CHAPTER 4 FLOODING REDUCED - DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL

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1 111 CHAPTER 4 FLOODING REDUCED - DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL 4.1 INTRODUCTION The chapter two describes the analysis and implementation on the impact of broadcast mechanism in routing protocols such as DSR, AODV and DSDV with respect to the network performance. The simulation results show the overhead due to the broadcast mechanisms used in all three routing scenarios using the performance metrics namely sent and received broadcast packets, network load, MAC load, throughput and dropped packets due to error and collision. From the obtained results, it is proved that the DSDV and AODV are the protocols having high overhead due to the heavy use of broadcasting in their protocol design. The overhead realized in DSDV protocol is due to the periodic and triggered timer route updates which flood in the network very often with a route update packet of different sizes. In addition to that the performance of the DSDV in terms of throughput is also poor in high mobility. Hence, it is considered to improve the performance of the DSDV protocol with respect to MAC load, routing load, throughput, and power consumption by implementing the proposed method namely Flooding Reduced-Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol (FR-DSDV).

2 DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL The DSDV is a proactive or table-driven routing protocol, requiring each Mobile Node (MN) to broadcast routing updates periodically for determining the route in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). In a MANET, a MN acts as a router and so each MN maintains a routing table for all possible destinations, and the number of hops to each destination node. Using this routing table information of each MN, the packets are forwarded between the MN of a MANET. With this feature, routing information can be always readily available, regardless of which the node requires the information or not. Each route entry in the routing table marked with a sequence number assigned by the destination MN. It enables the MN to distinguish the stale route from new routes for avoiding the route loop problem in MANET. The sequence number is linked to a destination node and is originated by the sender node. The sequence number is maintained by the destination node of a route entry and is increased whenever the MN broadcast or publishes its routing information. The value of the sequence number is used by all the other nodes in the network to determine the freshness of the route information contained in a route update for the destination. Since the value is incremented, a higher sequence number implies that the routing information is newer. The link failure may be detected by the MAC layer (layer 2) which may be denoted as infinity. When a route or link is broken due to mobility and node power in a network then immediately that metric is assigned as infinity and issues a route update to the other nodes regarding the link status. The routing table updates are periodically broadcast throughout the network in order to maintain consistency in the table. To alleviate potentially large

3 113 network traffic due to routing updates, the updates are done in periodic and triggered fashion. The periodic update occurs at predetermined regular intervals, a node broadcasts its entire routing table in a packet termed as full dump. The incremental routing update packets are used when triggered significant topological change cases such as node mobility, link breakages, and node power. The incremental dump packets are used to transmit only the information that has changed since the last full dump. The triggered updates with incremental dump packets result in the reduced overhead incurred by the protocol. When a network is stable, incremental updates are sent and full dump is usually infrequent. On the other side, full dumps will be more frequent in a fast moving network. When a node receives the new routing broadcasts contain the following parameters in a routing table: i) Address of the destination node, ii) iii) The hop count of the current node to the destination node, and The highest known sequence number for the destination. After receiving the route update packet, the neighbors update their routing tables with incrementing the metric and rebroadcast the update packet to the corresponding neighbors of the node in a network. This process will be repeated until all the nodes in the network received a copy of the update packet. When a node receives a route entry for a particular destination node with a higher sequence number its old route entry is replaced with the newer route. Since the new entry is greater or newer than the old entry. If a node receives duplicate update packets or two update packets with the same

4 114 sequence number, the node will consider the update packet with the shortest hop count and ignore the rest. For example, a node S receives a route advertisement from node I for destination node D with sequence number n and metric m (shortest path). The node S will determine the following procedures based on the situations. If the value of the sequence number n is greater or newer than the sequence number in node S s current route entry, node S replaces its current entry with the new route through the node I. The Node S accepts the new route if the sequence number is the same, but the metric m (shortest path) is better than the metric of the current route. If node S has no route to destination node D, then it accepts the new route. Otherwise, node S simply ignores the new route advertisement. 4.3 DSDV ROUTING PROTOCOL OVERVIEW WITH EXAMPLES The node N4 wishes to send a packet to the node N5 as shown in the Figure The node N4 looks up its routing table and locates that the next hop for routing the packet. Here, the next hop is node N6 for the destination N5. 2 The node N4 sends the packet to N6 as shown in Table.4.1. The Table. 4.1 shows the routing protocol of node N4 at one instance.

5 115 3 The node N6 looks up the next hop for the destination node N5 in its routing table when it receives the packet. 4 The node N6 then transmits the packet to the next hop N7 as specified in the routing table. It is shown in the Table 4.2. The Table 4.2 shows the routing table of node N6. 5 The node N7 checks its routing table to locate the destinations node N5. This above routing procedure repeated along the path until the packet finally arrives its destination node N5. N3 N4 N5 N2 N6 N8 N1 N7 Figure 4.1 An Example of MANET

6 116 Table 4.1 Node N4 transmits a packet to node N6 for forwarding Node N4 Destination node Next Hop Metric Seq. No. Seq. No. Assigned by N1 N2 2 S380 N1 N2 N2 1 S125 N2 N3 N2 2 S440 N3 N4 N4 0 S226 N4 N5 N6 4 S380 N5 N6 N6 1 S065 N6 N7 N6 21 S180 N7. Table 4.2 Node N6 transmits a packet to node N7 for forwarding Node N6 Destination node Next Hop Metric Seq. No. Seq. No. Assigned by N1 N4 3 S380 N1 N2 N4 2 S125 N2 N3 N4 3 S440 N3 N4 N4 1 S226 N4 N5 N7 3 S380 N5 N6 N6 0 S065 N6 N7 N7 1 S180 N7 Route update procedure The following procedures illustrate how a node processes an update packet under different situations. The nodes accept the update packets with higher sequence numbers and it is entered into the routing table, regardless of whether they have a higher metric or not. The route update changes are made in the routing table which is denoted by using the symbol

7 117 Situation I 1. The route update packet is accepted for updating the route entry in the current routing table of node N3. Here, the value of sequence number in route update packet (Table 4.3b) is newer than the old route entry (Table 4.3a) in the routing table. The Table 4.3c shows the updated routing table of the node N3. Table 4.3 Node N3 accept the update packets a Node N3 routing table Destination Metric Next Hop Seq. # N1 2 N2 S48 N2 1 N2 S34 N4 2 N2 S45 b Route update packet of the Node N3 Destination N1 Metric 2 Next Hop N2 Seq. # S56 c Updated routing table of Node N3 Destination Metric Next Hop Seq. # N1 2 N2 S56. N2 1 N2 S34 N4 2 N2 S45

8 118 Situation II 2. The route update packet is ignored for updating the route entry in the current routing table of node N3. Here, the value of sequence number in update packet (Table 4.4b) is lesser than the old route entry (Table 4.4a) in the routing table, even though the shortest hop count in the route entry. The Table 4.4c shows the updated routing table of the node N3. Table 4.4 Node N3 ignore the update packets a Node N3 routing table Destination Metric Next Hop Seq. # N1 2 N2 S48 N2 1 N2 S34 N4 2 N2 S45 b Route update packet of the Node N3 Destination N4 Metric 1 Next Hop N2 Seq. # S35 c Updated routing table of Node N3 Destination Metric Next Hop Seq. # N1 2 N2 S48 N2 1 N2 S34 N4 2 N2 S45

9 119 Each node in the network must periodically transmit its entire routing table to its neighbors using update packets. The neighbors will update their tables based on this information, if required. Likewise each node will listen to its neighbors update packets and update its own routing table. The Table 4.5 illustrates an example of the link broken. Assume that the link between the node N6 and N7 is broken as shown in the Figure 4.1. The node N6 detects the link broken due to timer expired and this link status is broadcasted to node N4 through the broadcast packet (Table 4.5a). Table 4.5: An example of Links broken between the nodes N4 and N6 a Node N6 advertised table Destination Next hop Metric Sequence number N7 N7 (Infinite) S237-N7 N4 N4 1 S123-N4 b Node N4 routing table Destination Next hop Metric Sequence number N6 N6 1 S345-N6 N2 N2 1 S213-N2 N7 N6 2 S236-N7 c Updated routing table of Node N4 Destination Next hop Metric Sequence number N6 N6 1 S126-N6 N2 N2 1 S365-N2 N7 N6 (Infinite) S237-N7

10 120 The Table 4.5b shows the routing table of the node N4 before updating. The Node N4 updates its routing table with the newly received routing information (odd sequence number S237-N7 and metric) of entry N7 (Table 4.5c). It means that the link to node N7 is broken. If any other nodes send route update information of node N7 with even sequence numbers generated by node N7 previously, it is smaller than the current sequence number S237-N7 in Table 4.5c, to node N4, which knows that the route information is stale, thus routing loop is prevented. If other nodes generate a new odd sequence number with infinity metric for node N7 and it is sent to node N4 which knows that the link to node N7 is broken via the odd sequence number and infinity metric. An odd sequence number indicates a distance equal to infinity and is used for those destinations that become unreachable. The Even sequence number generated and used by the destination to stamp route updates. In DSDV, routes with a metric of infinity are advertised without a delay, while the others can be delayed according to an average settling time. The routes to a lost node will be re-established when the lost node comes back to the network and broadcasts its next update message with an equal or later sequence number and a finite metric. The update message will be propagated over the whole network to indicate that the broken links have come back into service again. Settling time Each route entry has an associated with Settling Time (ST) and Weighted Settling Time (WST). The ST of a route entry with a given sequence number is defined as the amount of time between when a route with the sequence number is first received, and the time when the best route with the same sequence number is received. The WST is the weighted average of the settling time for recent sequence numbers, and is updated whenever a route with a new sequence number is received.

11 121 The WST is used together with triggered updates to quickly propagate best routes through the network, while avoiding an explosion of broadcasts. Whenever a node replaces a route entry with a newly received entry, it propagates the new route to its neighbors by sending a triggered update which contains only the changed information. However, the triggered updates have not been sent until at least WST * 2 have passed since first hearing the current sequence number. Then it is likely that no better route will be heard for that sequence number, and the best route heard so far should be propagated. This prevents nodes from advertising a new route which will likely be replaced later by a better route. In addition, regardless of each route entry s WST, triggered updates are sent at no more than a maximum specified rate. Each mobile node keeps two routing tables, one for forwarding the packets, the other for advertising the incremental routing information packets. The settling time is stored in the latter with fields, destination address, last settling time, and average settling time shown in Table 4.6. It is calculated by maintaining a running, weighted average over the most recent updates of the routes for each destination. The average settling time is used to determine the delay of an update advertisement. The nodes can reduce the network traffic by delaying the broadcast of a routing update by the settling time. Table 4.6 Route settling time table of N6 at one instant Destination Address Last settling time (Sec.) N N N N4 8 8 N5 8 8 N6 8 8 N7 8 8 N Average settling time (Sec.)

12 122 Suppose that a new routing information update arrives at N6, and sequence number in the new entry is newer than the sequence number in the currently used entry but has a worse metric. Then N6 must use the new entry in making subsequent forwarding decisions. However, N6 does not have to advertise the new route immediately and can consult its route settling time table to decide how long to wait before broadcasting the update. The average settling time is used to decide the delay (e.g., delay = Average settling time 2) before advertising a route. 4.4 THE PROPOSED METHOD - FLOODING REDUCED- DSDV ROUTING PROTOCOL In DSDV, during the broadcasting, the MN will broadcast their routing tables at predetermined intervals, but due to the frequent movements of the hosts on the networks, this will lead to a continuous burst of new route transmissions upon every new sequence number from the destination MN. As a result, the network will be highly congested due to the greater number of sent, received control messages and ultimately the network throughput gets slowed down. However, the DSDV protocol cannot control the broadcast overhead status and, hence, the efficiency of the network. This motivates the research work. So, the need for Flooding Reduced-Destination Sequenced Distance Vector routing protocol, thus, rises. The proposed method FR- DSDV use the optimum density based flooding method (implemented in CHAPTER 3) for reducing the broadcast overhead in DSDV. The following sections recite the importance of broadcasting in routing protocol (DSDV) of MANET. Broadcasting in MANET Routing Protocols In both wired and wireless networks, blind or simple flooding is one of the broadcasting mechanisms, where each node in the network rebroadcasts

13 123 a message to its neighbors upon receiving for the first time. Each node forwards a received route request packet once until a destination is reached. This method is known as simple flooding. Once a route to a destination has been established, all the intermediate nodes along the route adhere to the forwarding responsibilities of data packets. Here, all the intermediate nodes are involved in forwarding and it leads to a serious problem, often known as a broadcast storm problem. The probability flooding is one of the alternative approaches to simple flooding that aims to reduce redundancy through predetermined probability in an attempt to alleviate the broadcast storm problem. Optimum Density Based model for probability Flooding In the fixed probabilistic flooding, if the rebroadcast probability p for a node is set to a far smaller value, then the reachability will be poor. On the other hand, if the rebroadcast probability p for a node is set to a far larger value, then many redundant rebroadcasts, channel contention, and packet collision will be generated. So, the need for optimum density based model for probabilistic flooding, thus, rises. This optimum density based model increases the rebroadcast probability if the value of the number of neighbors is too low, which indirectly causes the probability at neighboring hosts to be incremented. Similarly, optimum density based model decrease the rebroadcast probabilities if the value of a number of neighbors is too high. Periodic Update and Triggered Update in DSDV In DSDV, there are two types of update message functions namely periodic update messages and triggered update messages. This will be controlled by scheduled timers. It means those functions will be called systematically and periodically throughout the functioning of the routing algorithm.

14 124 The routing table updates are periodically broadcasted throughout the network in order to maintain consistency in the table. If a neighbor node N of node S detects that its link to S is failed due to mobility, it will broadcast a triggered route update containing an infinite metric for S. In this triggered update, the sequence number will be greater than the last sequence number broadcast by node S. Each node receives this update will store an infinite metric for destination S and will propagate the information further. This scenario concludes that node S is unreachable from all the nodes in the network until node S broadcasts a new sequence number in a periodic update, in the meantime a large number of packets can be dropped. triggered updates. DSDV can use either of two strategies for determining when to send A node sends a triggered update each time it receives a new sequence number for the destination node. The triggered update will be sent only when a new metric is received for a destination. In the normal implementation of DSDV, the periodic update messages are scheduled at pre-determined interval and the triggered update messages are scheduled with respect to the situation. Each node in the network re-broadcast the duplicate update messages for updating the routing table. In the proposed DSDV model FR-DSDV, the periodic update messages and triggered update messages are scheduled with respect to the density of the node in which the scheduling is happening currently. In this method, the rebroadcast probability value of broadcasting should be dynamically set high on the host contains a lesser number of neighbors and low at the host contains a greater number of neighbors area for

15 125 avoiding duplicate update messages. In FR-DSDV, if the density of the node is high, then the probability value for broadcasting the route update messages will be lesser for reducing the broadcast overhead, on the other side, if the density of the node is less, then the probability value will be higher for better reachability to the neighboring nodes. It is explained as follows: On Update () { if < 2 then DoTheUpdate () ReScheduleTheUpdate () } else { SkipTheUpdateNow () } is a probability (randomly chosen between 0 and 1) 2 is the probability in which it should re-broadcast the packet. Where, 2 = 1 / i * i - neighbor count of node i - minimum neighbors threshold

16 126 The above On Update () segment is executed according to the type of update messages received by the node; it may be a periodic or triggered update with respect to the situation. This code segment is reducing the flooding overhead in DSDV without affecting it's functionality and performance. The FR-DSDV reduces the flooding overhead by reducing the duplicate update messages which will reduce the congestion of the network at high density regions. In addition to that, the other layer broadcast messages are also controlled in the same way. OnMessageBroadcast () { If < 2 then BroadcastThePacket () } else { SkipTheBroadcast () FreeThePacket () } probability (randomly chosen between 0 and 1) 2 is the probability in which it should re-broadcast the packet. Where, 2 = 1 / i * i - neighbor count of node i - minimum neighbors threshold

17 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF FR-DSDV WITH DSDV Simulation Parameters The Table 4.7 shows the simulation parameters used for DSDV and FR-DSDV routing protocol in ns2 simulation. Table 4.7 Simulation parameters used for DSDV and FR-DSDV Simulation Parameters Channel type Radio-propagation model Antenna type Interface queue type Value WirelessChannel TwoRayGround OmniAntenna DropTail/PriQueue MAC type 802_11 Max packets in Queue 50 Topographical Area Routing protocols 800m x 800m DSDV / FR_DSDV Nodes in the Network 10,20,30,40 and 50 Mobility Model Traffic CBR Packet Size Random Waypoint Mobility CBR over UDP 512 Bytes CBR Interval 0.1 s CBR sources CBR sinks 25 % Nodes 25 % Nodes

18 Performance Metrics and Results The performance of the new method FR-DSDV is implemented and compared to normal DSDV routing protocol. It is demonstrated that a new method has superior performance characteristics with respect to the metrics such as MAC load, routing load, throughput, dropped packets, and power consumption. The following important performance metrics are considered for evaluation of FR-DSDV routing protocol. MAC load In this study, MAC load represents the number of control packets generated and disseminated throughout the network during the flooding process in the network. The average number of control packets produced per mobile node. Routing load The routing load means the average number of routing messages generated at the network layer in the overall network to each data packet successfully delivered to the destination. Throughput Throughput is defined as the total number of data packets received (bytes) at destinations in one second. Dropped packets In this study, dropped packets are considered as a metric and it indirectly measured the overhead/impact due to excess flooding.

19 129 Power consumption of n packets. It is measured as the total consumed energy (in joules) for delivery The following simulation results show the comparison of DSDV and FR-DSDV with respect to transmitted and received control messages, routing load, MAC load, throughput, dropped packets, and power consumption. Figure 4.2 Comparisons of transmitted control messages DSDV and FR-DSDV Figures 4.2 and 4.3 show the performance of DSDV and FR-DSDV routing protocols with respect to transmitted and received control messages in the network. Broadcasting in DSDV is done periodically to maintain routing updates and local connectivity, informing each neighbor node of other nodes in its neighborhood. In FR-DSDV, the periodic update messages and triggered update messages are scheduled with respect to the density of the node. Hence,

20 130 the FR-DSDV protocol generates a less number of transmitted and received control messages when compared to DSDV protocol. The Tables 4.8 and 4.9 show the value of the transmitted and received control packets with respect to the number of nodes in DSDV and FR-DSDV. Table 4.8 Comparison of Transmitted control messages DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.3 Comparisons of received control messages DSDV and FR-DSDV

21 131 Table 4.9 Comparison of received control Messages DSDV and FR- DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.4 Comparisons of routing load - DSDV and FR-DSDV Table 4.10 Comparison of routing load DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV

22 132 Figures 4.4 and 4.5 show the performance of DSDV and FR-DSDV with respect to routing load and MAC load. The DSDV uses routing tables, one route per destination, and destination sequence numbers, a mechanism to prevent loops and to determine the freshness of routes. Due to the number of duplicate update messages generated by the all the nodes, overhead in DSDV is more when the network is large and it becomes harder to maintain the routing table at every node. The MAC load is consistently low in FR-DSDV and DSDV especially for a small number of nodes. The FR- DSDV reduces the number of duplicate update messages by applying density based flooding methods and thereby the congestion will be decreased. Hence, the FR-DSDV has very low MAC load and routing load than the DSDV. Figure 4.5 Comparisons of MAC Load - DSDV and FR-DSDV The Tables 4.10 and 4.11 shows the comparison of routing load and MAC load in DSDV and FR-DSDV.

23 133 Table 4.11 Comparison of MAC Load DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.6 Comparisons of throughput - DSDV and FR-DSDV In Figure 4.6, throughput decreases comparatively in DSDV as it needs to advertise periodic updates at pre-determined interval and eventdriven updates are scheduled with respect to the situation. On the other side, throughput increases in FR-DSDV since the periodic update and triggered update messages are scheduled with respect to the density of the node and its

24 134 probabilities, instead of on a periodic triggered update as in basic DSDV. The Table.4.12 shows the comparison of throughput DSDV and FR-DSDV. Table 4.12 Comparison of throughput DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.7 Comparisons of dropped packets - DSDV and FR-DSDV In Figure 4.7, the number of dropped packets during the flooding will be decreased since the minimum number of nodes involved in broadcasting the update packets. The density based flooding concept is used in

25 135 periodic and triggered update messages of FR-DSDV which will reduce the flooding the number of messages based on the density of the nodes. The Table 4.13 shows the comparison of dropped packets DSDV and FR-DSDV. Table 4.13 Comparison of dropped packets - DSDV and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV Figure 4.8 Comparisons of average remaining power-dsdv and FR- DSDV

26 136 The Figure 4.8 shows the average remaining power used by the DSDV and FR-DSDV. This graph shows that the average remaining power of FR-DSDV is high when compared to the DSDV protocol. In FR-DSDV, periodic and triggered update messages are transmitted based on the probability value of the node. In case of DSDV, all the nodes involved in broadcasting the periodic and triggered update messages in the network. The Table.4.14 shows the comparison of average remaining power DSDV and FR-DSDV with respect to different number of nodes. Table 4.14 Comparison of average remaining power-dsdv and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV The Figure 4.9 shows the average consumed power used by the DSDV and FR-DSDV. This graph shows that the average consumed power of FR-DSDV is very less when compared to the DSDV protocol. The dissemination of transmitted and received control messages of a node is controlled in FR-DSDV by implementing density based flooding in periodic and trigger update messages in the network. DSDV consumes valuable network resources such as bandwidth and node power due to the number of duplicate update messages are broadcasted on the network. The Table 4.15 shows the comparison of average consumed power DSDV and FR-DSDV.

27 137 Figure 4.9 Comparisons of average consumed power-dsdv and FR-DSDV Table 4.15 Comparison of average consumed power-dsdv and FR-DSDV Nodes DSDV FR-DSDV SUMMARY This chapter has presented a new approach namely Flooding Reduced Destination Sequence Distanced Vector Routing protocol for reducing the broadcast overhead in the DSDV routing protocol. This chapter has compared the performance of FR-DSDV against the normal DSDV with

28 138 respect to MAC load, routing load, power consumption, throughput, and dropped packets. The simulation results reveal that this approach FR-DSDV can generate less broadcast overhead due to periodic and triggered update messages than the DSDV by implementing the density based probability flooding approach in FR-DSDV. This study has also revealed that DSDV use the periodic update messages which are scheduled periodically and the triggered update messages which are scheduled with respect to the situation. In the proposed DSDV model, FR-DSDV, the periodic update messages and triggered update messages are scheduled with respect to the density of the node. In FR-DSDV, if the density of the node is high, then the probability value for broadcasting the route update messages will be lesser for reducing the broadcast overhead, on the other side, if the density of the node is less, then the probability value will be higher for better reachability to the neighboring nodes. As can be seen the overhead increases when increase the number of nodes for FR-DSDV and DSDV routing protocols, in both scenarios. The FR-DSDV routing protocol is best suited for general small ad-hoc networks as it consumes less bandwidth and lower overhead when compared with the DSDV routing protocol. As growing of the mobility and number of nodes in the network, network bandwidth, power consumption of the node and routing updates will also be grows simultaneously. Due to these reasons, the overhead for maintaining and updating these tables will also be increased correspondingly in DSDV and FR-DSDV. The throughput is relatively high for both DSDV and FR-DSDV protocols, and it decreases as the number of nodes is increased. This is mainly due to the fact that when increase the number of nodes, the computation also increases. Due to the high mobility of the nodes, the simulation results prove that the throughput keeps decreasing as increase the number of nodes, as opposed to the scenario where nodes are static.

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