Interactive Design The Role of Geotechnical Instruments

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1 17th European Young Geotechnical Engineer's Conference (EYGEC) 2006 Zagreb July 2006 Interactive Design The Role of Geotechnical Instruments Meho-Sa Saša a Kovačevi ević University of Zagreb Faculty of Civil Engineering

2 Overview Interactive geotechnical design Monitoring instruments Case studies Anchored diaphragm walls Reinforced Soil Structures Pile Foundations Tunnel Excavations Deep Excavations Addition to the interactive desing Conclusions

3 Interactive geotechnical design Geotechnical design has to deal with limited knowledge of ground conditions which introduces uncertainties and in turn design conservatism; Observations during construction may reduce uncertainties; if design can be adjusted accordingly, conservatism may be reduced and economy may benefit;

4 Interactive geotechnical design Geotechnical design approaches: Conventional approach - learn-then-go Finalized prior to construction; Observations during construction lost for optimization; Conservative design covering uncertainties; Interactive design - learn-as-you-go Advanced into the construction process utilizing observations during construction for optimization; conservatism may be reduced.

5 Monitoring instruments Eurocode 7 states the following requirements for monitoring:...a plan of monitoring shall be devised which will reveal whether the actual behaviour lies within acceptable limits. The monitoring shall make this clear at a sufficiently early stage; and with sufficiently short intervals to allow contingency actions to be undertaken successfully. The response time of the instruments and procedures for analysing the results shall be sufficiently rapid in relation to the possible evolution of the system...

6 Monitoring instruments The most commonly used instruments in geotechnical monitoring are: Surveying instruments Clinometers and Tiltmeters Inclinometers,, Extensometers, E Sliding deformeters, Sliding micrometers Measuring anchors Load cells Pressure cells Strain gauges Piezometers etc.

7 Monitoring instruments Surveying instruments 3D displacements of ground and geotechnical structures Accuracy: 1 mm Typical Applications: Monitoring magnitude and rate of horizontal and vertical deformations of ground surface and structures Monitoring deformation due to nearby construction activity or to slope movements Monitoring deformation in tunnels under construction to ensure safety and to verify that actual performance conforms to predictions

8 Clinometer Monitoring instruments Change in rotation of points on or in the ground or a structure Accuracy: 0,003 mm/m Typical Applications: Monitoring rotation caused by mining, tunneling, soil compaction or excavation Monitoring rotation and deflection of concrete dams, bridges or retaining walls Monitoring rotation of existing buildings closely surrounded the construction site

9 Inclinometer Monitoring instruments Lateral deformations along the borehole Accuracy: 0,1 mm/m Typical Applications: Determination of potential slip surfaces Monitoring lateral movements in embankments and landslide areas Monitoring deflections of retaining walls and piles Monitoring deformations of excavation walls, tunnels and shafts

10 Monitoring instruments Sliding deformeter and Sliding micrometer Longitudinal deformations along the borehole Accuracy: 0,03 mm/m to 0,003 mm/m Typical Applications: Determination of potential slip surfaces Monitoring strain development in tunnels and underground openings Monitoring strain profiles in dams, embankments, excavations etc. Monitoring settlement in foundations

11 Monitoring instruments Measuring anchors Deformations along the anchor Combination of an anchor or rock bolt and an extensometer. Accuracy: 0,01 mm Typical Applications: Determination of te optimal anchor length Underground cavities where the formation of rock supporting ring is intended by system anchoring Control of the anchor body in the individual depth ranges

12 Load cells Monitoring instruments Load in foundation anchors or rock bolts, tunnel excavation support or static pile tests Nominal load: 250 to 2500 kn Accuracy: 0,5% of FS Typical Applications: Performance monitoring in underground construction Retaining walls and excavation support Slope engineering Pile load and pile load tests

13 Monitoring instruments Pressure cells Stress changes in concrete, soil and fills, contact joints and in boreholes Nominal pressure: 2 to 200 bars Accuracy: 0,25% of FS Typical Applications: Radial and tangential pressure in tunnels Earth and foundation pressure in foundation engineering Secondary stress state in geomechanics Total soil pressures in landfills and dams

14 Monitoring instruments Strain gauges Strain in steel, reinforced concrete and mass concrete Accuracy: 1 microstrain Typical Applications: Mesuring strain in tunnel linings and supports Monitoring structural members of buildings and bridges during and after construction Monitorig load in strutting systems for deep excavations Determining load changes on ground anchors or rock bolts

15 Piezometers Pore water pressures Monitoring instruments Standpipe, Pneumatic, VW piezometers Nominal pressure: 2 to 40 bars Accuracy: 0,1 % of FS Typical Applications: Determine the stability of natural slopes, embankments and dams Determine safe rates of fill and excavation Monitoring the effects of dewatering systems used for excavations Monitoring ground improvement technics such as vertical drains, sand drains and dynamic compaction

16 Anchored diaphragm wall depth, m fill -2 ±0 elevation m firm clay gravel stiff clay grouted length free length prestressed anchor Diaphragm wall with inclinometers

17 Anchored diaphragm wall JOB TITLE : DIJAFRAGMA, IBLEROV TRG, FAZA 7 (*10^1) 0 FLAC (Version 3.40) LEGEND 29-Mar-99 14:45 step E+01 <x< 2.311E E+01 <y< 3.661E Stage 2 Boundary plot 0 1E 1 Displacement vectors Max Vector = 3.063E E -1 Beam plot Cable plot Depth (m) Stage 4 Stage University of Zagreb Faculty of Civil Engineering (*10^1) predicted measured Displacement (cm)

18 Reinforced soil structure m 2.75 : D-3 D-3 deformeter D-1 readings 0+8,55 m D-2 D-2 0+3,05 m 2.75 : 1 D-1 0+0,00 m m

19 Krapincica viaduct

20 Krapincica viaduct

21 Krapincica viaduct Jet grouted columns

22 Krapincica viaduct sliding micrometer

23 Krapincica viaduct Longitudinal force (kn) Pile skin friction (kn/m') pile cup construction 1 pile cup construction Depth (m) -4 Depth (m) pile base Bridge pier Load (kn) Pile cup construction (%) Pile base (%) Skin friction (%) S3D S3L S4D S4L pile base

24 St Mark s s tunnel excavation

25 St Mark s s tunnel excavation

26 St Mark s s tunnel excavation settlement 1 cm

27 St Mark s s tunnel excavation

28 Zagrad excavation 30 VERTICAL INCLINOMETER - DEFORMETER POMERIO ST. No.19 Elevation (m) POMERIO ST. SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=16.0 m Horizontal deformeter L=16.0 m SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=16.0 m Horizontal distance (m) SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=12.0 m 30 35

29 Kaufland excavation V CRNCIC ST. BUILDING Slope line before excavationh Elevation (m) terrace level foundation level SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=12.00 m SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=9.00 m SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=6.00 m V - vertical inclinometer - deformeter L=18.00 m H - horizontal deformeter L=15.00 m Horizontal distance (m) 40

30 Lenac excavation ROCKBOLTS L=9.00 m SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=12.00 m ROCKBOLTS L=6.00 m VERTICAL INCLINOMETER - DEFORMETER L=40.0 m Horizontal deformeter L=15.00 m Horizontal distance (m) Elevation (m)

31 WTC excavation Elevation (m) H V ROCKBOLTS L=5.00 m SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=9.00 m SELF-DRILLING ROCKBOLTS L=6.00 m V - vertical inclinometer - deformeter L=16.00 m H - horizontal deformeter L=15.00 m Horizontal distance (m)

32 Acoustic emission

33 Acoustic emission

34 Acoustic emission

35 Acoustic emission Tensile force (kn) Number of counts/tensile force (n/kn)

36 Conclusions 1. The Interactive geotechnical design is a powerful design tool. A rational design, which makes provisions for geotechnical monitoring, can provide a substantial improvement in geotechnical construction both in terms of safety and saving. 2. Another great advantage of monitoring is in the gathering of very valuable information on in situ soil and rock behaviour during construction works.

37 Conclusions 3. Sophisticated S nonlinear constitutive models can be used with data bases provided by geotechnical measurements. 4. Back analyses can substantially improve our knowledge on soil parameters and soil behaviour in general.

38 Thank you for your attention

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