CHAPTER 4 FLOODING REDUCED - DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL

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4 114 sequence number, the node will consider the update packet with the shortest hop count and ignore the rest. For example, a node S receives a route advertisement from node I for destination node D with sequence number n and metric m (shortest path). The node S will determine the following procedures based on the situations. If the value of the sequence number n is greater or newer than the sequence number in node S s current route entry, node S replaces its current entry with the new route through the node I. The Node S accepts the new route if the sequence number is the same, but the metric m (shortest path) is better than the metric of the current route. If node S has no route to destination node D, then it accepts the new route. Otherwise, node S simply ignores the new route advertisement. 4.3 DSDV ROUTING PROTOCOL OVERVIEW WITH EXAMPLES The node N4 wishes to send a packet to the node N5 as shown in the Figure The node N4 looks up its routing table and locates that the next hop for routing the packet. Here, the next hop is node N6 for the destination N5. 2 The node N4 sends the packet to N6 as shown in Table.4.1. The Table. 4.1 shows the routing protocol of node N4 at one instance.

5 115 3 The node N6 looks up the next hop for the destination node N5 in its routing table when it receives the packet. 4 The node N6 then transmits the packet to the next hop N7 as specified in the routing table. It is shown in the Table 4.2. The Table 4.2 shows the routing table of node N6. 5 The node N7 checks its routing table to locate the destinations node N5. This above routing procedure repeated along the path until the packet finally arrives its destination node N5. N3 N4 N5 N2 N6 N8 N1 N7 Figure 4.1 An Example of MANET

6 116 Table 4.1 Node N4 transmits a packet to node N6 for forwarding Node N4 Destination node Next Hop Metric Seq. No. Seq. No. Assigned by N1 N2 2 S380 N1 N2 N2 1 S125 N2 N3 N2 2 S440 N3 N4 N4 0 S226 N4 N5 N6 4 S380 N5 N6 N6 1 S065 N6 N7 N6 21 S180 N7. Table 4.2 Node N6 transmits a packet to node N7 for forwarding Node N6 Destination node Next Hop Metric Seq. No. Seq. No. Assigned by N1 N4 3 S380 N1 N2 N4 2 S125 N2 N3 N4 3 S440 N3 N4 N4 1 S226 N4 N5 N7 3 S380 N5 N6 N6 0 S065 N6 N7 N7 1 S180 N7 Route update procedure The following procedures illustrate how a node processes an update packet under different situations. The nodes accept the update packets with higher sequence numbers and it is entered into the routing table, regardless of whether they have a higher metric or not. The route update changes are made in the routing table which is denoted by using the symbol

7 117 Situation I 1. The route update packet is accepted for updating the route entry in the current routing table of node N3. Here, the value of sequence number in route update packet (Table 4.3b) is newer than the old route entry (Table 4.3a) in the routing table. The Table 4.3c shows the updated routing table of the node N3. Table 4.3 Node N3 accept the update packets a Node N3 routing table Destination Metric Next Hop Seq. # N1 2 N2 S48 N2 1 N2 S34 N4 2 N2 S45 b Route update packet of the Node N3 Destination N1 Metric 2 Next Hop N2 Seq. # S56 c Updated routing table of Node N3 Destination Metric Next Hop Seq. # N1 2 N2 S56. N2 1 N2 S34 N4 2 N2 S45

8 118 Situation II 2. The route update packet is ignored for updating the route entry in the current routing table of node N3. Here, the value of sequence number in update packet (Table 4.4b) is lesser than the old route entry (Table 4.4a) in the routing table, even though the shortest hop count in the route entry. The Table 4.4c shows the updated routing table of the node N3. Table 4.4 Node N3 ignore the update packets a Node N3 routing table Destination Metric Next Hop Seq. # N1 2 N2 S48 N2 1 N2 S34 N4 2 N2 S45 b Route update packet of the Node N3 Destination N4 Metric 1 Next Hop N2 Seq. # S35 c Updated routing table of Node N3 Destination Metric Next Hop Seq. # N1 2 N2 S48 N2 1 N2 S34 N4 2 N2 S45

9 119 Each node in the network must periodically transmit its entire routing table to its neighbors using update packets. The neighbors will update their tables based on this information, if required. Likewise each node will listen to its neighbors update packets and update its own routing table. The Table 4.5 illustrates an example of the link broken. Assume that the link between the node N6 and N7 is broken as shown in the Figure 4.1. The node N6 detects the link broken due to timer expired and this link status is broadcasted to node N4 through the broadcast packet (Table 4.5a). Table 4.5: An example of Links broken between the nodes N4 and N6 a Node N6 advertised table Destination Next hop Metric Sequence number N7 N7 (Infinite) S237-N7 N4 N4 1 S123-N4 b Node N4 routing table Destination Next hop Metric Sequence number N6 N6 1 S345-N6 N2 N2 1 S213-N2 N7 N6 2 S236-N7 c Updated routing table of Node N4 Destination Next hop Metric Sequence number N6 N6 1 S126-N6 N2 N2 1 S365-N2 N7 N6 (Infinite) S237-N7

13 123 a message to its neighbors upon receiving for the first time. Each node forwards a received route request packet once until a destination is reached. This method is known as simple flooding. Once a route to a destination has been established, all the intermediate nodes along the route adhere to the forwarding responsibilities of data packets. Here, all the intermediate nodes are involved in forwarding and it leads to a serious problem, often known as a broadcast storm problem. The probability flooding is one of the alternative approaches to simple flooding that aims to reduce redundancy through predetermined probability in an attempt to alleviate the broadcast storm problem. Optimum Density Based model for probability Flooding In the fixed probabilistic flooding, if the rebroadcast probability p for a node is set to a far smaller value, then the reachability will be poor. On the other hand, if the rebroadcast probability p for a node is set to a far larger value, then many redundant rebroadcasts, channel contention, and packet collision will be generated. So, the need for optimum density based model for probabilistic flooding, thus, rises. This optimum density based model increases the rebroadcast probability if the value of the number of neighbors is too low, which indirectly causes the probability at neighboring hosts to be incremented. Similarly, optimum density based model decrease the rebroadcast probabilities if the value of a number of neighbors is too high. Periodic Update and Triggered Update in DSDV In DSDV, there are two types of update message functions namely periodic update messages and triggered update messages. This will be controlled by scheduled timers. It means those functions will be called systematically and periodically throughout the functioning of the routing algorithm.

15 125 avoiding duplicate update messages. In FR-DSDV, if the density of the node is high, then the probability value for broadcasting the route update messages will be lesser for reducing the broadcast overhead, on the other side, if the density of the node is less, then the probability value will be higher for better reachability to the neighboring nodes. It is explained as follows: On Update () { if < 2 then DoTheUpdate () ReScheduleTheUpdate () } else { SkipTheUpdateNow () } is a probability (randomly chosen between 0 and 1) 2 is the probability in which it should re-broadcast the packet. Where, 2 = 1 / i * i - neighbor count of node i - minimum neighbors threshold

16 126 The above On Update () segment is executed according to the type of update messages received by the node; it may be a periodic or triggered update with respect to the situation. This code segment is reducing the flooding overhead in DSDV without affecting it's functionality and performance. The FR-DSDV reduces the flooding overhead by reducing the duplicate update messages which will reduce the congestion of the network at high density regions. In addition to that, the other layer broadcast messages are also controlled in the same way. OnMessageBroadcast () { If < 2 then BroadcastThePacket () } else { SkipTheBroadcast () FreeThePacket () } probability (randomly chosen between 0 and 1) 2 is the probability in which it should re-broadcast the packet. Where, 2 = 1 / i * i - neighbor count of node i - minimum neighbors threshold

17 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF FR-DSDV WITH DSDV Simulation Parameters The Table 4.7 shows the simulation parameters used for DSDV and FR-DSDV routing protocol in ns2 simulation. Table 4.7 Simulation parameters used for DSDV and FR-DSDV Simulation Parameters Channel type Radio-propagation model Antenna type Interface queue type Value WirelessChannel TwoRayGround OmniAntenna DropTail/PriQueue MAC type 802_11 Max packets in Queue 50 Topographical Area Routing protocols 800m x 800m DSDV / FR_DSDV Nodes in the Network 10,20,30,40 and 50 Mobility Model Traffic CBR Packet Size Random Waypoint Mobility CBR over UDP 512 Bytes CBR Interval 0.1 s CBR sources CBR sinks 25 % Nodes 25 % Nodes

18 Performance Metrics and Results The performance of the new method FR-DSDV is implemented and compared to normal DSDV routing protocol. It is demonstrated that a new method has superior performance characteristics with respect to the metrics such as MAC load, routing load, throughput, dropped packets, and power consumption. The following important performance metrics are considered for evaluation of FR-DSDV routing protocol. MAC load In this study, MAC load represents the number of control packets generated and disseminated throughout the network during the flooding process in the network. The average number of control packets produced per mobile node. Routing load The routing load means the average number of routing messages generated at the network layer in the overall network to each data packet successfully delivered to the destination. Throughput Throughput is defined as the total number of data packets received (bytes) at destinations in one second. Dropped packets In this study, dropped packets are considered as a metric and it indirectly measured the overhead/impact due to excess flooding.

19 129 Power consumption of n packets. It is measured as the total consumed energy (in joules) for delivery The following simulation results show the comparison of DSDV and FR-DSDV with respect to transmitted and received control messages, routing load, MAC load, throughput, dropped packets, and power consumption. Figure 4.2 Comparisons of transmitted control messages DSDV and FR-DSDV Figures 4.2 and 4.3 show the performance of DSDV and FR-DSDV routing protocols with respect to transmitted and received control messages in the network. Broadcasting in DSDV is done periodically to maintain routing updates and local connectivity, informing each neighbor node of other nodes in its neighborhood. In FR-DSDV, the periodic update messages and triggered update messages are scheduled with respect to the density of the node. Hence,

20 130 the FR-DSDV protocol generates a less number of transmitted and received control messages when compared to DSDV protocol. The Tables 4.8 and 4.9 show the value of the transmitted and received control packets with respect to the number of nodes in DSDV and FR-DSDV. Table 4.8 Comparison of Transmitted control messages DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.3 Comparisons of received control messages DSDV and FR-DSDV

21 131 Table 4.9 Comparison of received control Messages DSDV and FR- DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.4 Comparisons of routing load - DSDV and FR-DSDV Table 4.10 Comparison of routing load DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV

22 132 Figures 4.4 and 4.5 show the performance of DSDV and FR-DSDV with respect to routing load and MAC load. The DSDV uses routing tables, one route per destination, and destination sequence numbers, a mechanism to prevent loops and to determine the freshness of routes. Due to the number of duplicate update messages generated by the all the nodes, overhead in DSDV is more when the network is large and it becomes harder to maintain the routing table at every node. The MAC load is consistently low in FR-DSDV and DSDV especially for a small number of nodes. The FR- DSDV reduces the number of duplicate update messages by applying density based flooding methods and thereby the congestion will be decreased. Hence, the FR-DSDV has very low MAC load and routing load than the DSDV. Figure 4.5 Comparisons of MAC Load - DSDV and FR-DSDV The Tables 4.10 and 4.11 shows the comparison of routing load and MAC load in DSDV and FR-DSDV.

23 133 Table 4.11 Comparison of MAC Load DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.6 Comparisons of throughput - DSDV and FR-DSDV In Figure 4.6, throughput decreases comparatively in DSDV as it needs to advertise periodic updates at pre-determined interval and eventdriven updates are scheduled with respect to the situation. On the other side, throughput increases in FR-DSDV since the periodic update and triggered update messages are scheduled with respect to the density of the node and its

24 134 probabilities, instead of on a periodic triggered update as in basic DSDV. The Table.4.12 shows the comparison of throughput DSDV and FR-DSDV. Table 4.12 Comparison of throughput DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.7 Comparisons of dropped packets - DSDV and FR-DSDV In Figure 4.7, the number of dropped packets during the flooding will be decreased since the minimum number of nodes involved in broadcasting the update packets. The density based flooding concept is used in

25 135 periodic and triggered update messages of FR-DSDV which will reduce the flooding the number of messages based on the density of the nodes. The Table 4.13 shows the comparison of dropped packets DSDV and FR-DSDV. Table 4.13 Comparison of dropped packets - DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.8 Comparisons of average remaining power-dsdv and FR- DSDV

26 136 The Figure 4.8 shows the average remaining power used by the DSDV and FR-DSDV. This graph shows that the average remaining power of FR-DSDV is high when compared to the DSDV protocol. In FR-DSDV, periodic and triggered update messages are transmitted based on the probability value of the node. In case of DSDV, all the nodes involved in broadcasting the periodic and triggered update messages in the network. The Table.4.14 shows the comparison of average remaining power DSDV and FR-DSDV with respect to different number of nodes. Table 4.14 Comparison of average remaining power-dsdv and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV The Figure 4.9 shows the average consumed power used by the DSDV and FR-DSDV. This graph shows that the average consumed power of FR-DSDV is very less when compared to the DSDV protocol. The dissemination of transmitted and received control messages of a node is controlled in FR-DSDV by implementing density based flooding in periodic and trigger update messages in the network. DSDV consumes valuable network resources such as bandwidth and node power due to the number of duplicate update messages are broadcasted on the network. The Table 4.15 shows the comparison of average consumed power DSDV and FR-DSDV.

27 137 Figure 4.9 Comparisons of average consumed power-dsdv and FR-DSDV Table 4.15 Comparison of average consumed power-dsdv and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV SUMMARY This chapter has presented a new approach namely Flooding Reduced Destination Sequence Distanced Vector Routing protocol for reducing the broadcast overhead in the DSDV routing protocol. This chapter has compared the performance of FR-DSDV against the normal DSDV with

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