2 ABOUT THE 2016 SURVEY 3,500 face-to-face interviews conducted by PSB Arab youth in the age group of years Country nationals only Sample split 50:50 male/female 16 countries: GCC: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE Levant & Yemen: Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine and Yemen North Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia 2
3 METHODOLOGY The study was commissioned in January The interviews were conducted from January 11 to February 22 by professional interviewers. The interviews were completed in Arabic and English. Margin of error is +/-1.65% for the total sample and larger for sub-groups. Sample details: UAE N=300 Oman N=200 Qatar N=200 Bahrain N=200 KSA N=300 Kuwait N=200 Egypt N=300 Jordan N=200 Lebanon N=200 Abu Dhabi 40% Muscat 50% Doha 55% Manama 100% Riyadh 40% Kuwait City 20% Cairo 50% Amman 50% Beirut 60% Dubai 40% Batinah 50% Al Rayyan 45% Jeddah 40% Al Hawalli 30% Alexandria 25% Irbid 25% Saida 20% Sharjah 20% Dammam 20% Al Ahmadi 20% Mansoura 25% Zarqa 25% Tripoli 20% Farwaniya 30% ORIGINAL COUNTRIES IN
4 METHODOLOGY Sample details: Iraq N=250 Tunisia N=200 Libya N=200 Algeria N=200 Morocco N=200 Yemen N=200 Palestine N=150 Baghdad 50% Tunis 50% Tripoli 50% Algiers 50% Casablanca 25% Sanaa 50% West Bank 50% Irbil 25% Sfax 25% Benghazi 25% Oran 25% Fes 25% Al Hudaydah 25% Gaza 50% Basrah 25% Soussa 25% Misrata 25% Constantine 25% Rabat 25% Ta izz 25% Marrakech 25% NEW COUNTRY IN 2011 NEW COUNTRIES IN 2012 NEW COUNTRIES IN 2013 NEW COUNTRY IN
5 arabyouthsurvey.com #ArabYouthSurvey 5
6 1 6 AN OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF YOUNG ARABS REJECT DAESH (ISIS) AND BELIEVE THE GROUP WILL FAIL TO ESTABLISH AN ISLAMIC STATE.
7 FOR THE SECOND YEAR IN A ROW, ARAB YOUTH VIEW THE RISE OF DAESH AS THE TOP OBSTACLE FACING THE MIDDLE EAST AND NEARLY 4 IN 5 EXPRESS CONCERN ABOUT THE TERRORIST GROUP S RISE. What do you believe is the biggest obstacle facing the Middle East? How concerned would you say you are about the rise of Daesh? Rise of Daesh 50 Threat of terrorism Unemployment Civil unrest Rising cost of living Lack of strong political leadership Palestinian-Israel conflict Concerned Not Concerned Don't Know Lack of Arab unity Lack of democracy Loss of traditional values 17 The threat of a nuclear Iran Slow economic growth % are very concerned Lack of opportunities for women 13 Other 1 Don't Know 1 7
8 NEARLY 4 IN 5 YOUNG ARABS RULE OUT ANY SUPPORT FOR THE GROUP EVEN IF DAESH STOPPED USING SO MUCH VIOLENCE AND MOST BELIEVE IT WILL ULTIMATELY FAIL TO ESTABLISH AN ISLAMIC STATE. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the statement? If Daesh did not use so much violence, I could see myself supporting it Daesh will ultimately establish an Islamic State in the Arab world Agree Disagree Unsure/ Don't Know 78 9 Agree Disagree Unsure/ Don't Know 76 GCC Levant & Yemen N. Africa GCC 71 Levant & Yemen 87 N. Africa
9 2 LACK OF JOBS AND OPPORTUNITIES IS SEEN AS THE NUMBER ONE RECRUITMENT DRIVER FOR DAESH. 9
10 LACK OF JOBS IS SEEN AS THE TOP REASON YOUNG ARABS BELIEVE PEOPLE JOIN DAESH, ALTHOUGH 1 IN 4 DO NOT UNDERSTAND WHY ANYBODY WOULD JOIN THE GROUP. Which of the following, if any, do you think are the primary reasons why some young people are attracted to Daesh? Please choose up to three reasons. Lack of jobs and opportunities for young people The belief that their interpretation of Islam is superior to others Religious tensions between Sunni, Shia and other religions in the region The rise of secular Western values in the region A desire to establish a caliphate, ruled by religious values The Palestinian-Israel conflict The American invasion of Iraq Perceived corruption of national Arab governments The chance for glory and to be recognised as a hero Perceived supression of religious values by Arab governments Western governments trying to impose democracy and their secular values in the region The chance to be on the winning side of a fight The presence of Western troops in the region Other I can't explain it I don't understand why anybody would want to join Daesh In 8 of 16 countries, lack of jobs is considered to be the top reason 25 10
11 FEWER THAN HALF OF ARAB YOUTH BELIEVE THERE ARE GOOD JOB OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE TO THEM, AND THE ISSUE IS PARTICULARLY ACUTE IN THE COUNTRIES WHERE DAESH HAS ACTIVELY RECRUITED YOUNG PEOPLE. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the statement? There are good job opportunities in the area I live in All Countries Most Sceptical Countries Yemen Libya Palestine Agree Disagree Unsure/ Don't Know 44 Tunisia Lebanon Iraq Disagree Agree Unsure/Don't Know 11
12 3 12 MANY YOUNG ARABS BELIEVE SUNNI- SHIA RELATIONS ARE DETERIORATING AND THAT RELIGION PLAYS TOO BIG OF A ROLE IN THE MIDDLE EAST.
13 NEARLY HALF OF YOUNG ARABS THINK SUNNI-SHIA RELATIONS HAVE DETERIORATED OVER THE PAST FIVE YEARS, A PERCEPTION THAT EXISTS ACROSS THE ARAB WORLD. Compared to five years ago, would you say the Sunni-Shia relations have? Countries Most Likely to Say Worsened (Showing % Worsened) Yemen 88 Jordan Libya Iraq Worsened Stayed about the same Improved Don't know 13
14 A COMPELLING MAJORITY OF ARAB YOUTH BELIEVE THE SUNNI-SHIA DIVIDE IS A SIGNIFICANT DRIVER OF UNREST IN THE REGION Which of the following is closest to your view about the Sunni-Shia divide and the ongoing unrest in the region? The Sunni-Shia divide 17% do not think the divide has a significant negative impact Is the primary reason for the ongoing unrest in the region Is one of the major reasons for the ongoing unrest Does not have a significant impact on the ongoing unrest 20 Has no impact at all on the ongoing unrest in the region Don't know 52 72% think the divide has a significant negative impact 14
15 OVERALL, MORE THAN HALF BELIEVE THAT RELIGION PLAYS TOO BIG OF A ROLE IN THE MIDDLE EAST. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the statement? Religion plays too big of a role in the Middle East Agree Disagree Unsure/ Don't Know 52 GCC Levant & Yemen N. Africa Agree Disagree Unsure/Don't Know 15
16 4 16 SAUDI ARABIA, UAE AND THE UNITED STATES ARE SEEN AS TOP ALLIES IN THE REGION WHILE IRAN S INFLUENCE IS ON THE RISE.
17 FOR THE FIFTH YEAR RUNNING, SAUDI ARABIA IS SEEN AS THE TOP ALLY IN THE REGION WHILE IRAN S INFLUENCE IS ON THE RISE. Who would you say is your country s biggest ally? KSA KSA KSA KSA US UAE UAE UAE 3 UAE Qatar Qatar Qatar 4 Qatar Kuwait Kuwait Kuwait 5 France US US US KSA UAE US Egypt UK Iran Qatar Kuwait France Turkey 17
18 IRAN S INFLUENCE IS ON THE RISE, PARTICULARLY IN IRAQ, LEBANON AND PALESTINE, WHERE YOUNG ARABS SEE IT AS AN ALLY. Who would you say is your country s biggest ally? (Showing % Iran) Countries which perceive Iran as an ally 13 Iraq Lebanon Palestine
19 WHILE A MAJORITY OF YOUNG ARABS VIEW SAUDI ARABIA AND UAE AS ALLIES AND IRAN AS AN ENEMY, YOUNG PEOPLE IN LEVANT ARE MORE LIKELY TO CONSIDER IRAN AN ALLY. Do you consider [ ] a strong ally, somewhat of an ally, somewhat of an enemy, or a strong enemy of your country? Saudi Arabia UAE Iran Ally Enemy Don't Know 22 Ally Enemy Don't Know 52 Ally Enemy Don't Know GCC: 93% ally Levant & Yemen: 42% ally N. Africa: 75% ally GCC: 93% ally Levant & Yemen: 52% ally N. Africa: 69% ally GCC: 39% ally Levant & Yemen: 54% ally N. Africa: 21% ally 19
20 WHILE THE UNITED STATES STANDING IN THE REGION IS RELATIVELY STRONG, PARTICULARLY IN THE GCC, THE US IS NOT WELL-LIKED IN THE LEVANT, ESPECIALLY IN IRAQ WHERE MORE THAN 9 IN 10 YOUNG IRAQIS VIEW THE US AS ITS ENEMY. Do you consider the United States a strong ally, somewhat of an ally, somewhat of an enemy, or a strong enemy of your country? 32 5 Ally Enemy Don't Know 63 Iraq Yemen Palestine Lebanon Countries which Perceive US as an Enemy Ally Enemy Don't Know GCC: 85% ally Levant & Yemen: 33% ally N. Africa: 66% ally 20
21 5 21 YOUNG ARABS ARE DIVIDED ON THE IRANIAN NUCLEAR DEAL AND THE SYRIAN CONFLICT.
22 ACROSS THE REGION, YOUNG ARABS ARE DIVIDED ON THE IRANIAN NUCLEAR DEAL; SUPPORT IS STRONGEST IN OMAN, WHICH PLAYED A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN BROKERING THE AGREEMENT. To what extent do you support or oppose the recent agreement between Iran and the international community on Iran s nuclear programme? Support Oppose Don't Know GCC Levant & Yemen N. Africa Support Oppose Don't Know Top support country: Oman 93% support 22
23 OPINION IS DIVIDED AMONG ARAB YOUTH ON WHETHER THE SYRIAN CONFLICT IS A PROXY WAR, A REVOLUTION, OR A CIVIL WAR AMONG SYRIANS. Which of the following is closest to your view? The ongoing conflict in Syria is 10 Top proxy war Yemen Iraq Palestine Top revolution A proxy war fought by regional and global powers A revolution against Bashar Al-Assad's regime A civil war among Syrians Don't Know Jordan UAE Qatar Top civil war Libya Egypt 23
24 6 24 FIVE YEARS AFTER FIGHTING FOR POLITICAL FREEDOM DURING THE ARAB SPRING, TODAY MOST YOUNG ARABS PRIORITISE STABILITY OVER DEMOCRACY.
25 THE PERCEIVED LEGACY OF THE ARAB SPRING CONTINUES TO DETERIORATE, AND EGYPT IS THE ONLY ARAB SPRING COUNTRY THAT BELIEVES THE ARAB WORLD IS BETTER OFF BECAUSE OF IT. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the statement? Following the Arab Spring, I feel the Arab world is better off All Countries Showing % agree The Four Arab Spring Countries Showing % agree Egypt Tunisia Libya Yemen
26 WITH THE NUMEROUS ISSUES FACING THE REGION AND THE LEGACY OF THE ARAB SPRING UNCERTAIN, MORE THAN HALF OF YOUNG ARABS TODAY FAVOUR STABILITY OVER DEMOCRACY, THOUGH YOUTH IN LEVANT & YEMEN IS DIVIDED. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the statement? Given the current circumstances in the Middle East, promoting stability in the region is more important than promoting democracy Agree Disagree Unsure/ Don't Know 53 GCC Levant & Yemen N. Africa Agree Disagree Unsure/Don't Know 26
27 7 27 ARAB YOUTH WANT THEIR LEADERS TO DO MORE TO IMPROVE THE PERSONAL FREEDOM AND HUMAN RIGHTS OF CITIZENS, PARTICULARLY WOMEN.
28 ARAB YOUTH WANT THEIR LEADERS TO DO MORE TO IMPROVE THEIR PERSONAL FREEDOM AND HUMAN RIGHTS. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the statement? The Arab leaders should do more to improve the personal freedom and human rights of their people Agree Disagree Unsure/ Don't Know 67 GCC Levant & Yemen N. Africa Agree Disagree Unsure/Don't Know 28
29 REGARDLESS OF GENDER, TWO IN THREE YOUNG ARABS BELIEVE THEIR LEADERS SHOULD DO MORE TO ADVANCE THE RIGHTS AND PERSONAL FREEDOM OF WOMEN. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the statement? The Arab leaders should do more to improve the personal freedom and human rights of women Men 17 All Women Agree Disagree Don't Know 29
30 THE DESIRE FOR ARAB LEADERS TO DO MORE ON WOMEN S RIGHTS AND FREEDOM IS STRONG ACROSS DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE REGION AND HIGHEST IN SAUDI ARABIA. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the statement? The Arab leaders should do more to improve the personal freedom and human rights of women Showing Top 6 Countries with the highest % Agree Saudi Arabia Oman Yemen Kuwait Egypt UAE 30
31 8 31 THE UAE IS VIEWED AS A MODEL COUNTRY THAT IS ECONOMICALLY SECURE, AND IS THE MOST FAVOURED NATION TO LIVE IN AND SET UP A BUSINESS.
32 FOR THE FIFTH YEAR RUNNING, YOUNG ARABS VIEW THE UAE AS THE TOP COUNTRY TO LIVE IN. Which country in the world, if any, would you like to live in? UAE UAE UAE UAE 2 US US France France 3 Germany UK US US 4 Canada KSA Turkey Turkey 5 Qatar Qatar KSA KSA UAE US Germany KSA Canada France UK Turkey Malaysia Kuwait 32
33 ARAB YOUTH ALSO CONTINUE TO VIEW THE UAE AS THE TOP COUNTRY FOR THEIR OWN NATIONS TO EMULATE FOR THE FIFTH YEAR. Which country in the world, if any, would you most like your country to be like? UAE UAE UAE UAE 2 US US France Turkey 3 Germany France US KSA 4 Canada Turkey Turkey Qatar 5 France China China UAE US Germany France UK KSA Canada Turkey Japan Malaysia 33
34 THE STRENGTH OF THE UAE S IMAGE AMONG ARAB YOUTH STEMS PRIMARILY FROM THE PERCEPTION OF THE UAE AS A SAFE AND SECURE COUNTRY THAT OFFERS ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES. Thinking specifically about the United Arab Emirates, which of the following phrases, if any, do you associate most strongly with the UAE? Please select all up to three phrases. Safe and secure Has a growing economy Wide range of work opportunities Generous salary packages High quality education system Respects cultural traditions A good place to raise a family Easy to start a business Has a strong cultural heritage Welcoming and friendly to expats Expensive Is an artificial country without long-standing roots Tax-free Difficult to get a residency visa
35 AMONG POTENTIAL ENTREPRENEURS, THE UAE IS ALSO SEEN AS THE TOP NATION IN THE ARAB WORLD TO START A BUSINESS. Do you intend to start your own business within the next five years? If intends to start: In which Arab country would you like to set up your business in? 30 Yes No Don't Know 36 UAE KSA Qatar
36 9 36 ARAB YOUTH ARE INCREASINGLY CONCERNED ABOUT FALLING OIL PRICES, BUT MOST STILL BELIEVE THEY ARE ENTITLED TO SUBSIDISED ENERGY.
37 CONCERN ABOUT FALLING OIL PRICES HAS RISEN SIGNIFICANTLY OVER THE PAST YEAR AND IS PARTICULARLY HIGH AMONG YOUNG ARABS LIVING IN THE OPEC MEMBER STATES. How concerned are you about falling energy prices? OPEC Countries All Non-OPEC Countries Concerned Not Concerned Don't Know 37
38 NEARLY FOUR IN FIVE BELIEVE THEIR GOVERNMENT SHOULD CONTINUE ENERGY SUBSIDIES BUT IF THE SUBSIDIES WERE TO BE STOPPED, MANY BELIEVE THE SUBSIDIES SHOULD BE REMOVED FOR EXPATS ONLY. Do you think energy, electricity and transport fuel such as gasoline and diesel should be subsidised by your government? If your government were to stop subsidising energy, electricity and transport fuel, do you think the subsidies should be removed for 13 9 Yes No Don't Know 78 49% Only for expatriates 37% Both for nationals and expatriates 38
39 10 39 MORE YOUNG ARABS GET THEIR DAILY NEWS ONLINE THAN FROM TV OR PRINT MEDIA.
40 ON A DAILY BASIS, MORE YOUNG ARABS GET THEIR NEWS ONLINE THAN FROM TV OR PRINT MEDIA. 32% read news online daily 29% watch TV news channels daily 7% read newspapers daily 40
41 OVERALL, TV STILL HAS THE LARGEST NEWS REACH AMONG YOUNG ARABS, BUT ONLINE AND SOCIAL MEDIA CONTINUE CLOSING THE GAP, PRIMARILY AT THE EXPENSE OF PRINT MEDIA. Where do you get your news? Television Online news sources Social media Friends and family Newspapers Radio Magazines
42 WHATSAPP IS THE NUMBER ONE SOCIAL PLATFORM USED ON A DAILY BASIS, WHILE MORE THAN HALF SHARE INTERESTING NEWS ARTICLES ON FACEBOOK. Young Arabs use on a daily basis WhatsApp Facebook Youtube Twitter Instagram 62% 55% 33% 28% 28% 52% say they use Facebook to share interesting news articles they read, up from 41% in
43 1 2 DRIVER LACK OF JOBS AND OPPORTUNITIES IS SEEN AS THE NUMBER ONE RECRUITMENT FOR DAESH. 3 OF MANY YOUNG ARABS BELIEVE SUNNI-SHIA RELATIONS ARE DETERIORATING AND THAT RELIGION PLAYS TOO BIG A ROLE IN THE MIDDLE EAST. AN OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF YOUNG ARABS REJECT DAESH (ISIS) AND BELIEVE THE GROUP WILL FAIL TO ESTABLISH AN ISLAMIC STATE. 4 IS SAUDI ARABIA, UAE AND THE UNITED STATES ARE SEEN AS TOP ALLIES IN THE REGION WHILE IRAN S INFLUENCE ON THE RISE. 5 SYRIAN YOUNG ARABS ARE DIVIDED ON THE IRANIAN NUCLEAR DEAL AND THE CONFLICT. 43
44 6 OVER FIVE YEARS AFTER FIGHTING FOR POLITICAL FREEDOM DURING THE ARAB SPRING, TODAY MOST YOUNG ARABS PRIORITISE STABILITY DEMOCRACY. 7 PARTICULARLY ARAB YOUTH WANT THEIR LEADERS TO DO MORE TO IMPROVE THE PERSONAL FREEDOM AND HUMAN RIGHTS OF CITIZENS, WOMEN. 9 SUBSIDISED ARAB YOUTH ARE INCREASINGLY CONCERNED ABOUT FALLING OIL PRICES, BUT MOST STILL BELIEVE THEY ARE ENTITLED TO ENERGY. 10 MORE YOUNG ARABS GET THEIR DAILY NEWS ONLINE THAN FROM TV OR PRINT MEDIA. 8 THE UAE IS VIEWED AS A MODEL COUNTRY THAT IS ECONOMICALLY SECURE, AND IS THE MOST FAVOURED NATION TO LIVE IN AND SET UP A BUSINESS. 44
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1 Pew Global Attitudes Project, Spring 2007 Now I m going to read you a list of things that may be problems in our country. As I read each one, please tell me if you think it is a very big problem, a moderately