculum Levels

National Curriculum Levels National Curriculum Levels How do they work? 1 The National Curriculum Levels A few parents have asked for an explanation of the levelling system within the National Curriculum. From Year 1 onwards, then

More information

1. In which step of the listening process do listeners receive aural stimuli? a. hearing b. receiving c. attending d.

1. In which step of the listening process do listeners receive aural stimuli? a. hearing b. receiving c. attending d. Chapter 2 - Listening 1. In which step of the listening process do listeners receive aural stimuli? a. hearing b. receiving c. attending d. assigning meaning 2. Which step of the listening process focuses

More information

Weekly Lesson Plan for Shared Reading Kindergarten

Weekly Lesson Plan for Shared Reading Kindergarten Weekly Lesson Plan for Shared Reading Kindergarten Level: Emergent Week of: Note: This sample plan contains considerably more detail than you would include in your own day book plan. This level of detail

More information

Coaching and mentoring conversations for school improvement CASE STUDY. Coaching for implementing the Australian Curriculum Gray Primary School

Coaching and mentoring conversations for school improvement CASE STUDY. Coaching for implementing the Australian Curriculum Gray Primary School Coaching and mentoring conversations for school improvement CASE STUDY Coaching for implementing the Australian Curriculum Gray Primary School Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership Limited

More information

Daily Writing Time for first grade

Daily Writing Time for first grade Welcome Back, Superkids Daily Writing Time Unit 1, Review Lesson 1 Reproducible Page 2011 by Rowland Reading Foundation Name: Directions: Have children write a title in the box at the top and list items

More information

READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS

READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS Standard I. Standard II. Standard III. Standard IV. Components of Reading: The Reading Specialist applies knowledge of the interrelated components of reading across all developmental

More information

The Praxis Study Companion. Reading Specialist. www.ets.org/praxis

The Praxis Study Companion. Reading Specialist. www.ets.org/praxis The Praxis Study Companion Reading Specialist 5301 www.ets.org/praxis Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion Prepare to Show What You Know You have been working to

More information

TExES English Language Arts and Reading 4 8 (117) Test at a Glance

TExES English Language Arts and Reading 4 8 (117) Test at a Glance TExES English Language Arts and Reading 4 8 (117) Test at a Glance See the test preparation manual for complete information about the test along with sample questions, study tips and preparation resources.

More information

Grading Benchmarks FIRST GRADE. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1 st Student has achieved reading success at. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1st In above grade-level books, the

Grading Benchmarks FIRST GRADE. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1 st Student has achieved reading success at. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1st In above grade-level books, the READING 1.) Reads at grade level. 1 st Student has achieved reading success at Level 14-H or above. Student has achieved reading success at Level 10-F or 12-G. Student has achieved reading success at Level

More information

BALANCED LITERACY. Purpose: To develop phonemic awareness and spelling proficiency. 1. Learning to apply the sounds in the English Language.

BALANCED LITERACY. Purpose: To develop phonemic awareness and spelling proficiency. 1. Learning to apply the sounds in the English Language. BALANCED LITERACY A parent s guide to help your child become successful in reading and writing Created for you by the teachers of Cairo Elementary I. Word Study Block Purpose: To develop phonemic awareness

More information

Teaching Phonological Awareness in Preschool

Teaching Phonological Awareness in Preschool Presentation Full Details and Transcript Teaching Phonological Awareness in Preschool June 2007 Topic: Preschool Language and Literacy Practice: Teach Phonological Awareness Highlights Ms. Johnson learns

More information

FSD Kindergarten READING

FSD Kindergarten READING College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or

More information

Language Arts Through ESOL SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS--FLORIDA for DynEd s LET S GO (Pre-K-3)

Language Arts Through ESOL SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS--FLORIDA for DynEd s LET S GO (Pre-K-3) Language Arts Through ESOL SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS--FLORIDA for DynEd s LET S GO (Pre-K-3) General Description: Winner of 13 awards for educational excellence, Let s Go is a multimedia program designed

More information

Elementary English Pacing Guides for Henrico County Public Schools

Elementary English Pacing Guides for Henrico County Public Schools The revised Pacing Guide is the collaborative work of the 2013 Curriculum Committee, formed to critically consider the importance of the Curriculum as the foundation for all learning. With this in mind,

More information

WITH THE EARLY CHILDHOOD INDICATORS OF PROGRESS: MINNESOTA S EARLY LEARNING STANDARDS AND THE HEAD START CHILD OUTCOMES FRAMEWORK

WITH THE EARLY CHILDHOOD INDICATORS OF PROGRESS: MINNESOTA S EARLY LEARNING STANDARDS AND THE HEAD START CHILD OUTCOMES FRAMEWORK ALIGNMENT OF MINNESOTA K-12 KINDERGARTEN ACADEMIC STANDARDS WITH THE EARLY CHILDHOOD INDICATORS OF PROGRESS: MINNESOTA S EARLY LEARNING STANDARDS AND THE HEAD START CHILD OUTCOMES FRAMEWORK March 2005

More information

PROGRESS MONITORING CHECKLIST FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL)

PROGRESS MONITORING CHECKLIST FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL) LISTENING Standard : Students demonstrate competence in listening as a tool for learning and comprehension. Proficiency Level I: Students at this level are beginning to understand short utterances. They

More information

Reading Through The Book Bands

Reading Through The Book Bands Reading Through The Book Bands There are general guidelines about which book bands should be covered within each National Curriculum level. By the end of Term 1 in year 2, children working at the average

More information

WiggleWorks Aligns to Title I, Part A

WiggleWorks Aligns to Title I, Part A WiggleWorks Aligns to Title I, Part A The purpose of Title I, Part A Improving Basic Programs is to ensure that children in high-poverty schools meet challenging State academic content and student achievement

More information

Grade 1 Common Core State Standards

Grade 1 Common Core State Standards Reading Standards for Literature K 5 The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused

More information

Gretton Primary Academy Phonics Policy

Gretton Primary Academy Phonics Policy Gretton Primary Academy Phonics Policy Our pupils learn to read effectively and quickly using the Read Write Inc. Phonics programme. The Read Write Inc. Phonic programme The programme is for: pupils in

More information

Compiled By: Pat Elliott, Resource Teacher & Dale Mays, Grade 4 Teacher Simcoe County District School Board Ontario Canada

Compiled By: Pat Elliott, Resource Teacher & Dale Mays, Grade 4 Teacher Simcoe County District School Board Ontario Canada Compiled By: Pat Elliott, Resource Teacher & Dale Mays, Grade 4 Teacher Simcoe County District School Board Ontario Canada Literacy Circles There is no one right way to conduct literacy circles. The manner

More information

SCHENECTADY CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT LITERACY PLAN K-3

SCHENECTADY CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT LITERACY PLAN K-3 SCHENECTADY CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT LITERACY PLAN K-3 June 17, 2015 Table of Contents District Management Council Study... 1 Schenectady City School District Literacy Plan K-3... 2-3 Systematic Approach to

More information

Alberta Curriculum - English Language Arts PROGRESSION IS HIGHLIGHTED IN THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENT VIA BOLDED TEXT.

Alberta Curriculum - English Language Arts PROGRESSION IS HIGHLIGHTED IN THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENT VIA BOLDED TEXT. Alberta Curriculum - English Language Arts PROGRESSION IS HIGHLIGHTED IN THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENT VIA BOLDED TEXT. Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Express ideas and develop Share

More information

& Sample Lesson. Before Reading. Sight Word Review (1 minute)

& Sample Lesson. Before Reading. Sight Word Review (1 minute) Planning Support & Sample Lesson TIP The Early Guided Reading Lesson Plan found on page 190 in the Appendix is a template you can use to plan your lessons. Each component of the lesson is described in

More information

Mercer County Schools

Mercer County Schools Mercer County Schools PRIORITIZED CURRICULUM Reading/English Language Arts Content Maps Third Grade Mercer County Schools PRIORITIZED CURRICULUM The Mercer County Schools Prioritized Curriculum is composed

More information

What do Book Band levels mean?

What do Book Band levels mean? What do Book Band levels mean? Reading books are graded by difficulty by reading levels known as Book Bands. Each Book Band has its own colour. The chart below gives an indication of the range of Book

More information

Selecting Research Based Instructional Programs

Selecting Research Based Instructional Programs Selecting Research Based Instructional Programs Marcia L. Grek, Ph.D. Florida Center for Reading Research Georgia March, 2004 1 Goals for Today 1. Learn about the purpose, content, and process, for reviews

More information

Form: Filled in table. Method: Peer assessment. Tool: Checklist. Form: Completed table. Method: Peer assessment. Tool: Checklist

Form: Filled in table. Method: Peer assessment. Tool: Checklist. Form: Completed table. Method: Peer assessment. Tool: Checklist Lesson Plan English First Additional Language Grade 5 Content in context: Text from other Learning Area - Whether Los and ASs Learning Activities Details of Assessment Barriers to Learning LO 1 Listening

More information

LANGUAGE ARTS Grade 2 Standard: Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency

LANGUAGE ARTS Grade 2 Standard: Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Standard: Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Word Recognition, and Fluency A. Use letter-sound correspondence knowledge and structural analysis to decode words.

More information

KINDGERGARTEN. Listen to a story for a particular reason

KINDGERGARTEN. Listen to a story for a particular reason KINDGERGARTEN READING FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS Print Concepts Follow words from left to right in a text Follow words from top to bottom in a text Know when to turn the page in a book Show spaces between words

More information

ELL Considerations for Common Core-Aligned Tasks in English Language Arts

ELL Considerations for Common Core-Aligned Tasks in English Language Arts ELL Considerations for Common Core-Aligned Tasks in English Language Arts A substantial body of research clearly indicates that utilizing specific instructional modifications as well as targeted pedagogical

More information

Guided Reading with I HAD A HIPPOPOTAMUS written and illustrated by Hector Viveros Lee

Guided Reading with I HAD A HIPPOPOTAMUS written and illustrated by Hector Viveros Lee Bebop Books Page 1 Guided Reading with I HAD A HIPPOPOTAMUS written and illustrated by Hector Viveros Lee Fiction/Fantasy Guided Reading : D DRA: 4 Reading Recovery : 6 24 pages, 119 words Focus: using

More information

HAYDON WICK PRIMARY SCHOOL LITERACY POLICY

HAYDON WICK PRIMARY SCHOOL LITERACY POLICY HAYDON WICK PRIMARY SCHOOL LITERACY POLICY Introduction: Literacy at Haydon Wick Primary School: The use of English is the foundation of all learning. Literacy encompasses the skills of reading, writing,

More information

Supporting Your Emergent Reader & Writer

Supporting Your Emergent Reader & Writer Supporting Your Emergent Reader & Writer Lincoln School Principal's Coffee November 28, 2012 Gwen Blumberg, Literacy Specialist Cathlin O'Reilly, Literacy Intern/1st Grade Teacher Agenda: Stages of Reading

More information

Phonics Policy. St Michael s C of E Primary School North Road Highgate London N6 4BG Tel:

Phonics Policy. St Michael s C of E Primary School North Road Highgate London N6 4BG Tel: Phonics Policy St Michael s C of E Primary School North Road Highgate London N6 4BG Tel: 0208 340 7441 Date of issue September 2015 Renewal date September 2016 Responsible for this policy Rebecca Austin

More information

The following strategies have been shared by Kate Christensen from William Colenso College. Kate offers detailed explanations for how each strategy

The following strategies have been shared by Kate Christensen from William Colenso College. Kate offers detailed explanations for how each strategy The following strategies have been shared by Kate Christensen from William Colenso College. Kate offers detailed explanations for how each strategy support learners to develop comprehension skills, how

More information